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Bringing International Learning to Life with Films Handout Bringing International Learning to Life with Films Handout Presentation Transcript

  • International Education for High School Students . . . through film PARTICIPANT GUIDE Putting the World into World-Class Education: Asia Society’s Forum for Policymakers and Practitioners Washington DC July 10-12, 2008
    • “ The barrier to change is not too little caring; it is too much complexity .”
    • (Commencement Address by Bill Gates at
    • Harvard, June 7, 2007)
    A worthy challenge – for sixty years ! “ I do not know how it is in other countries, but in a recent public opinion poll two-thirds of the American people said that they thought they could do nothing to help prevent another war. As teachers cannot we band together to replace apathy by interest, ignorance by insight, and dull resignation by determined resolution? Can teachers help to lead the peoples of the world to exercise a generous and intelligent judgment on international questions? If so, the chances of avoiding war are excellent. If, on the other hand, the judgment of the people on these great issues is paralyzed by inertia, blurred by ignorance, and twisted by prejudice, then the decisions made will not lead to peace. They will lead to war and we shall all reap the bitter fruits of stupidity and apathy.” (William G. Carr, Secretary of the Educational Policies Commission, UNESCO, speaking to a seminar of American teachers in 1947) “ the years spent in elementary and secondary education have to enable the student to gain a global frame of mind .” Betty M. Bullard called for international education beginning “the day the students enter school and continually building throughout their school life .” Bullard stated that “each grade level should be permeated by opportunities, both formal and informal, to expand the students’ views of the world . . .” (Betty M. Bullard, Director of the Asia Society Education Department. “A Promising Agenda: International Studies in Elementary and Secondary Education,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 449, May 1980)
  • Pre-assessment: Where are we now? (10 minutes)
    • What are/should be the goals of “International Education? (10 words max.)
    • What questions are/should be answered by International Education?
    • Which techniques have I used to teach International Education (select all that apply):
    Performing arts Portfolio projects Student Projects Textbooks Travel (film/video) Websites: Character lessons Documentary (film/video) Foreign-language (subtitled) feature films Guest speakers Internet search Language instruction Maps Newspapers Other: 1. 2. 3.
  • Pre-Assessment, cont’d.
    • I incorporate International Education topics in my classes:
    • In my classes, International Education is (select all that apply):
    • The questions / issues / concerns I think should be addressed in this session are:
    2-3 times a week once a month other: 5-7 times a month several times a semester “ a break from the routine” driven by news reports or current events other: a lesson plan of one class session or more an extra-credit assignment for AP-track students 10 minutes – sharing in groups | 10 minutes – group summary reports
    • How well do we know our world? Using only your powers of observation – what you can see and hear in a clip from a feature film – try to identify the geographic location, and the cultural setting. Don’t worry about the story – yet!
    • Play one or more clips from the DVD of Dam Street :
      • 12:08 – 13:47 – students denounced for immoral behavior on the school loudspeaker system
      • 20:30 – 21:43 – young boy crosses the dam on his way to school
    • Use prompts to establish the context of the scene :
      • a. Where in the world does this scene take place?
        • Which country is this? Why do you think so?
        • Is this is a city? Town? Village? How can you tell?
        • Is this present-day? 50 years ago? Long past?
      • b. How would you find the answers?
        • What questions need to be answered: about the geography? the culture? the timeframe?
        • Where would you expect to find the answers?
        • How would you know your hunch is correct?
    Class Pre-assessment: How well do we know our world? (40 minutes)
    • Mini-lecture: Sichuan Province
    • Population: 87 million – was 99.7 million in 1982.
    • Capital: Chengdu, population 11 million (metropolitan area)
    • Sichuan Province is known as “The province of abundance”
    • A region of southwestern China, Sichuan (sometimes spelled Szechuan) Province, where the events of the film Dam Street take place, is called the “province of abundance” because of its fertile farmland and wealth of mineral resources. Situated in a “basin” surrounded by mountain ranges, Sichuan Province is fed by the great Yangtze River, which originates in the Himalayan mountains on the region’s western border. The climate ranges from extreme cold in the mountainous west to subtropical in the east, where the skies are often dense with fog. Nearly constant warmth in the agricultural basin allows for three growing seasons each year.
    • Mountain ranges that border Sichuan Province on three sides provide natural protection from the Siberian winter winds, and shelter for human populations that have lived here since the Bronze Age, more than 4,000 years ago.
    • The capital city of Chengdu was founded in 316 BCE, when the region was conquered by the Qin Dynasty. Today the metropolitan area of Chengdu is home to more than 11 million people, many of whom have come to the city from their villages and farms in search of work.
    • Sichuan Province leads China in production of rice and wheat; other crops include citrus fruits, sugar cane and sweet potatoes. Sichuan is an important producer of silkworm cocoons, and leading mineral resources include titanium and iron. The region is known for beautiful nature reserves, and for the “bamboo seam” one of the last preserves for the giant panda.
    • In a country where two-thirds of the population is engaged in agriculture, Sichuan is a mostly rural area, whose villages have lagged far behind the industrial boom of the eastern and coastal provinces.
    A rural village in the earthquake zone . . .
    • The setting for Dam Street is a riverside Sichuan village in the 1980s, when the rigid Maoist social structure was only beginning to ease. In recent years, as the government has encouraged Chinese citizens toward active participation in the economy, such villages are often left to the elderly and children, with parents returning only rarely from their work in the cities.
    • The price of economic reform in China
    • Since 1980, Chinese leaders have struggled to shape their vast country into a modern industrial power by replacing traditional Chinese institutions with new models of production, thinking, and social organization. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, there were early signs of success, especially in the eastern and coastal provinces. However, in the heavily-agricultural central and western provinces, the program of collective ownership that enabled farmers to provide for their families was dismantled, along with the social framework that once provided healthcare, housing and a steady income for life, all of which could be handed down from parent to child.
    • Since the 1980s, both rural and factory workers have found themselves out of work, deprived of their land and without resources, in an economy unable to create enough jobs. China today seems to be in a state of “permanent revolution”, evident in the willingness to overthrow not just particular technologies, but the way factories are run; and in the redefinition of relationships between individuals and the workplace, as well as between workplaces and the state. Whole families are forced to improvise in order to survive.
    • Rural workers have migrated to urban areas in huge numbers, only to find that their “rural” status makes it impossible for them to find work, housing or medical care. Unemployed factory workers, whose skills are too limited for the available jobs, are reduced to competing for menial day labor.
    • As frustration has given way to rage, workers have staged strikes and other forms of protest. They – and their children – face the prospect of a hostile economic environment for which they are ill-prepared.
    A rural village in the earthquake zone . . .
  • A rural village in the earthquake zone . . . Jinli Street in the capital city of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Photograph by BenBen, May 29, 2005. Courtesy Wikimedia Commons. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Jingli.jpeg Dujiangyan Irrigation System, World Cultural Heritage Site. Photograph by BenBen, June 15, 2004, courtesy Wikimedia Commons. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image: Dujiangyan.jpg Jingjiang River and Anshun Peaceful and Fluent Bridge in Chengdu, China Photograph by BenBen, July, 2004. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image: Jingjiang.JPEG
  • A rural village in the earthquake zone . . . www.wellesley.edu 7.5 Mw - EASTERN SICHUAN, CHINA . William Joseph, Wellesley College. URL: /.../ ChinaLinks - New/index.html Map of China / Provinces. Website: China Political Links, Prof . William Joseph, Wellesley College. - Nph = 206; Dmin = 999.9 km; Rmss = 1.61 seconds; Gp = 28° M-type = Mw; Version = 7 Parameters Horizontal: 6.5 km; Vertical 0.0 km Location Uncertainty
    • 95 km (59 miles) WNW (303 degrees) of Chengdu, Sichuan, China
    • 146 km (91 miles) WSW (256 degrees) of Mianyang, Sichuan, China
    • 173 km (108 miles) NNW (346 degrees) of Leshan, Sichuan, China
    • 1149 km (714 miles) NNW (347 degrees) of HANOI, Vietnam
    Distances 10 km Depth 31.084N 103.266E Location
    • 12 May 2008 06:28:00 UTC
    • 12 May 2008 14:28:00 near epicenter
    • 12 May 2008 00:28:00 standard time in your timezone
    Date-Time 7.5 Mw Magnitude Preliminary Earthquake Report
  • Profile of China SIZE: Fourth largest country on earth, after Russia, Canada and the US POPULATION: 1.3 billion (2005 estimate) RELIGION: Less than 6% of the population belong to state-sanctioned religious groups (Buddhist, Daoist, Muslim, Catholic, Protestant) LANGUAGES: Chinese with numerous dialects categorized into six major groups, including Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghaiese LITERACY: 90% of total Population UNEMPLOYMENT RATE: Estimated at 10% in urban areas, but as high as 23% when taking into account rural and underemployed workers. Source: http://www.rand.org/commentary/070704AWSJ.html CLIMATE: Ranges from sub-arctic in the north to tropical in the south. As many as five typhoons (regional name for strong tropical cyclones; similar storms in Western hemisphere are called hurricanes) per year along southern and eastern coastlines; flooding, tidal waves, earthquakes. INDUSTRIES: Heavy industries include iron and steel, petroleum refineries, machine building, weapons, automobiles and cement; textiles and clothing manufacture; consumer electronics and telecommunications; food processing Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Play one or both clips again from Dam Street .
      • 12:08 – 13:47 – students denounced for immoral behavior on the school loudspeaker system
      • 20:30 – 21:43 – young boy crosses the dam on his way to school
    • Use prompts to evaluate pre-assessment responses :
      • Do you recognize the language? If so, can you “place” the language based on vocabulary, dialect, other clues?
      • For those who answered “China”: Which clues in the film clip led you to your response?
      • For all other responses: Are you surprised to learn that the setting is a village in China? Why, or why not?
    How did we do ?
  • International Education: Lesson Sequence
    • Pre-assessment ( 40 minutes ):
      • How well do we know our world? Use visual / audio clues to identify the cultural setting of the story
      • Mini-lecture to introduce the cultural context
    • Scene and Character Analysis ( one class period ):
      • Create a synopsis that describes the setting, characters and sequence of events in a film clip
      • Create character profiles of two main characters appearing in the clip
    • Web-based Inquiry ( one class period ):
      • Learn about the cultural context of Sichuan Province, through research into topics such as the education system, Sichuan Opera, and the recent earthquake, in order to understand better what happens to characters in the story, and why they respond as they do
      • Learn how to evaluate web-based resources for validity, authority and point of view
    • Screenwriters and Actors – “If you told the story” ( one class
    • period ):
      • Actors gain insight into character motivation through role-play
      • Screenwriters create a “prequel” – “what led to this scene?” or a “sequel” – “what will happen next?”
    • Class Discussion – Major Themes in Dam Street (two hours):
      • Students view the full-length feature film, Dam Street (93 minutes)
      • Classroom discussion to understand and analyze the story, characters and major themes (30 minutes)
  • Directed by Li Yu In Mandarin and Sichuan Dialect, with subtitles in English CHARACTERS Yun The main character Wang Feng Yun’s boyfriend Xiao-yong Boy who lives across the dam Teacher Su Yun’s mother, a teacher Wang Zhengyue Wang Feng’s sister, a doctor SYNOPSIS Sixteen-year-old Yun finds herself pregnant, at a time of rigid moral codes in China. Her pregnancy is announced to the entire school and she and her boyfriend, Wang Feng, are expelled. Wang leaves town after convincing his sister to help Yun give birth, then give the baby up for adoption. Yun is told that the baby died. Ten years later, Yun still lives in the small riverside town. Despite her training as a Sichuan Opera singer, the only work she can find is as the lead vocalist for a local song and dance troupe. Her relationship with her mother remains strained, and her love life, an affair with a married man, is even less comforting. Her only real companion is Xiao-yong, an inventive and charming young boy who lives across the dam. Xiao-yong follows her everywhere, fiercely protecting her from the judgmental community, and keeping her company, even as her friends tease. Suddenly, Yun accepts a marriage proposal that threatens her relationship with her “little brother” – and any chance she has to make a better life. The boy intervenes, forcing Yun to confront her past. ABOUT THE DIRECTOR Li Yu was born in 1973 in Shangdong Province in Northern China. She earned a degree in Chinese literature and became one of the top TV hosts in China. After moving to Beijing she began working on documentaries, joining CCTV's (China Central Television) feature program "Life Space." Her documentaries include Sisters (1999). Her first feature film, Fish and Elephant (2001) was internationally-acclaimed. Dam Street is her second feature film. DIRECTOR’S STATEMENT “ I always maintain that this is a film full of hope. I say this because it tells a story about searching for a way out. Metaphorically speaking, Xiao-yong is like a thirsty person suddenly finding a cup of water. I use a method quite close to traditional narrative to relate a contemporary story about a woman subject to the overwhelming pressure of an unchanging tradition.” Dam Street ( Hong Yan ) │ China │ 2005 │ 93 minutes
    • Analyze visual / audio clues to “place” a scene in its cultural setting
    • Analyze a dramatic scene for character, story and cultural context
    • Use web-based inquiry skills to analyze and validate information
    • Use writing, presentation and performance skills to express what they have learned
    Learning Goals: I - Culture; IV - Individual Development and Identity (NCSS Curriculum Standards)* Students will know . . . Students will be able to . . . Students will understand that . . . Essential Questions:
    • Despite its booming economy, China remains a mostly rural country, with 60% of its people subsisting through farming and fishing
    • Education has been a high priority in China for more than 50 years. Standards and policies are set by the Ministry of Education, but local authorities exercise considerable control over their schools
    • China is a “nation on the move”, as millions of people abandon rural areas for cities in the hope of finding work and a better life.
    I. Describe the elements that make up “culture”. What impact does “culture” have on an individual’s identity and point of view? IV. Compare the culture of a village in rural China with your own culture. Explain what they have in common, and how they are different. Explain how cultural differences affect people’s choices and opportunities.
    • How do people live with shame?
    • How does society affect a person’s ability to recover from a disaster (like an earthquake)? from a setback (like being expelled from school)?
    • What makes people “fight back”? Why don’t all people “fight back”?
    • How does the geography of China affect where and how people live?
    • Government policies that created and shaped China’s education system
    • Facts about the geography, culture and way of life in China’s Sichuan Province
    • That “culture” can shape a person’s point of view, opportunities, even the direction of a person’s life
    Lesson Overview: Goals and Standards
    • Lesson Overview
    • Play the clip from Dam Street : 12:08 – 13:47 – high school students denounced for immoral behavior on the school loudspeaker system.
    • Create a synopsis of the first scene in the film clip. Students work in groups to analyze the sequence of events in the scene. Each group creates a synopsis paragraph that addresses the following prompts:
      • What is the setting? Describe the characters you see as the scene opens.
      • What does Yun, the main character, do in this scene? What do you think motivates her actions?
      • Who is speaking? To whom? Who is listening?
      • How do other characters interact with Yun?
    • Create two character profiles , one of the main character and one of the boy she meets in the clip. Students work in groups to analyze the characters based on visual and audio clues in the scenes. Each group creates two character profiles based on the following prompts:
      • Describe Yun, the main character: how old is she? How would you describe her appearance? What is her mood? Where is she going? How would you describe her relationship with her boyfriend, Wang Feng? If you were casting this role, what characteristics would you look for?
      • Describe Yun’s boyfriend, Wang Feng: how old is he? How would you describe his appearance? What is his mood? How does he react to Yun? If you were casting this role, what characteristics would you look for?
    Scene and Character Analysis ( full class period )
  • Scene and Character Analysis: Student Handout Synopsis : A brief or condensed statement presenting a combined or general view of something ; a table, or set of paragraphs or headings, so arranged as to exhibit all parts or divisions of a subject or work at one view . . . (Source: The Oxford English Dictionary . “ synopsis, n .” The Oxford English Dictionary . 2 nd ed. 1989. OED Online . Oxford University Press. 4 Apr 2000. URL: http://dictionary.oed.com.proxy.uchicago.edu/cgi/entry/50245474) Create a synopsis of the first scene in the clip, from the appearance of the main character until the “cut”. Describe the setting. Describe the characters you see as the scene opens. What does Yun, the main character do in this scene? What do you think motivates her actions? Who is speaking? To whom? Who is listening? How do other characters interact with Yun? Synopsis
  • Scene and Character Analysis: Student Handout
    • The character profile describes elements of appearance and behavior that make a film character “ come to life ”. The character profile answers the following questions:
      • What makes this character seem “real” in the story ?
      • What makes this character different from other characters in the story?
      • What is there about this character that makes you care what happens to her?
    Describe Yun, the main character. How old is she? How would you describe her appearance? What distinguishing features did you notice? Where is she going? What is her mood? How would you describe her relationship to her boyfriend, Wang Feng? If you were casting this role, what characteristics would you look for? Character Profile
  • Scene and Character Analysis: Student Handout Describe Yun’s boyfriend, Wang Feng. How old is he? How would you describe his appearance? What distinguishing features did you notice? What is Wang Feng’s role in the story? How does he react to Yun? If you were casting this role, what characteristics would you look for?
    • The character profile describes elements of appearance and behavior that make a film character “ come to life ”. The character profile answers the following questions:
      • What makes this character seem “real” in the story ?
      • What makes this character different from other characters in the story?
      • What is there about this character that makes you care what happens to him?
    Character Profile
  • Web-based Inquiry ( full class period )
    • Why would the details of Yun’s pregnancy and the expulsion of Yun and her boyfriend be broadcast to the entire school? Why would Yun and Wang Feng never return to school again?
    • What is Sichuan opera, and why is Yun upset when the audience asks her to sing a popular song?
    • What happened to small towns like Yun’s in the earthquake that happened in May 2008?
    Foreign-language films tell stories about unfamiliar cultures, from the point of view of people whose perspective may be very different from ours. By learning about the cultural setting, we can gain insight into why the characters think as they do, and how the story could unfold as it does. In the first lesson, we learned about Sichuan Province, and about the difficult life of the rural poor in China. But we may still be puzzled about central story elements in the film, Dam Street: This lesson provides an opportunity to learn how to use and evaluate web-based resources as part of learning about the culture that produced the characters and story in Dam Street. Students can choose their research topic – schools in China, Sichuan opera, the May 2008 earthquake in Sichuan Province, or others at teacher/student discretion. Web-based resources are suggested, but students are welcome to discover their own resources – and then to apply rigorous evaluation criteria to determine the authority and reliability of their sources. Three handouts are provided for this lesson, for the three topics suggested. The lesson is the same for all topics: evaluating web-based research sources, and learning about the people and culture of Sichuan Province in China. Lesson Overview
    • Students selecting this topic research one or more of the following web-based resources.
      • The Library of Congress Country Studies – China .
        • Chapter 4: Education and Culture – “Education Policy”; “New Directions”; “Secondary Education/Middle Schools.”
        • URL: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cntoc.html
      • Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China .
        • Basic Education – Basic Education in China.
        • URL: http://www.moe.edu.cn/english/basic_b.htm
      • BBC/Open University: open2.net – Chinese Education .
        • Expert Views: How do things work; A Chinese education; Class struggles.
        • URL: http://www.open2.net/chineseschool/china_overview.html
      • The Asia Society: China – Fifty Years Inside the People’s Republic .
        • Essay: “This is Our China.”
        • URL: http://www.asiasociety.org/arts/chinaphotos/frame_set.html
    • Analyze the content of your assigned resource, answering the following questions:
      • What is the article about? Summarize in one sentence.
      • Create a sentence for each paragraph that summarizes its content.
      • Create an outline of the article, showing:
        • 3 – 5 most important ideas or concepts
        • 3 – 5 most important facts or details
    Web-based Inquiry: Student Handout Education has been an important part of government policy in China for more than fifty years. New policy directions, in the late 1950s, the 1980s and in recent years, reflect changing priorities and new leadership. In this lesson, students use respected internet sites to learn about education in China in the 1980s. The assignment is designed to be completed in class, to allow personalized instruction in research techniques and analyzing resources. How are high schools in China different than ours?
    • Credentials and authority – Establish the credibility of your resource:
      • Who is the author? Are the author’s credentials provided in the resource? If not, how would you find out?
      • What organization does the author represent? Does the organization maintain the website? If not, how would you find out?
      • What is the mission or purpose of the author / the organization? Is this provided on the website? If not, how would you find out?
      • Why do you think the author / organization created this website? Do you think the information is current? Is it correct? Explain your reasoning.
      • Would you recommend this resource to others? Why or why not?
    • Point of view – Analyze your resource to determine the author’s intent:
      • What is the author’s point of view in the resource you are analyzing? How can you tell?
      • How does the author’s point of view affect the resource:
        • Does the information seem complete?
        • Is the “tone” of the writing impartial? Identify words or phrases in the author’s writing to support your answer.
        • Are the author’s arguments logical, and well-supported? Identify examples from the resource to support your answer.
      • How do you think the author wants you, as the reader, to respond to this resource? Is that how you respond to it? Why or why not?
    • Resource comparison – present your findings to the class:
      • What have you learned about public schools in China? How would you compare the information provided in the four (or more) resources?
      • From your research, how would you explain what happened to the students in the film clip?
      • How would you compare public schools in China with public schools in the US? What would have happened if those students attended YOUR school?
    Web-based Inquiry: Student Handout How are high schools in China different than ours?
    • Students selecting this topic research one or more of the following web-based resources.
      • China Culture.org (website of the Ministry of Culture, through China Daily )
        • Article: “Sichuan Opera”.
        • URL: http://www.chinaculture.org/gb/en_madeinchina/2005-12/05/content_76647.htm
      • Travel China Guide (Chinese tour operator).
        • Article: “Magical Face Changes in Sichuan Opera.”
        • URL: http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/focus/sichuan-opera.htm
      • China Expat (website for expatriates working in China).
        • Article: “Bad Local Habits: Sichuan Opera.”
        • URL: http://www.open2.net/chineseschool/china_overview.html
      • Gov.cn (Chinese Government’s official web portal).
        • Article: “Secrets of Sichuan Opera’s face-changing let out bag.”
        • URL: http://english.gov.cn/2006-06/08/content_304218.htm
    • Analyze the content of your assigned resource, answering the following questions:
      • What is the article about? Summarize in one sentence.
      • Create a sentence for each paragraph that summarizes its content.
      • Create an outline of the article, showing:
        • 3 – 5 most important ideas or concepts
        • 3 – 5 most important facts or details
    Web-based Inquiry: Student Handout Sichuan Opera is a highly-developed art form with stylized singing, acting, dancing, acrobatics and comedy. Dressed in stunning, elaborate costumes, Sichuan Opera performers enact one of as many as 2,000 plays, based on Chinese legends, folk tales, myths and classical novels. Performers must train for years in special schools to prepare for success in Sichuan Opera. In the film, Dam Street , the main character studies to become a Sichuan Opera performer. Through web-based resources, we can learn about this highly stylized art, and the kind of career a performer can expect to have. What is Sichuan Opera?
  • Web-based Inquiry: Student Handout
    • Credentials and authority – Establish the credibility of your resource:
      • Who is the author? Are the author’s credentials provided in the resource? If not, how would you find out?
      • What organization does the author represent? Does the organization maintain the website? If not, how would you find out?
      • What is the mission or purpose of the author / the organization? Is this provided on the website? If not, how would you find out?
      • Why do you think the author / organization created this website? Do you think the information is current? Is it correct? Explain your reasoning.
      • Would you recommend this resource to others? Why or why not?
    • Point of view – Analyze your resource to determine the author’s intent:
      • What is the author’s point of view in the resource you are analyzing? How can you tell?
      • How does the author’s point of view affect the resource:
        • Does the information seem complete?
        • Is the “tone” of the writing impartial? Identify words or phrases in the author’s writing to support your answer.
        • Are the author’s arguments logical, and well-supported? Identify examples from the resource to support your answer.
      • How do you think the author wants you, as the reader, to respond to this resource? Is that how you respond to it? Why or why not?
    • Resource comparison – present your findings to the class:
      • How would you describe Sichuan Opera to someone planning to visit China? How would you compare the descriptions in the four (or more) resources?
      • From your research, how do you think the Chinese people feel about Sichuan Opera today?
      • In the film Dam Street , the main character studies Sichuan Opera, hoping for a career. From what you have learned, what kind of career do you think she would have? How would you advise her, if you were her best friend? If you were her parent?
    What is Sichuan Opera?
    • Students selecting this topic research one or more of the following web-based resources.
      • Report from China View ( Xinhua , the official newspaper).
        • “Reconstruction after Earthquake”
        • URL: http://www.chinaview.cn/08quake/
      • US Geological Survey (USGS).
        • May 12, 2008 report of the earthquake in Sichuan Province
        • URL: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2008ryan.php
      • BBC News .
        • “China in mourning over earthquake,” extensive coverage.
        • URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7407657.stm
      • World Resources Institute (UN-sponsored environmental organization).
        • “Environmental Challenges after China’s Sichuan Earthquake.”
        • URL: http://earthtrends.wri.org/updates/node/316
    • Analyze the content of your assigned resource, answering the following questions:
      • What is the article about? Summarize in one sentence.
      • Create a sentence for each paragraph that summarizes its content.
      • Create an outline of the article, showing:
        • 3 – 5 most important ideas or concepts
        • 3 – 5 most important facts or details
    Web-based Inquiry: Student Handout On May 12, 2008, Sichuan Province was struck by a devastating earthquake, with the epicenter just west of the major agricultural region. Although the village shown in the film, Dam Street , is not named, it is located on a river in the agricultural area that was most affected by the earthquake. What happened to the people in such villages, and how are they recovering? Have the aftershocks subsided? Is there still a threat of flooding from seasonal rains, or cracks in dams and levees? The selected resources provide insights into official reports of the disaster, scientific reports about the seismic event, news coverage from outside China, and the environmental impact of the earthquake. How has life changed in Sichuan since the earthquake?
    • Credentials and authority – Establish the credibility of your resource:
      • Who is the author? Are the author’s credentials provided in the resource? If not, how would you find out?
      • What organization does the author represent? Does the organization maintain the website? If not, how would you find out?
      • What is the mission or purpose of the author / the organization? Is this provided on the website? If not, how would you find out?
      • Why do you think the author / organization created this website? Do you think the information is current? Is it correct? Explain your reasoning.
      • Would you recommend this resource to others? Why or why not?
    • Point of view – Analyze your resource to determine the author’s intent:
      • What is the author’s point of view in the resource you are analyzing? How can you tell?
      • How does the author’s point of view affect the resource:
        • Does the information seem complete?
        • Is the “tone” of the writing impartial? Identify words or phrases in the author’s writing to support your answer.
        • Are the author’s arguments logical, and well-supported? Identify examples from the resource to support your answer.
      • How do you think the author wants you, as the reader, to respond to this resource? Is that how you respond to it? Why or why not?
    • Resource comparison – present your findings to the class:
      • What new information have you learned about the earthquake? How would you compare the information provided in the four (or more) resources?
      • From your research, what do you think happened in Yun’s village during and since the earthquake?
      • How are the people recovering from the disaster? Are they rebuilding? Have they left the region? How have governments and non-profit agencies responded to the earthquake?
    Web-based Inquiry: Student Handout How has life changed in Sichuan since the earthquake?
    • This lesson offers students an opportunity to imagine “prequel” and “sequel” scenes – the events immediately before and after the scenes that unfold in the film clip. Following this lesson, it is recommended that students see the complete feature film, Dam Street (directed by Li Yu, 2005). The next lesson explores the question of how culture shapes people’s lives, and how much difference there can be between cultures – a central component in international education.
    • Screenwriters and actors : students choose to join groups based on individual interests and strengths.
      • Screenwriter groups will create a scene with dialogue that either precedes or follows the scenes in the film clip
      • Actor groups will use role-playing to present either a preceding or subsequent scene in the story.
    • Play the clip from Dam Street : 12:08 – 13:47 – high school students denounced for immoral behavior on the school loudspeaker system.
    • Instructions to all groups: Imagine a scene immediately before – or after – the scenes in the film clip:
      • What happened to Yun, the main character, right before this scene? Where was she? Who else was in that earlier scene? What was the sequence of events? How did Yun react or respond to those events?
      • What will happen to Yun in the next scene? Where will the scene take place? Who else will appear in the scene? What will be the sequence of events? How will Yun respond to those events?
    • At the conclusion of group tasks, open for class discussion:
      • What do you think happened before the scenes in the film clip?
      • What will happen next?
      • Will Yun keep the baby? Will she return to school? Will she and Wang Feng be married, or live together?
      • How will their lives be affected by the baby? By being expelled from school?
    Screenwriters and Actors ( full class period ) If you told the story . . .
    • FOR SCREENWRITERS:
    • Imagine a scene immediately before – or after – the scenes in the film clip:
      • What happened to Yun, the main character, right before this scene? Where was she? Who else was in that earlier scene? What was the sequence of events? How did Yun react or respond to those events?
      • What will happen to Yun in the next scene? Where will the scene take place? Who else will appear in the scene? What will be the sequence of events? How will Yun respond to those events?
    • Describe the setting, list the characters, and create dialogue for your scene.
      • Where does the scene take place? What time is it? Which characters are present? What sounds do we hear? What else is going on while this scene unfolds?
      • What is the intent of this scene? Is it a conversation? A confrontation? Is it an “action” scene – and if so, what actions? List the sequence of events that will carry out the intent of the scene.
      • Create dialogue necessary to carry out the intent of the scene. For a line of dialogue: list a character’s name, use one or two adjectives to describe the character’s mood or motivation, and write what the character says. Describe any action the character should take (sitting down, leaving, answering a phone, growing angry, etc.)
      • The scene is complete when the sequence of events has been carried out.
    Screenwriters and Actors: Student Handout If you told the story . . .
    • FOR ACTORS:
    • Imagine a scene immediately before – or after – the scenes in the film clip:
      • What happened to Yun, the main character, right before this scene? Where was she? Who else was in that earlier scene? What was the sequence of events? How did Yun react or respond to those events?
      • What will happen to Yun in the next scene? Where will the scene take place? Who else will appear in the scene? What will be the sequence of events? How will Yun respond to those events?
    • Take on the role of a character in this story. In your selected role, interact with the other characters in your group to discover what happened before, or will happen after, the scenes in the film clip.
      • Select one of the following roles:
        • Yun, a high school student who is several months pregnant
        • Wang Feng – Yun’s boyfriend, the father of the baby
        • Lixia – Yun’s best friend
        • Mr. / Ms. Chen – school authority
      • Select a moment in the story to begin your role-play:
        • When Yun learns she is pregnant. Characters: Yun, Lixia, Wang Feng
        • When Mr./Ms. Chen confronts Yun and Wang Feng
        • When Yun and Wang Feng discuss what will happen next: will they marry? What will happen to the baby? Will they return to school? How will they tell their families?
    Screenwriters and Actors: Student Handout If you told the story . . .
    • This lesson follows screening of the full-length feature film. Through class discussion,
    • students investigate themes developed in the film and develop a deeper understanding
    • of the story, characters and cultural context in the film.
    • Reputation and shame and “face”: Open class discussion using some or all of the
    • following prompts:
      • Dressed in her elaborate costume, Yun performs a song from Sichuan Opera, but the crowd shouts for a popular song – “Like Your Tender Heart,” about the memory of a lost love. The crowd loves her singing, but she leaves the stage in disgust. What does Sichuan Opera mean to Yun? How does she feel about her job as a singer for the local troupe?
      • Xiao-yong’s friend says his grandfather told him Yun is a slut. Xiao-yong pushes him and shouts, “If Sister Yun is a slut then all women in the world are!” Why would the grandfather refer to Yun as a slut? Why do you think Xiao-yong defends her?
      • Boss Qian tries to convince Yun to have sex with him for money. “I’m a well-known businessman in this town,” he tells her. “I have status, face, money. I’ve got everything I need in this world.” “Shame on you,” she says. What do you think Boss Qian means by “face”? When Yun was pregnant, Yun’s mother said the family had lost face; what do you think she meant by “face”?
      • Her married lover brings his whole family to attack Yun while she is performing on stage. In front of the entire audience, he tells his family to beat her. “She’s shameless!” they shout. Xiao-yong rushes onstage to defend her, throwing rocks at her attackers until they run away. The audience clears a path as she walks slowly away. Why would her lover enlist his family to attack her? How is Yun portrayed in this scene?
      • When we meet Xiao-yong, he is late for class, but Teacher Su allows him to take his place without comment. She feeds him dinner and helps him with his lessons. Later we learn that she has given him a rabbit. Teacher Su does not yet know who Xiao-yong is. How would you explain her feelings toward this mischievous boy?
    Class Discussion: Major Themes in Dam Street They called her – shameless! (two hours)
      • Yun impulsively marries a man in the song-and-dance troupe, who humiliates her during the wedding with a raunchy game in front of the guests. While Yun tries to clean her dress, Boss Qian drunkenly pursues her. She’s marrying a loser, says Boss Qian, and “There’s no drug that can cure regret.” What does Boss Qian mean, “There’s no drug that can cure regret”?
      • Yun asks Wang Zhengyue about the baby she delivered ten years ago. Wang Zhengyue asks her, “were you and my brother really in love?” After a long pause, Yun shakes her head. “That’s good then,” says Wang Zhengyue. “Actually, you’ve been helping me for the past ten years. I think your brother would say the same.” Why does Yun shake her head “no” about being in love with Wang Feng? How would Wang Zhengyue have helped her by keeping the baby?
    • The impact of culture on individual lives: Through open discussion, invite students
    • to consider how Yun’s culture shaped her point of view – even the direction of her life.
      • Compare the story in the film with your screenplays and role-plays: what happened differently than you thought it would? How would you explain the differences?
      • Why do you think Yun stayed in her village after being expelled from school? Where do you think she went at the end of the film? What do you think will happen to her?
      • How would Yun’s life have been different if she was a student in your school? Would she have kept her baby? Would she and Wang Feng have stayed together? Would they have returned to school? What would they be doing ten years later?
      • How would you compare Yun’s view of life with yours? If you were her best friend, what advice would you give her now? Do you think she would take your advice? Why or why not?
    Class Discussion: Major Themes in Dam Street They called her – shameless!
    • “ Backward Design”
      • Understanding by Design, Expanded 2 nd Edition . By Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA, 2005)
      • “ Results-focused design ”
      • Lessons driven by “ essential questions ” toward “ big ideas ”
    • Higher expectations, personalized instruction
      • Differentiation in Practice, Grades 9-12 . By Carol Ann Tomlinson and Cindy A. Strickland (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA, 2005).
      • Engaging students based on individual readiness, interests , and preferred learning style
      • “ . . . make the work a little too difficult . . . and then provide the support they need to succeed at the new level of challenge.”
      • Differentiation begins “when the teacher asks students to stop listening or reading and to begin making personal sense out of information, ideas and skills they’ve accessed.”
    • Standards-based lesson plans
      • Curriculum Standards for Social Studies: Expectations of Excellence . Published by the National Council for the Social Studies, Silver Spring, MD, 1994.
      • Standards for the English Language Arts . Michael Greer, Rona S. Smith, Lee Erwin, eds. Published by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association, Newark, DE and Urbana, IL, 1996.
    Teaching and Learning Strategy: Resources
    • Integration across core subject areas
      • Blueprint for Teaching and Learning in the Arts: Theater, Grades PreK-12 . Published by the Office of Arts and Special Projects, New York City Department of Education. Current edition: 2007. URL: http://schools.nyc.gov/offices/teachlearn/arts/blueprint.html
      • English/Language Arts – literacy, writing
      • Social Studies – geography, civics, history, world religions, international studies
      • Language instruction – English and other languages
      • Humanities – cultural studies, integrated curricula
      • Arts – cinema studies, dramatic arts
    • Pre-Assessment, Formative Assessment
      • Transformative Assessment , by W. James Popham (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA, 2008).
      • Understanding by Design, Differentiation in Practice, Grades 9-12
      • 6+1 Trait Writing . Developed by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR.
        • Writing performance assessment model
        • Common characteristics of effective writing, + presentation
    • The Educational Exemption
      • The "face-to-face teaching exemption," a precise activity allowing legal use of movies in certain types of teaching. All criteria must be met:
        • A teacher or instructor is present.
        • Classroom setting with only the enrolled students attending.
        • Film an essential part of the core, current curriculum being taught.
        • Film is a legitimate copy, purchased rather than taped.
        • http://www.teachwithmovies.org/copyright.html
    Teaching and Learning Strategy: Resources
    • Flexible lesson units
      • Understanding by Design, Differentiation in Practice, Grades 9-12
      • Wisdom for Life: Becoming a Person of Character; Grades 9-12 . Developed by WiseSkills Resources, Santa Cruz, CA, 2002.
        • Theme-based lessons using quotations and biographies
        • Readily integrated into core curriculum areas
    • State-of-the-art learning techniques
      • Active Training, Third Edition . By Mel Silberman, with Carol Auerbach (John Wiley & Sons, San Francisco, CA, 2006).
        • “ Brain-friendly” learning
        • Explain Give Examples See Connections Apply
    • Primary sources: full-length foreign-language feature films
      • Foreign-language feature films from emerging countries provide first-hand, direct encounters with characters and stories from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Central Europe, Latin America
      • Foreign-language films with English subtitles encourage language learners
      • The Global Film Initiative – www.globalfilm.org
        • “ Promoting cross-cultural understanding through film”
        • Curriculum materials include Discussion Guides, Lesson Plans
        • Buy DVDs through First Run Features - http://www.firstrunfeatures.com/
      • California newsreel - http://www.newsreel.org/
        • Excellent selection of films from Africa
        • Pricing varies for schools, public performances
      • Kino Video - http://www.kino.com/
        • “ The Best in World Cinema”
        • Excellent selection of films by country/region
    Teaching and Learning Strategy: Resources
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    • Respected reference sources
      • BBC Country Profiles (up to date, focus on current/recent events):
        • Overview of history and culture, statistics, political leaders
        • Links to stories covering politics, social issues, links to country websites
        • URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country_profiles/default.stm
      • Library of Congress Country Studies (comprehensive but often not current!):
        • Extensive background, history, cultural, political and social coverage
        • URL: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cntoc.html
      • United Nations Development Program (focus on UNPD programs):
        • National and Regional reports, emphasizing Human Development goals; extensive statistics
        • Special Reports related to water, climate change
        • URL: http://hdr.undp.org/en/
      • Perry Casta ñ eda Library Map Collection, University of Texas :
        • Exceptional, comprehensive collection of regional, national and local maps
        • URL: http:// www.lib.utexas.edu /maps/
      • CIA World Factbook (limited background where there has been a controversial US relationship):
        • Country pages with extensive statistics, summary of history, political, cultural, economic and social issues
        • URL: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
    Teaching and Learning Strategy: Resources