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M3 effectively building study abroad into the university chinese curriculum - shepherd


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  • 1. 4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 2. The Goal To train USF students to a professional level ofproficiency in Chinese in their four years with us Help students develop the ability to independentlyengage China and Chinese people in sophisticatedways IN Chinese Enable students to walk away from USF prepared toimmediately contribute to an organization using theirChinese language skills4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 3. Raising Expectations Set communicating effectively in the culture (languageand behavior) as long-term goal (Walker) Goal skill set includes linguistic, socio-cultural andbehavioral skills Goal of training students to use linguistically accurateAND culturally appropriate Chinese (thinking in Chinese)4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 4. Learning IN the Culture Students learning Chinese need to have experiences learningIN Chinese culture to develop memory of HOW TOcommunicate in Chinese Involves procedural knowledge-complex integrated skill set(like learning how to ride a bike, play a piano, etc.) And, the declarative knowledge that typically fills textbooksand language learning materials Only a small portion of what we have to teach And, more difficult to learn without the procedural knowledge4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 5. Learning IN the Culture Being introduced or exposed to a culture is not enough tomove learners to our goal level There is no magical process of cultural osmosis Culture is learned behavior Culture is more easily learned by doing thanhearing/explaining The more you explain the more you have to explain andthe more confused the students become Learners must participate in on-going cultural activities tolearn new cultural behaviors (Walker, 2000)4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 6. Role of Study Abroad Classroom drills cannot substitute for extended experiencecommunicating with native speakers in natural settingsabout real life matters (Brecht et al, 1993) Truly functional competence in a language requiresspending time living in a country where that language isspoken (Brecht, Davidson, Ginsberg 1993)4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 7. Role of Study Abroad at USF Classroom environment can be structured in a way to mimicreal world communication Extended experience in a country does not equate directly tofunctional competence in a language Most learners of Chinese who begin their learning in Chinawithout prior exposure to the language are not as successful asthose who have Chinese language learning experience prior tostudying in China To be successful communicating with native speakers over anextended period in natural settings, learners must also havecertain cultural knowledge and social skills4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 8. Role of Study Abroad at USF Most efficient and effective format is a blend of structured andunstructured learning (Brecht et al, 1993) Structured academic program (that must includesocial/communicative experiences and pre-departure training)and substantial exposure to native speakers in naturalsettings/intensive interaction with native speakers Study abroad is a necessary part of the process to achieve goalof advanced proficiency but must be structured in a mannerthat facilitates pedagogical goals Not all study abroad situations are good language learningsituations4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 9. Preparation For Study Abroad Impacts Outcomes Whether students have preparation prior to studying abroadmatters Prior listening and reading skills have significant impact ongains in study abroad (Brecht et al, 1993) American students who learn how to learn Chinese efficientlyand effectively first, gain more while studying abroad in China American students who learn how to learn in China first, gainmore while studying abroad in China Students who know how to socialize in Chinese culture, gainmore while studying abroad in China4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 10. Pre-Departure Performance-Based Regimen Two full semesters of performance-based learning required to be eligible toparticipate in program-learning by mimesis (imitating/doing things inChinese) Rehearse performing in commonly encountered contexts in Chinese culture Internalize language and behaviors associated with those contexts Develop ability to use what they are learning in classroom simulationsof real life situations Develop memory of how to do particular things that can be called upononce in that situation in real world in China (familiarity reduces anxietyand increases likelihood that learners will engage people in China) Practicing for real life use, goal is set in Chinese I (we are getting readyfor when we go to China) Continuously failing at increasingly higher levels4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 11. Autonomous Learning Teacher cannot accompany learner 24/7 Period in formal learning situations very small part of student‟slearning career Goal is for learner to develop ability to function on own inChinese Taking responsibility for management of own learning career Outcomes measured by student performance; not #s ofcharacters learned….what can they do in Chinese? Daily performance regimen fosters these attitudes andexpectations Attitude and approach (I am going to have to do this in China);raises stakes4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 12. Integrating In-Country and Home Institution Learning Whether study abroad program is integrated into regularcurriculum matters Credit issues, course equivalency, articulation throughprogram, pedagogical approach, academic standards,expectations for foreign learners in China, etc. (Requires wellthough out articulation plan, course proposals, etc.; CLIC ispart of major and minor in Chinese at USF) Skills that learners develop in China setting are different fromthe skills that learners develop best in home US institutionsettings Integration maximizes efficiency in both settings4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 13. Duration of Study Abroad Matters Short term experiences have minimal impact not only in termsof linguistic gains Requires significant time to move beyond guest-host roles inChinese culture (3-6 months) Time needed to develop empathy-both “put yourself in „their‟shoes” and “finishing one another‟s thoughts”4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 14. Duration Matters American students do not know how to think in Chinese Only have default American base culture to fall back on if they are notforced to learn how to think in new ways Even “common sense” does not apply-Crossing the road, Eating cold foodwhen you have a cold Need time to learn how to establish Chinese intentions/intentionsrecognized by Chinese Can‟t go through English/American culture filter Time needed for cognitive reorganization-learning to do things in waysrecognizable to Chinese people (particularly those not familiar withAmerican culture)-“You eat first”, “Classmate X keeps his room so tidy.”4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 15. Learning Through Chinese Learners must initiate two processes if they are going tobe successful life long learners of Chinese Enculturation—learning from Chinese Acculturation—syncing with Chinese (culturallycalibrating behavior, reduce accommodation, makeChinese comfortable) To reach distinguished and superior levels of proficiency,must engage in both Time need to develop trust and emotional connections4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 16. Types of SA Experiences Matter Language contact outside of class has been shown to explaingains in speaking during study abroad (Freed 1995) No generalized advanced level skill exists-advanced learnersdevelop ability to handle particular contexts, have advancedskills in certain forms, venues, and domains Community-based learning maximizes the potential gains inthis type of environment-service learning that requireslanguage use and collaboration with Chinese peers4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 17. Community-Based Learning Learners doing specific things with language, completingconcrete tasks-structure + context (real life tasks = motivation) In-country environment provides opportunities to gain socio-cultural information that informs language use as well asbehavioral culture through participation in community events Opportunities for socialization, which factors in long termsuccess Stages: Peer learners, Roommates, Community Activities,Community practicum, Internship4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 18. Multi-Tiered China ExperiencesIntegrated into Curriculum Periods of performance-based instruction at USFinterspersed with periods of guided real world experiencesin China Not simply outsourcing instruction to Chinese institution Internalize what one learns in Tampa through use ineveryday interaction in China Learn linguistically accurate and culturally appropriate useof language at the same time developing the ability toeffectively interact in Chinese culture
  • 19. Repeated Experiences Repeated learning experiences in China that increase insophistication and occur in different learning environments Changing environments forces learners to adapt to newconditions Increasing sophistication, raising expectations: Tier I: we are going to learn how to survive; Tier II: we are going to learn how to participate in the localcommunity; Tier III-we are going to do something that has a real impact onthe community4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 20. Smooth Reintegration Impacts Progress Without appropriate classes for returnees, enrollments dropbecause students are not challenged or dont fit into thecurriculum Students return from CLIC program knowing what they dontknow and what they cannot yet do in Chinese They know what they can do and what they know They know what they need to know Focuses attention, work and learning process Separate track for “elite” learners4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 21. Divide and Conquer: Separating Skills Separate skills to avoid attentional and informationoverload In Chinese, learner must cope with: tones, orthography,meaning, pronunciation, grammar, behavior, linguisticdiversity, a significant cultural gap, etc. If all are presented at the same time, cognitive overloadresults + none of these skill areas are learned to highlevels4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 22. The Path to Professional Skills in Chinese1st YearChineseUSFTier 18 Weeks inChina2nd YearChinese USFTier II10 Weeks inChina3rd YearChineseUSFTier III1 yearcapstone inChina
  • 23. Pre-Tier I in China Intensive instruction that focuses on basic interaction sills Tone recognition and production, laying foundation inaural learning-contours of Chinese + phonology Basic socio-cultural knowledge and behavioral culture-ways to reduce accommodation Basic grammar4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 24. Tier I in China Intensive instruction that focuses on basic interactionskills Cultural knowledge-gaining level of comfort in informal,everyday contexts Socializing Listening Practical reading and writing (street signs, menus, etc.) Solidifying what already know and transferring fromshort-term memory to long-term memory which takesplace through use in context4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 25. Post Tier I China, Pre-Tier II China Two semesters of intensive instruction that focuses ondeveloping reading and narrative skills Grammar Development of lexicon Sophistication of speech Feedback on performance (tones, use, etc. that learners donot get while interacting in China)4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 26. Tier II in China Intensive instruction that focuses on advanced productiveskills and interaction in formal and professional contexts Presentational skills Domain specific knowledge, specialization of reading,vocabulary, etc. Cultural empathy4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 27. Post-Tier II China, Pre-Tier III China Two semesters of intensive instruction that focuses ondeveloping advanced reading skills with primary texts andwriting skills Composition Grammar Lexicon Feedback on sound, performance, and products4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 28. Tier III in China One year of intensive independent functioning andautonomous interaction in China Post Tier III China-two semesters of fourth-year Chinesefocused on content-based courses taught in the targetlanguage 1) Networking in China and America 2) Understandings and Misunderstandings WhileCommunicating in Chinese4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 29. Team Teaching What we want our students to be doing while in China is notwhat students or foreigners typically do in China Pedagogical approach differs from traditional Chineseapproaches in China; requires change in teaching approach Curriculum designed by USF faculty; taught by both partnerinstitution faculty and USF faculty Team teaching model-to take advantage of strengths of teacherstrained in different ways Hybrid courses-Engaging Chinese Culture-lectures by Chineseprofessor; language debriefings by USF instructor-both taughtin Chinese4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 30. Using Study Abroad to Increase Learning Time Chinese is a Category IV language-number of hours needed toachieve advanced level proficiency in Chinese is very high We address this by building additional learning hours intosummer and year-long study abroad experiences Significantly increase the number of learning hours in eachacademic year while significantly reducing the number of yearsto reach ultimate goal4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 31. Using Study Abroad to Increase Learning Time The Foreign Service Institute estimates that it requires at least1,320 hours of training to achieve advanced proficiency inChinese (480 hours/3.2 years for category I languages such asFrench, Spanish, Italian) 1 year of college instruction typically totals approx. 150instructional hrs (120 hours at USF, 60/semester) To reach advanced proficiency, it should only take 8.8 yearsof college (11 years at USF!!!!)4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 32. Using Study Abroad to Increase Learning Time Tier I-240+ hours of structured language learning + 125+ hours ofadditional language use Classes -4 hours/day, 4 days /week-16 hours + 2 hours 1 day total 18hours/week, 6 weeks of classes,108 hours Language Clinic-2 hours/day, 4days -8 hours/week 5 weeks, 40 hours Community activities-2 hours/day, 4 days/week-8 hours/week, 6 weeks,48 hours Study tours-3-5 hours/day, 36-60 hours/week, 2 weeks-36-60 hours Roommates-21-42 hours/week, 6 weeks, 126-132 hours Total time on task is equivalent to 6 semesters/3 years (358-388 hours) andstructured time on task is equivalent to 4+ semesters/2 years (240 hours) And, students have no skill atrophy due to taking the summer off4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 33. Using Study Abroad to Increase Learning Time Tier II-280+ hours of structured learning + 190+ hours of additionallanguage use Classes (7 days/week)-Domain Tutorial-4 hours/week, PresentationalSpeaking-7 hours/week, Chinese Media-4 hours/week, Interacting withChinese Professionals-4 hours/week, 8 weeks, 152 hours Internship-6 hours/week, 8 weeks, 128 hours Community Activities-20 hours/week, 8 weeks, 160 hours Study Tour-6 hours/day, 9 days, 54 hours Roommates-21-42 hours/week, 9 weeks,189-378 hours Total time on task is equivalent to 8 semesters/4 years (469-658 hours) andstructured learning time is equivalent to 4.7 semesters/2+ years (280 hours) And, students have no skill atrophy due to taking the summer off4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 34. Using Study Abroad to Increase Learning Time Tier III-Integration into regular student population Semester I-Students enroll in 4-5 classes, 1 of which must be inhis/her major area in the general population, 1 of which mustbe a content course in the target language and the remainingarranged with program director (often take 3 language coursesdesigned for non-native speakers) Semester II-3 options: 1) 2nd semester of classes, 2) semester ofresearch, 3) semester-long full-time internship4/24/2013 Eric Shepherd, University of South Florida
  • 35. Tier I1st YearChineseUSFTier 18 Weeksin China
  • 36. Tier I Two semesters of intensive preparation for learning in China followed byeight-week summer intensive program in China Overall goals: 1) Help students internalize content learned in year one, 2)Help students gain comfort level in interacting in Chinese culture (movebeyond culture shock and can function and survive independently), 3) Helpstudents develop advanced listening comprehension skills 2009: 13 students 2010: 19 students 2011: 28 students 2012: 28 students Students now come to our language program specifically for study abroadexperiences
  • 37. Program Structure Multiple pre-departure orientations conducted duringspring semester in addition to regular language classes One-week study tour in Beijing One-week in-country orientation Five-week intensive training session in Qingdao One-week study tour through Shandong Province
  • 38. Curriculum Designed to take advantage of in-country environment Addresses aspects of language learning unique to learningabroad (China specific) setting Not designed to replicate coursework that can be offeredin US and cannot be substituted for courses offered inTampa Speaking, listening, social interaction, and behavioralculture are primary targets but practical uses ofreading/writing also addressed Underlying theme of “interacting in Chinese society”
  • 39. Core Courses 1) Socializing in China and America, 2) Engaging Chinese Culture, 3) Practical Reading and Writing 4) Overseas Study in Chinese These core courses are supplemented by a LanguageClinic and participation in local cultural and socialactivities
  • 40. Learning in the Culture Performance-based coursework and guidedinteraction in local Qingdao community
  • 41. Performance-Based Learning
  • 42. Peer Learning
  • 43. Peer Learning
  • 44. Peer Learning
  • 45. Peer Learning
  • 46. Community Activities Maximize use of out-of-class time by arranging a set ofrequired tasks that force learners to interact in thelocal community using their Chinese CLIC staff create opportunities for students to takepart in community activities such as volunteer work,promotional events for local companies, local festivals,trade fairs, and holiday events Participation is required and graded, debriefings
  • 47. Opportunities to gain invaluable experience in meaningfulintercultural interaction in live contexts
  • 48. Cultural Events
  • 49. Community Activities: Participatory
  • 50. Visit Local Industries
  • 51. Visit Local Schools
  • 52. Visit Local Cultural Sites
  • 53. Hands-On Learning
  • 54. Two-Directional Exchange/Mirror Program
  • 55. Study Tour: Beijing
  • 56. Study Tour: Beijing
  • 57. Study Tour: 9 Cities/7 Days
  • 58. Study Tour: Shandong Province
  • 59. Tier II1st YearChineseUSFTier 18 Weeksin China2nd YearChineseUSFTier II10Weeksin China
  • 60. Tier II Two semesters of intensive second year Chinese at USF followed by ten-week summer intensive program in China Move into real world use of language; fully participate in local communityactivities using Chinese; learn language of professional field service learning, internships, community projects 2010: 11 students 2011: 9 students 2012: 10 students Curriculum: Domain Tutorial; Chinese Media; Interacting with Chinese Professionals;Presentational Speaking; Community Activities; Chinese roommates
  • 61.  Provide participants the opportunity to enhance theirlanguage skills and cultural understanding throughclassroom instruction and guided social and culturalexperiences in China Designed to develop participants‟ productive skills inChinese formal contexts Prepare them linguistically and culturally to be successfulin a subsequent internship experiences in ChinaTier Two Goals
  • 62. • Two semesters of second-year Chinese (distinct elitelearner track)• Pre-departure orientation conducted at USF during springsemester• One-week in-country orientation• Eight-week intensive training session at QingdaoUniversity• One-week study tour that takes students to a range ofsites of cultural and historical significance in ShaanxiProvinceTier Two: Structure
  • 63.  1) Interacting with Chinese Professionals (2 credit hrs) 2) Presentational Speaking in Chinese (3 hrs) 3) Chinese Media (3 hrs) 4) Domain Tutorial (2 hrs) 5) Community Practicum(2 hrs) 6) Community Activities 7) Study TourTier Two Curriculum
  • 64. • Community Practicum, 6 hrs/TR; Reports, 2 credit hours• Students work with faculty to arrange a practicum position in a local hostcompany, government office, or organization in which they use their newlydeveloping Chinese skills• Participants spend 6-8 hours each Tuesday and Thursday working at theirhost practicum site with primary focus of familiarizing themselves withprofessional culture and office environments associated with their domain inChina• Each week, participants are required to meet formally to present and discussreports on their Community Practicum experiencesCommunity Practicum
  • 65. Community Practicum Sites Aishi Eyeware Company Shandong Foreign Trade Corporation Lihua Import Export Company Kaiping Road Elementary School Qingdao Municipal Tourism Bureau Jinxiu Import Export Company Specialty Street Government Management Office Jinshengtang Media Corporation Xinhua Bookstore Qingdao School for the Blind
  • 66. Chinese Performance Traditions
  • 67. Weekly Student Forums
  • 68. Exchanges with Chinese Students
  • 69. Talks with Local Professionals
  • 70. Interacting with Chinese Professionals
  • 71. Engaging the Local Community
  • 72. Engaging theLocal Community
  • 73. School Visits
  • 74. Hands-On Learning
  • 75. 2 Directional/Teaching About AmericanCulture (presentational skills)
  • 76. Exchange with School for the Blind2010
  • 77. Exchange with School for the Blind2011
  • 78. Community Volunteer Work:Jinse Center for Autistic Children
  • 79. Helping Organize Government-Sponsored Events
  • 80. Selling Newspapers for Charity
  • 81. Organizing and Hosting CommunityActivities
  • 82. Contributing to the Local Community
  • 83. Recognized for Community Contributions
  • 84. USF Students in theNews
  • 85. USF Students Making the News
  • 86. Presentational Speaking
  • 87. Presentational Speaking
  • 88. Study Tour: Shaanxi Province
  • 89. Capstone Experience Two semesters of third-year Chinese followed by a fullyear spent in China Two phases: 1) Fall Semester: study in major field in generalpopulation at Chinese institution 2) Spring Semester: Internship, research projectrelated to major field, or additional coursework