Hong Kong Assuring and Improving High Quality Education


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Hong Kong Assuring and Improving High Quality Education

  1. 1. Hong Kong : Assuring and Improving High Quality Asia-Pacific Leaders Forum on Secondary Education March 24-26, 2008 Mr Chris Wardlaw
  2. 2. Hong Kong Context <ul><li>Professional qualifications “all graduate, all trained” not yet a reality (dramatic increase over past decade) </li></ul><ul><li>Student allocation to schools [Band by ability both primary and secondary] </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>primary one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secondary one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secondary six </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Class sizes 30-40 </li></ul><ul><li>Subvention non-secular </li></ul><ul><li>Primary education subject based </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized teaching (Chinese, English & Mathematics) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium of Instruction – English/Chinese </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reforms since 2000 to Reform analysis informed by multiple independent studies, consultations, continuous feedback Leading and managing change…. <ul><li>determine what students should learn (curriculum) 2. how school heads and teachers help students learn (pedagogy) 3. know what students have learned (assessment) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Four Interrelated Areas of Reform Initiatives to Meet Global Challenges of 21st Century in “One Country, Two Systems” III. Assessment reform – balancing assessment of and for learning I. Systemic change and school improvement – coherence-making & devolution II. Curriculum & learning reform – whole- person development & life-long learning IV. Accountability & quality assurance – driving continuous improvement
  5. 5. Systemic Change and School Improvement – coherence-making & devolution <ul><li>1. School-Based Management </li></ul><ul><li>2. Funding flexibility and diversity of school system </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing capacity in schools </li></ul><ul><li>To support – Curriculum and Learning Reform </li></ul>
  6. 6. Assessment Reform – balancing assessment of and for learning - reduce excessive tests, examinations and dictations to create more space for learning and teaching - promote the use of assessment data as feedback to learning - diversify assessment modes to improve validity - maintain the function of a credible public examination system at senior secondary level
  7. 7. Accountability and Quality Assurance – driving continuous Improvement Fundamental principles <ul><li>Schools are the centre of change and improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Internal School Self-Evaluation complemented by External School Review </li></ul><ul><li>> To validate school self evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>> To provide feedback for </li></ul><ul><li>improvement </li></ul><ul><li>The process should be data driven and </li></ul><ul><li>evidence based </li></ul>
  8. 8. Curriculum and Learning Reform – Learning to Learn for whole-person development and life-long learning for ALL <ul><li>10 -year curriculum reform plan in basic education from 2002-03 to 2011-12 (Primary 1 – Secondary 3) </li></ul><ul><li>(Priority task – Reading to Learn) </li></ul><ul><li>New Senior Secondary (NSS) academic system for ALL from 2009 onwards (Primary 1 – 6, Secondary 1 – 6), and multiple pathways to further education & work </li></ul>
  9. 9. School Curriculum Framework since 2001 Value & Attitude Generic Skill P1- S3 General Studies 4 Core Subjects : Chinese Language, English Language, Mathematics, Liberal Studies (45-55%) 2-3 Elective Subjects out of 20 subjects or Applied Learning (20-30%) Other Learning Experiences including moral and civic education, community service, aesthetic and physical experiences and work-related experiences (e.g. job attachment) (15-35%) NSS 2009 Moral and Civic Education Intellectual Development Community Service Physical & Aesthetic Development Career-related Experiences
  10. 10. International Benchmarking of Education in Hong Kong <ul><li>Four recent studies </li></ul><ul><li>1. McKinsey and Co “How the Worlds’ best performing systems came out on top” </li></ul><ul><li>> HK found to be working on all parameters common to top performing and improving systems </li></ul><ul><li>2. PISA 2006 (15 year olds) </li></ul><ul><li>> Science 2nd (third in 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>> Mathematics = 1st (three others, two others 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>> Reading 3rd (10th in 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Primary International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) (Primary 4) 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>> 2nd (14th in 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>4. TES World University Ranking </li></ul><ul><li>> 4 institutions among top 150 (18, 38, 53, 149) </li></ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction data sets also show we are improving on </li></ul><ul><li>already high standards, but there is no room for complacency </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is Hong Kong doing well ? <ul><li>Coherent curriculum with high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Treasures the training of basic skills and the grasp of fundamental concepts at basic education level. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese culture values learning and provides extra incentives for students </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers with strong pedagogical content knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal expectation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning behaviour (time-on-task/structured teaching/homework) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>But ……………. </li></ul>
  13. 13. For example….. <ul><li>In mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Strength in computation is also a weakness </li></ul><ul><li>There is evidence suggesting that Chinese learners are relatively weaker in certain mathematics areas, in particular, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Attitudes <ul><li>Confidence in mathematics (Grade 8) (TIMMS) </li></ul><ul><li>PISA indicates very low self-efficacy and low connectedness to school of HK students </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Pyramid (Number of Students) 90% 36% 18%
  16. 16. Moving to a new academic structure in 2009 334 * Currently only one-third of students proceed to S6 New Structure (“3+3+4”) New public examination leading to HK Diploma of Secondary Education 2012 Current Structure (“3+2+2+3”) 4-Year Undergraduate Degree 3-Year Undergraduate Degree Secondary 7 HKALE HKCEE Secondary 6 Secondary 5 Secondary 4 Secondary 3 Secondary 2 Secondary 1 Senior Secondary 3 Senior Secondary 2 Senior Secondary 1 Secondary 3 Secondary 2 Secondary 1
  17. 17. New Senior Secondary curriculum in 2009 4 Core Subjects : Chinese Language, English Language, Mathematics, Liberal Studies 2-3 Elective Subjects out of 20 subjects or Applied Learning courses Other Learning Experiences including moral and civic education, community service, aesthetic and physical experiences and work-related experiences (e.g. job attachment) 45-55% 20-30% 15-35%
  18. 18. <ul><li>Creativity…. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication…. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking…. </li></ul><ul><li>Values…. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Developing creativity.. <ul><li>A demanding process of teaching, difficult to make routine, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ask students to go beyond given information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give students time to think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use strategies and thinking techniques which involve creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reward and value creative efforts </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>Biliterate & Trilingual Language ( 兩文三語 ) Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>since 1997, English + Chinese (Cantonese & Putonghua) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign languages as 3 rd /4 th language… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Spanish and Urdu …… </li></ul></ul>Languages
  21. 21. Senior Secondary Mathematics as Core <ul><li>The breadth & depth of curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Catering for individual differences </li></ul><ul><li>A balance between content and understanding (doing and thinking) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Problem” solving and “problem solving” </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and values (confidence, perseverance ) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Liberal Studies </li></ul>English Language Why is it a core subject? To ensure that students experience a broad education in their senior secondary years What does it provide to students? <ul><li>Liberal Studies interactively borrows knowledge and perspectives from other subjects to enrich its study. Issues are chosen so that students have the opportunity to: </li></ul><ul><li>study contemporary events not covered by any single disciplines (Awareness) </li></ul><ul><li>expand perspectives beyond single disciplines (Broadening) </li></ul><ul><li>connect knowledge & concepts across different disciplines (Connection & critical thinking) </li></ul>X1 X2 X3 Mathematics Other Learning Experiences Chinese Language Issues in Liberal Studies
  23. 23. International Benchmarking Agencies for New Senior Secondary Curricula 2005 <ul><li>UCLES / Cambridge Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>International Baccalaureate </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Placement (AP, USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Council of Educational Research (Australia) </li></ul><ul><li>National Foundation of Education Research (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>SLO (The Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development) </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore & China academics for Chinese language & history </li></ul>
  24. 24. Multiple strategies for professional development <ul><li>Demonstration/master teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson study </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative school based model </li></ul><ul><li>Professional knowledge and pedagogy upgrading </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist teaching in primary mathematics and languages </li></ul><ul><li>Professional education community </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy resource commitment emphasisng on-site support </li></ul>
  25. 25. Big Challenges for Hong Kong Education Reform <ul><li>High expectations of continuous improvement & HK as world class city </li></ul><ul><li>Close disconnect between what our students are capable of and what they believe they can do </li></ul><ul><li>Greater attention to supporting teacher professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing improvement and accountability matters </li></ul>
  26. 26. Values…. our young people will have…. <ul><li>a deep understanding of what it means to be a Hongkonger and a citizen of China and of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>a sense of responsibility for all in our society, regardless of their background, sex, race, social or geographical group. </li></ul><ul><li>perseverance and risk taking (never accepting defeat yet being prepared to fail). </li></ul><ul><li>an acceptance that the answers they are seeking may not be totally clear at first, but to build their understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>a willingness to collaborate and share, to listen to others’ points of view and to communicate their own viewpoint. </li></ul>