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How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
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How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan

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by Hideaki Shibuya

by Hideaki Shibuya

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  • 1. Asia-Pacific Leaders Forum on Secondary Education                (March 25th 2008   The Taj Mahal Hotel, New Delhi, India) How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan Hideaki SHIBUYA (Tokyo Gakugei University)
  • 2. A) Background of Secondary School Reforms 1. ‘Universal’ Secondary Education 2. Decreasing Young Population 3. Changing Lifestyles of Youths 4. Globalization of Society
  • 3. [Background] 1. ‘Universal’ Secondary Education Lower Secondary School (grade 7-9)   ・ Compulsory education ・ Free Education (tuition fee of government schools and text books)   ・ Enrollment ratio 99.93% (2005) ・ Long absentees 3.48% (2004) Upper Secondary School (grade 10-12)  ・ Students enrolled in government schools 70% Private 30% ・ Advancement rate 97.7% (2006) ・ Entrance Examination Upper Secondary School Certificate is minimum qualification for job opportunities.
  • 4. [Background] 2. Decreasing Young Population Birth rate  total fertility rate 1.32(2006),1.26(2005),1.29(2004), 1.36(2000), 1.57(1989) USA 2.05(2004), France 1.94(2005), Sweden 1.77 (2005), Korea 1.08(2005) Advancement rate to universities  52.3%(2006) Number of upper secondary school graduates who want to study in universities become almost equal to the total capacity of universities.
  • 5. [Background] 3. Changing Lifestyles of Youths Polarization of Students      ・ Students studying hard towards prestigious universities     ・ Students not studying outside of schools ‘Freeter’, Working Poor     ・’ Freeter’= Free(English)+Albeit(German)+er Those who are working at part-time jobs, and not able to have a fulltime and permanent job. ・ More than 2 millions ‘Freeters’ among 15 to 34 years (2005) / 1 million in 1992, and 500,000 in 1982
  • 6. [Background] 4. Globalization of Society Migrating Labor and Population  ・ International and multicultural community in Japanese society (Brazil, Peru, China, Korea, ・・・・・)   ・ Understanding, communication, living together Quality Human Resources in a Global  Society ・ Language Ability(monolingual →bilingual, multulingual)   ・ Science and Technology
  • 7. B) Secondary School Reforms Variety and Flexibility of Secondary 1 Education Linkages between Schools and World of 2 Work or Community Development of Promotion of Abilities of 3 the Top-class Students
  • 8. [Reforms] 1 Variety and Flexibility of Secondary Education(1) General Education Course  Ordinary Course /Course of Preparation for University / Special Course (Foreign Language, ICT, Arts and Craft) / Specialized Education Course  Vocational Education Course(Commerce, Industry, Agriculture, Fishery, Homemaking, Welfare, etc.) Other Specialized Course(Arts, International Education, Sports and physical education, Science and Technology, etc) Comprehensive Course  General + Vocational
  • 9. [Reforms] 1 Variety and Flexibility of Secondary Education(2) Secondary School  6years<Lower+ Upper> ‘Challenge’ School  Tri-shift- system, for long- absentees or drop-outs ‘Try Net’ School  Online Learning ‘Support School’  Non- formal Education preparing for Examination Qualifying Equivalence of  Completion of Upper Secondary School
  • 10. [Reforms] 2 Linkages between Schools and World of Work or Community Dual System  Combination of school education and vocational training in firms Internship  Not vocational training, but work experience Voluntary Work in Community  Contribution to and participation in community activities
  • 11. [Reforms] 3 Development of Promotion of Abilities of the Top-class Students Leading and Competitive Human  Resources for Development in the Era of Globalization Super Science High Schools (SSH)  Super English Language High Schools (SELHi)  ICT Education 
  • 12. Consideration — What are New Skills and Why ? Competitive Skills and/or Cooperative  Skills  Universal Skills for All Students and/or Skills based on Specific Abilities or Needs of Students  Skills and Values, Skills and Attitudes

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