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How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan
 

How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan

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by Hideaki Shibuya

by Hideaki Shibuya

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    How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan Presentation Transcript

    • Asia-Pacific Leaders Forum on Secondary Education                (March 25th 2008   The Taj Mahal Hotel, New Delhi, India) How School Reforms Promote New Skills in Japan Hideaki SHIBUYA (Tokyo Gakugei University)
    • A) Background of Secondary School Reforms 1. ‘Universal’ Secondary Education 2. Decreasing Young Population 3. Changing Lifestyles of Youths 4. Globalization of Society
    • [Background] 1. ‘Universal’ Secondary Education Lower Secondary School (grade 7-9)   ・ Compulsory education ・ Free Education (tuition fee of government schools and text books)   ・ Enrollment ratio 99.93% (2005) ・ Long absentees 3.48% (2004) Upper Secondary School (grade 10-12)  ・ Students enrolled in government schools 70% Private 30% ・ Advancement rate 97.7% (2006) ・ Entrance Examination Upper Secondary School Certificate is minimum qualification for job opportunities.
    • [Background] 2. Decreasing Young Population Birth rate  total fertility rate 1.32(2006),1.26(2005),1.29(2004), 1.36(2000), 1.57(1989) USA 2.05(2004), France 1.94(2005), Sweden 1.77 (2005), Korea 1.08(2005) Advancement rate to universities  52.3%(2006) Number of upper secondary school graduates who want to study in universities become almost equal to the total capacity of universities.
    • [Background] 3. Changing Lifestyles of Youths Polarization of Students      ・ Students studying hard towards prestigious universities     ・ Students not studying outside of schools ‘Freeter’, Working Poor     ・’ Freeter’= Free(English)+Albeit(German)+er Those who are working at part-time jobs, and not able to have a fulltime and permanent job. ・ More than 2 millions ‘Freeters’ among 15 to 34 years (2005) / 1 million in 1992, and 500,000 in 1982
    • [Background] 4. Globalization of Society Migrating Labor and Population  ・ International and multicultural community in Japanese society (Brazil, Peru, China, Korea, ・・・・・)   ・ Understanding, communication, living together Quality Human Resources in a Global  Society ・ Language Ability(monolingual →bilingual, multulingual)   ・ Science and Technology
    • B) Secondary School Reforms Variety and Flexibility of Secondary 1 Education Linkages between Schools and World of 2 Work or Community Development of Promotion of Abilities of 3 the Top-class Students
    • [Reforms] 1 Variety and Flexibility of Secondary Education(1) General Education Course  Ordinary Course /Course of Preparation for University / Special Course (Foreign Language, ICT, Arts and Craft) / Specialized Education Course  Vocational Education Course(Commerce, Industry, Agriculture, Fishery, Homemaking, Welfare, etc.) Other Specialized Course(Arts, International Education, Sports and physical education, Science and Technology, etc) Comprehensive Course  General + Vocational
    • [Reforms] 1 Variety and Flexibility of Secondary Education(2) Secondary School  6years<Lower+ Upper> ‘Challenge’ School  Tri-shift- system, for long- absentees or drop-outs ‘Try Net’ School  Online Learning ‘Support School’  Non- formal Education preparing for Examination Qualifying Equivalence of  Completion of Upper Secondary School
    • [Reforms] 2 Linkages between Schools and World of Work or Community Dual System  Combination of school education and vocational training in firms Internship  Not vocational training, but work experience Voluntary Work in Community  Contribution to and participation in community activities
    • [Reforms] 3 Development of Promotion of Abilities of the Top-class Students Leading and Competitive Human  Resources for Development in the Era of Globalization Super Science High Schools (SSH)  Super English Language High Schools (SELHi)  ICT Education 
    • Consideration — What are New Skills and Why ? Competitive Skills and/or Cooperative  Skills  Universal Skills for All Students and/or Skills based on Specific Abilities or Needs of Students  Skills and Values, Skills and Attitudes