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Early Language Learning: World Languages in the Elementary Years
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Early Language Learning: World Languages in the Elementary Years

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  • 1. Early Language Learning World Languages in the Elementary Years 
    Helena Curtain, Ph. D. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (Emerita)hcurtain@uwm.edu
  • 2. Key Concepts for Success withElementary & Middle School Language Learning
    from
    Languages and Children—Making the Match, Curtain and Dahlberg
    2010, 4th edition,
    Pearson / Allyn and Bacon
  • 3. 1. Learners as active constructors of meaning
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners are active constructors of meaning rather than passive receivers of vocabulary and information..
  • 4. 2. Consistent target language instruction
    Target language || Native language separated
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Teachers consistently conduct instruction in
    the target language with minimal use of the native language. Teachers keep the target language and the native language distinctly separate.
  • 5. 3. Thematic Center for Lessons
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Units and lessons focus on a thematic center aligned with content and performance standards. There is a balance among the basic goals of culture, subject content, and language in use
  • 6. Thematic
    Center
    Language in use
    (Communication)
    Content
    (Connections)
    Culture(s)
  • 7.
  • 8. Food
    Pyramids
    Describing
    Food
    Geography/Climate
    Where Is It Grown?
    Timeline of Columbus’ Voyages/
    Routes
    Columbian Exchange
    Other Products Exchanged
    Popular Common
    Foods: Staples
    Then and Now
    Foods
    Of the
    New World
    (Circa 1492)
    Foods
    Of the
    Old World
    (Circa 1492)
  • 9. Content (Connections)Engaging with the Regular Curriculum
    Lettuce
    Wheat
    Peas
    Peanuts
    Tomatoes
    Potatoes
    Beets
    Strawberries
    Peppers
    Broccoli
    Onions
    Beans Corn Beets PineapplesOkra Carrots Eggplant SquashPumpkins Sunflowers Cacao
    Before
    or
    After
    1492?
    Columbian Exchange
  • 10. Eastern Hemisphere
    Western Hemisphere
    Beans
    Cacao
    Corn
    Gourds
    Peanuts
    Peppers
    Pineapples
    Potatoes
    Pumpkins
    Squash
    Strawberries
    Sunflowers
    Tomatoes
    BeetsBroccoliCarrotsEggplantLettuceOkraOnionsPeasRadishesWheatYams
    “New World”
    “Old World”
  • 11. Sequencing/Chronology
    4000 B.C. Oranges and watermelons
    3600 B.C. Popcorn
    2000 B.C. Marshmallows
    490 B.C. Pasta and macaroni
    200 B.C. Potatoes
    1395 Gingerbread/Lebkuchen
    1484 Hot dogs
    1544 Tomatoes in Europe
    1553 Potatoes in Europe
    1762 Sandwiches
    1819 Spaghetti
  • 12. No soy un abrigo.
  • 13. 4. Classroom Management
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Teachers plan for classroom management as carefully as all other aspects of instruction.
    Ich bin leise.
    Ichhörezu.
    Ichmeldemich.
  • 14. 5. Scaffolding and Modeling
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Teachers scaffold instruction so that learners become increasingly independent in their use of the spoken and written language.
  • 15. 6. Communicative, significant contexts
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learning takes place in communicative contexts that carry significance for the student.
  • 16. 6. Communicative, significant contexts
    Children learn new languages best when…
    These contexts include meaningful social and cultural situations, subject content instruction, storytelling, music, games, rituals, drama and celebrations.
  • 17. 6. Communicative, significant contexts
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Students learn grammar in context through usage not through analysis. Grammar for its own sake is not the object of instruction.
  • 18. 6. Communicative, significant contexts
    Children learn new languages best when…
    There are meaningful opportunities to use the new language beyond the classroom.
  • 19. 8. Goals of the general curriculum.
    Children learn new languages best when…
    The language program draws from and reinforces the goals of the general curriculum.
  • 20. 9. Learners experience activities that:
  • 21. 9. Activities: Intrinsically Interesting
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners experience activities thatare intrinsically interesting, cognitively engaging and culturally connected.
  • 22. 9. Activities: Child Development
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners experience activities that take into account the distinctive characteristics found at each level of cognitive, social, psychomotor, and educational development
  • 23. 9. Activities: Students USING language
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners experience activities that provide frequent opportunities for student language use.
  • 24. 9. Activities: Concrete Experiences
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners experience activities that include concrete experiences: visuals, props, realia and hands-on experiences
  • 25.
  • 26. 9. Activities: Physical Activity
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners experience activities that incorporate frequent opportunities for physical activity.
  • 27. 9. Activities: Learning Styles
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners experience activities that that appeal to a variety of learning styles
  • 28. 9. Activities: Learning Styles
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners experience activities that move students toward increasing independence and self-direction.
  • 29. 10. Story form
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Activities, lessons and units are affectively engaging and made meaningful and memorable through the use of story form and contain a clear beginning, middle and end.
    _________________
    _________________
    _________________
    _________________
    _________________
  • 30. 11. Reading and writing
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Learners use reading and writing as communicative tools appropriate to their age and interests, even in early stages of language development.
  • 31. 12. Frequent assessment
    Children learn new languages best when…
    Teachers and students assess learning frequently and systematically to provide information on progress and language development.
  • 32. Sample Assessments: Interpersonal
    A. Interpersonal Mode
    Give and/or follow directions such as describing the way to a location or share “how-to-do” something.
    Role-play a real-world task such as conducting a telephone conversation, ordering a meal
  • 33. Sample Assessments: Interpretive
    • Complete a cloze activity to indicate listening and/or reading comprehension.
    • Sequence sentences or pictures to indicate listening and/or reading comprehension
  • 34. Sample Assessments: Interpretive
    Listen to a passage and follow a map or diagram.
    Draw and/or label an illustration such as a house, clock or a map according to oral or written cues.
  • 35. Sample Assessments: Culture and Connections
    • Identify features and products of the target culture.
    Prepare a culture capsule.
    Produce crafts and/or artwork that are representative of the target culture(s).
  • 36. Key Concepts
  • 37. Program Models
  • 38. Language
    Content
    Culture
    Content
    Language
    Culture
    Language Focus
    Content Focus
    Continuum of Intensity and Focus
    for Early Language Programs
    Leading to Proficiency
    Maximum
    Full Day
    Full Immersion
    Minimum
    90-120 min.
    Weekly
    Intensity and Time
    Language, Culture, and Curriculum Content are essential elements of every curriculum model.
    The focus changes as time and intensity increase across the continuum.
    Adapted from Languages and Children: Making the Match, 4th Edition, 2010
  • 39. Language
    Content
    Culture
    Content
    Language
    Culture
    Language Focus
    Content Focus
    Continuum of Intensity and Focus
    for Early Language Programs
    Leading to Proficiency
    Maximum
    Full Day
    Full Immersion
    Minimum
    90-120 min.
    Weekly
    Less than
    Minimum
    Intensity and Time
    Programs with less intensity:
    • less than 30-40 minutes daily, and/or
    • less than three times per week
    • may not be able to meet the performance goals of the Standards for Chinese Language Learning and K-12 Performance Guidelines.
    Adapted from Languages and Children: Making the Match, 4th Edition, 2010
  • 40. What about programs with less time and intensity?
  • 41. Proficiency
  • 42. Can support opinion, hypothesize, discuss
    topics concretely and abstractly, and handle
    a linguistically unfamiliar situation
    Advanced
    Can narrate and
    describe in all
    major time frames
    and handle a
    situation with a
    complication
    Intermediate
    Can create with
    language, ask and
    answer simple
    questions on familiar
    topics, and handle a
    simple situation or
    transaction
    Novice
    Can communicate
    minimally with
    formulaic and rote
    utterances, lists
    and phrases
    Proficiency Inverted Pyramid
    Superior
    HIGH
    MID
    LOW
    HIGH
    MID
    LOW
    HIGH
    MID
    LOW
  • 43. Anticipated Performance Outcomes
    As Described in the
    ACTFL Performance Guidelines
    For K-12 Learners
  • 44.
  • 45. Considering the content and the intended K-12 sequence set forth in the Standards for Foreign Language Learning, developers of the performance guidelines for students felt obliged to assume that accomplishment of such content standards required students to be enrolled in
  • 46. elementary programs that meet from 3-5 days per week for no less than 30-40 minutes per class;
    middle school programs that meet daily for no less than 40-50 minutes;
    and high school programs that equal four units of credit.
  • 47. Through learning about language
    we learn about culture
  • 48. Through learning about culture
    We learn respect for others
  • 49. Through learning respect for others,
    we can hope forPeace

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