Math and Science Curriculum ReformPresentation Transcript
Math and Science Curriculum Reform in China Deputy Director General Basic Education Department Ministry of Education, PRC Wang, Dinghua, PhD
1 Curriculum Innovation Objectives
From 2000, on the basis of experiment in some regions, China has made a lot of endeavors for curriculum reform preparation and implementation. China studied curriculum/learning standards in over 30 countries including the USA.
Renewing the educational notions and ideas including personal growth, improving the design and implementation of teaching and curriculum with the personal growth and the spirit of new era, China’s Ministry of Education (MOE) developed and issued the Guidelines for the Curriculum Reform of Basic Education in 2001.
After consulting 1200 educational, psychological, subject experts, MOE organized a new circle of design and development of a curriculum for K-12 education. The new curriculum consists national curriculum, provincial curriculum and school curriculum.
The MOE developed national curriculum standards, including all core curricular areas.
At middle school level, there are two alternatives, either integrated science or different science subjects. But at high school level, physics, chemistry and biology are taught respectively.
The MOE sets guidance for provincial level curricula designing, yet does not interfere in its autonomy.
Likely, each school may set its own school based curriculum.
According to teaching hours, national curricula consist of 80%, provincial curricula consists 15% and school curriculum consists 5%.
With permission from MOE, one can edit textbooks according to national curricula. Before selling to school district, the textbooks have to be sent to MOE and got approved by the National School Textbook Examination Commission. So far, there are about 10 sets of textbooks being used in the country.
Some publishing houses may just produce two or three kinds of textbooks and are of less influence. Similarly, each province may organize and examine textbooks according to provincial curriculum. But if the textbooks go beyond the province boundary, they have to apply for approval from MOE. A school curriculum is not encouraged to have textbook, instead, various activities could be conducted along with it.
From 2001, over 550 counties started pilot the new curricula during their compulsory education period, usually beginning from grade 1 and grade 7. By the year 2005, all primary and middle schools in all counties in the whole country’s 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions carried out the new curriculum.
In 2004, 4 provinces began to pilot the curricula at their high schools. In 2007 altogether 16 provinces carried out the new high school curricula. Before the year 2008, altogether 20 provinces are advised to conduct the new high school curriculum.
1. To understand China’s history and her current status thus become ready to assume responsibilities for their personal and national development, in the meantime to respect other nations and their cultures and to be ready to participate in international development and communication;
Objectives of new curriculum in China
2. To master the basic skills for reading, writing and arithmetic operation, basic knowledge for culture and science, necessary skills to express themselves and communicate with others, capacity to process information, to acquire basic labor skills, so that they can adapt effectively to the learning society;
3. To develop, through observation and experience, a scientific understanding of the environment, sustainable development and ecological ethics, and to be able to identify, analyze and solve problems in their daily life;
4. To understand and care for the society, to form appropriate moral values and behavioral habits, ready to serve the people and the community ;
5. To develop sound self-consciousness and independent personality thus to take good care of life, learn to rationally plan for and assess one’s own development and to cope with frustrations in the social life; to be accustomed to engage in regular physical exercise and proper living habits;
6. To develop healthy interest for esthetic appreciation of the beauty of the nature, society, science and art; to be inclined to join in different cultural activities.
2 Characteristics of Math and Science Curriculum
Firstly, “mathematic thinking”, “sensibility & attitude”, “knowledge and skill” and “problem solution” are listed as four key objectives, which materialize the priority on sensibility & thinking ability development of students and reflect the spirit of the time.
Secondly, the objective of new math standard and the textbooks proposes step-by-step development by grade and takes into account the age and cognition abilities of students, giving priority to context, essence and application.
Thirdly, the new math standard tends to promote integration of math and science as well as other subjects, in order to foster student’s scientific spirit and improve their hand-on competence.
Through stressing on history, ideology and culture, students are enabled to find out the relationship between mathematics, scientific & technological progress and social development and to grasp philosophy and cultural value of mathematic science, foster their rationalism and correct concept towards mathematics.
Fourthly, improve learning activities of students, and foster their awareness of originality.
Abide by the cognition rules, give attention to individual difference, advocate diversified learning modes, try to create a space of independent research, cooperation and exchange for students as well as original teaching environments for teachers, provide democratic atmosphere and rich resources for an interactive teaching between teachers and students, facilitate students to probe into questions and foster students’ awareness towards originality and application.
Math Innovation :
difficulty level and speed.
conceal deliberately-man made questions.
some complicated and seldom-appeared contents.
complexity of formulas and terminologies.
requirement for identifying skills.
multiple solutions for problem solving.
concept of space development.
content of statistics, practice and comprehensive application.
calculator and computer as tools.
Regard individual differences of students in science learning
In science course, teachers should teach students in accordance with their aptitude and develop them personality, according to their interest, emotion, attitude, knowledge and ability.
When science teachers deal with relation between the text books and the teaching methods properly, they should make use of the text books, not teach the text books invariably. The former pays attention to not only teaching knowledge but also cultivating ability, scientific attitude and spirit, but the latter emphasizes only the knowledge in the books.
Concern curiosity and cognition foundation of students
Children's inborn curiosity is the beginning of science study. They are curious about flowers and birds, fish and insects, the sun and the moon, the stars and the sky. This curiosity can be turned into learning desire and behavior if teachers induct well. Furthermore, their imagination is abundant and thinking is active. For example, pupils in middle schools can restore a round plastic ball from a crushing one in their brains. Pupils in middle schools can test certain hypothesis or viewpoint with data.
Students should study science in open environment, by which students will face the world and understand science with enthusiasm and interest. The teachers should regard student desire and create a comfortable, harmonious, democratic, friendly environment for their studying.
Furthermore, science teachers should guide students to go out classrooms to study on/in campus, family, society and the nature world. In return, they should also bring some problems in the nature or society back to their classrooms to study.
Chemistry Innovation :
some unnecessary and boring chemistry concepts.
link of student life experience and social demand for chemistry.
chemical experiment and chemical social survey activities.
In the light of modern sciences, add some contents of material, new energy, nutrition and health.
via chemistry learning, enhance consciousness of students to environmental pollution, enhance capacity of self protection.
3 Lesions and Experiences
Challenge 1: equity
Although K-12 education in China has made significant advances, the overall development has been quite uneven and imbalanced. Obvious gaps exist between different schools. It can neither respond well to the needs of rapid socio-economic development, nor satisfy the aspiration of the broad masses for balanced basic education.
Challenge 2: Quality
Quality is lifeline for education. High quality education not only refers to advanced infrastructure, but also refers to qualified teaching contingent, improved teaching process, better management, and proper philosophy of running schools, etc.
Quality of K-12 education can not meet the increasing demand from the public for a high quality education.
Quality of some schools can not meet demand of the parents. Esp. in the one family one child era.
Quality of teachers needs to be improved. 240 thousand teachers with lower academic degrees. 450 thousand non-registered teachers.
Curriculum must be more oriented and relevant to students in the country-side. Challenge 3: relevance
Challenge 4: examination-driven
Officials judge school excellence solely according to its enrollment rate of students into key high schools and key universities.
Schools tend to emphasize on examination- related subjects.
Teachers carefully take of academically good students, neglecting many others.
Students are faced up with heavy learning burden and have poor physical conditions.
3.1 Design a scheme and form a mechanism
Design a scheme.
More opportunity to pilot areas.
3.2 Set organizations for quality improvement MOE National Center for Curriculum and Textbook Development National Center for Education Assessment National Center for Student Learning Assessment
3.3 Teacher preparation and professional development
Build upon the current teacher’s training, attract more talented people to join the teacher’s profession. Implement the “Gardeners Project”
Free education at six normal universities under the MOE.
Reward excellent teachers by every Teacher’s Day
Set up codes of conduct of teachers
The Proportion of Qualified Middle School Teachers Meeting State Requirements(2000-2006) %
Pupil-Teacher Ratio at Middle Schools(2000-2006) %
Improving the qualifications of teachers
Laying much emphasis on the turning out of qualified teachers in the western part of China.
special positions at western rural areas.
hand in hand project.
How to fish instead of giving fish
Social activities and society-participation
Project oriented study
3.4 Teaching and Learning Innovations
3.5 Innovations of Teaching & Learning Assessment
Grade instead of 100 marks
Qualities at all aspect are encouraged
Continuous innovations toward entrance examinations will be conducted
School effectiveness indicators and Child Friendly School criteria.
Through introduction of ICT, qualified educational resources might reach all schools including those in remote and poor areas. 3.6 In teaching process, ICT is widely applied.
3.7 Conduct educational supervision and inspection
improve educational administration, leaving more flexibility for each locality.
improve school management, welcome proper involvement of social walks and parents.
send supervisors and inspectors to different provinces to ensure national educational laws and policies being carried out properly.
3.8 Enhance international cooperation for quality improvement International collaboration and cooperation in the field of basic education has brought us closer. We hope to have more exchanges with you in the years to come.