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Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
Lobianco World Language Education
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Lobianco World Language Education

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  1. World Language Education, Bilingualism and Worldmindedness National Chinese Language Conference Joseph Lo Bianco Chicago April-May 2009
  2. New Themes in EU LPs <ul><li>Social Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Global English </li></ul><ul><li>Recession </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility (communicative mthd, CLIL, portability of certifications) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>>>>ILT and CLIL and emphasis on culture </li></ul>
  3. Dealing with Difference <ul><ul><li>INEVITABLE (fertility-development-migration-elite mobility-tourism-market place of competence, education as trade, trans-nationalism); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INCREASING (homelands and diasporas, hybridity, new citizenship, virtual & actual, horizontal, kids-to-kids ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPREADING (multiple direction flows…); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERSPECTIVAL (aesthetic, political, intellectual & moral). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can FL education produce cultural competence for World Kids in New Times? Does what we teach about TL culture extend beyond admiration of the TL culture? How do ES countries perform? What distinctive role can Chinese play? </li></ul></ul>
  4. English and Bilingualism in Today’s World <ul><li>“ 2 billion people – 1/3 of human race –learning English by 2010-2015.” </li></ul><ul><li>“… . a tidal wave of English” and “… as many as 3 billion people or 1/2 world’s population could be learning/speaking the language“ around 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>David Graddol, 2006, English Next. London: The British Council </li></ul>
  5. First Foreign Language 1850-2005 <ul><li>English, French, German, Russian and Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>15 primary & 12 secondary curricula 1850-1874 to </li></ul><ul><li>151 primary & 154 secondary curricula 1990-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>Cha and Ham, (2008), Impact of English on School Curriculum, 313-328 Spolsky & Hult, Handbook of Educational Linguistics . Blackwell. </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>“ World Events” and “Rising World Society” </li></ul><ul><li>Takdir Alisjahbana </li></ul>
  6. First Foreign Language <ul><li> % GERMAN % FRENCH % ENGLISH </li></ul><ul><li>1850-1874 50.0 33.3 8.3 </li></ul><ul><li>1875-1899 44.4 38.9 5.6 </li></ul><ul><li>1990-1919 24.3 45.9 27.0 </li></ul><ul><li>1920-1944 14.8 35.2 33.3 </li></ul><ul><li>1945-1969 00.0 28.1 59.4 + RUSSIAN </li></ul><ul><li>1970-1989 00.0 17.0 67.4 + RUSSIAN </li></ul>
  7. 1990-2005 <ul><li>ENGLISH </li></ul><ul><li>67.5% primary in 151 countries </li></ul><ul><li>81.2% secondary in 154 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>FRENCH </li></ul><ul><li>13.2% primary in 151 countries </li></ul><ul><li>13.6% secondary in 154 countries </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>German 0.7% & 0.6% respectively; Russian 3.3% & 3.2% respectively; Spanish absent. </li></ul>
  8. ASIA since 2000 <ul><li>ENGLISH is the first foreign language in 100% secondary curricula & vast majority of primary curricula; explosion of ‘enculturation’ modes for English learning: e.g. Korean “English Villages”; Shanghai Curriculum and Materials Reform (Education Commission, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>2005, major moves in Universities across Asia to make English LOI </li></ul><ul><li>(Davison & Bruce, 2009) </li></ul>
  9. The China English Identity Project <ul><li>i) Roundtable: Peking U . comparative approaches to culture & identity in language learning, October 05; </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Special Issue Journal: Chinese Sociolinguistics , December 05; </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Roundtable: 5th International Conference of Chinese Sociolinguistics, Beijing, December 06; </li></ul><ul><li>iv) Symposium : English: Language and Identity in China at 5th International Congress of China English Language Education Association & 1st Congress of Chinese Applied Linguistics Association, May 07; </li></ul><ul><li>v) Volume: China & English: Globalisation & Dilemmas of Identity (Lo Bianco, Orton & Gao, 2009) </li></ul>
  10. Ti Yong <ul><li>Chinese learning for moral principles ( essence ); </li></ul><ul><li>Western learning for practical application ( utility ) </li></ul><ul><li>[ 中学为体,西学为用 </li></ul><ul><li>Zhong xue wei ti, Xi xue wei yong ] </li></ul><ul><li>Zhang Zhidong, 1898 </li></ul>
  11. “ the haunting issue of the cultural identity dilemma” <ul><li>essentialist ti ~~~~ utilitarian yong </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>“ For the Chinese… ti-yong dilemma…recurrent themes of a clash between ti , and ambivalent attitudes toward English…deeply rooted in history…. Current and future generations of Chinese language policy makers, educators, and learners are destined to struggle for creative solutions to this persistent identity dilemma.” </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>Gao,Y-H (2009), Sociocultural Contexts and English in China, Retaining and Reforming the Cultural Habitus </li></ul><ul><li>In Lo Bianco, Orton and Gao, China and English, Globalisation and Dilemmas of Identity, Multilingual Matters , forthcoming. </li></ul>
  12. Bilingualism in ES Countries <ul><li>~ INDIGENOUS ~ </li></ul><ul><li>(typically isolated communities under stress and LS extinction pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>~ IMMIGRANTS ~ </li></ul><ul><li>(typically urban communities under assimilative LS pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>~ INDIVIDUALS ~ </li></ul><ul><li>(professionals, enthusiasts, oddballs, elites, i.e. a personal attribute) </li></ul>
  13. The Barcelona Declaration <ul><li>“ Proficiency in several Community Languages has become a precondition if citizens of the European Union are to benefit from the occupational and personal opportunities open to them in the border-free single market. This language proficiency must be backed up by the ability to adapt to working and living environments characterised by different cultures” </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>Euro-Mediterranean Partnerships, Basis for Development </li></ul><ul><li>European Commission 1995: 67. </li></ul>
  14. Who is Bilingual? <ul><li>States </li></ul><ul><li>↑ bilingualism for small near large </li></ul><ul><li>↑ bilingualism in NES over ES </li></ul><ul><li>Societies </li></ul><ul><li>↑ bilingualism if lack unilingual modernity ideology, e.g. India </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals and Groups </li></ul><ul><li>↑ bilingualism with occupation rewards; </li></ul><ul><li>↑ core value; struggling against repression </li></ul>
  15. Who Is Bilingual In Europe? <ul><li>Socio-demographic category % bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Students 77% </li></ul><ul><li>Educated up to 20+ 72% </li></ul><ul><li>Managers 69% </li></ul><ul><li>Aged 15-24 65% </li></ul><ul><li>Employees 57% </li></ul><ul><li>Aged 25-39 55% </li></ul><ul><li>Self-employed 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Men 47% </li></ul><ul><li>Average for EU 15 45% </li></ul>
  16. Who Is Bilingual In Europe? <ul><li>Socio-demographic category % bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Average for EU 15 45% </li></ul><ul><li>Educated to age 16-19 44% </li></ul><ul><li>Aged 40-54 43% </li></ul><ul><li>Women 43% </li></ul><ul><li>Manual Workers 41% </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployed 40% </li></ul><ul><li>House persons 31% </li></ul><ul><li>Aged 55+ 28% </li></ul><ul><li>Retired 26% </li></ul>
  17. Australia’s Languages <ul><li>INDIGENOUS </li></ul><ul><li>250 languages; 600 speech forms, dialect continuum, oral literacy > language death </li></ul><ul><li>SETTLER </li></ul><ul><li>British English + Irish + Australian context = Australian English </li></ul><ul><li>IMMIGRANT </li></ul><ul><li>19 th century, Immigration Restriction Act 1901, 1946 Immigration Recruitment > 160 languages > language shift </li></ul>
  18. Research in EU 2L Teaching <ul><li>Council of Europe and European Union </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>Mike Byram, Durham University, England </li></ul><ul><li>Karen Risager, Roskilde University, Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>Language & Culture: Global Flows & Local Complexity (2006) & </li></ul><ul><li>Language & Culture Pedagogy: National to Transnational Paradigm (2007) </li></ul>
  19. Post 1990 Culture in EU 2L Teaching <ul><li>Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign-Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Single culture, single foreign country, defined territory. Isolates target from learner. Teaches admiration of foreign. </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasts target & learners’ culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Imparts common knowledge for all with recognition of differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses that cultures penetrate each other, are not discrete, single entities in bounded nation states. Migration, tourism, Internet. </li></ul>
  20. How culture is taught in European 2L programs <ul><li>Foreign-Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Losing ground since 1980s…but still common </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining ground…but often misunderstood </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Current approach in multi-ethnic societies…but often ‘unsystematic’ </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Future ground in many societies due to globalisation…aspirational </li></ul>
  21. Limits of culture approaches in 2L teaching... <ul><li>Traditional approaches to culture in 2L teaching often teach un-critical admiration only ; </li></ul><ul><li>I nter-cultural approaches often only contrast </li></ul><ul><li>target and learner cultures and look for similarities and dissimilarities; </li></ul><ul><li>M ulticultural approaches often emphasise maintenance of differences. </li></ul>
  22. ...instead worldmindedness <ul><li>Proposes an approach to identity & culture which recognises: </li></ul><ul><li>i) cultures penetrate each other, ii) are not discrete, iii) not confined to bounded nation states; iv) acknowledges role of good will, v) accepts global functions of English without assuming it is permanent, natural or ‘better’… </li></ul><ul><li>also aims beyond self and other , learner and target, to what is generally true, accepts hybrid realities of migration, tourism, economic globalisation and digital identities. </li></ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul><ul><li>¿Does Chinese have a unique role a mass 2L in inculcating worldmindedness, </li></ul><ul><li>language awareness & intercultural knowledge? </li></ul>
  23. culture in language and communication practices <ul><li>Culture Specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>notice differences – interpret as specific, historical, regional particularities- contextualise and naturalise the different-self awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture General </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generalise beyond self and other > meta-language -accept inevitability- learn how-to-learn about culture in communication- identify ideology and naturalisation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldmindedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks to see what can be extended from culture specific 2L to culture general to world-minded disposition, English, Chinese and Spanish play a crucial role because language is deepest manifestation, and most shared, notion of culture </li></ul></ul>
  24. Thank you! 谢谢!

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