A5 Criteria and Practices of College-level Chinese Placement - Hua Zhang
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  • 法文及意大利文明确提到ALDs,很有借鉴意义。不知为何中文没有提到。

A5 Criteria and Practices of College-level Chinese Placement - Hua Zhang Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Criteria and Practices of College-Level Chinese Placement and K-16 Articulation Hua Dong 董桦, Northeastern University Jin Zhang 张锦, Massachusetts Institute of Technology National Chinese Language Conference April 7, 2013, Boston
  • 2. Criteria and Practices of College-Level Chinese Placement and K-16 Articulation • Clear descriptions of student performance are fundamental for K–16 articulation in language learning. Placement criteria and practices of four-year colleges differ; therefore, the panel will look into how two college-level institutions place Chinese learners who have previous Chinese experience into Chinese classes. Participants will learn about different aspects of placement criteria, such as the ACTFL 5 C’s or in- house guidelines or rubrics, language-learning skills or integrated skills, and pragmatic competence. The panel will also solicit the K–12 participants’ input regarding the instructional goals of their highest- level Chinese classes, as well as the postsecondary participants’ input regarding their placement practices. • This session will be presented in Chinese and/or English.
  • 3. Why the discussion? "Clear, agreed-upon descriptions of desired student performance across different levels" are deemed fundamental for standard-based K-16 articulation for language learning, so that the students can get “seamless progress through [their] language learning experiences.” (Bai, Patrick, Robinson 2009)
  • 4. Standards (1): ACTFL 5Cs for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century The ACTFL 5Cs • Communication: Communication in FL/SL • Cultures: products, practices, pers pectives • Connections: FL/SL and other disciplines • Comparisons: understand nature of language and culture • Communities: multi- lingual communities, local and
  • 5. ACTFL proficiency guidelines 2012: speaking, listening, writing, reading • Distinguished • Superior • Advanced - high - mid - low • Intermediate - high - mid - low • Novice - high - mid - low
  • 6. Standards (2): 2012 ACTFL performance descriptors for language learners (based on 1998 K-12 version) • 3 modes of communication - interpersonal - interpretive - presentation • Parameters for the language learner’s performance - functions - contexts and content - text type • How and how well is the language learner to be understood and to understand - language control - vocabulary - communication strategies - cultural awareness
  • 7. Standards (3.1): AP Language and Culture course description (Italian) Six groups of learning objectives 1. Spoken Interpersonal Communication 2. Written Interpersonal Communication 3. Audio, Visual, and Audiovisual Interpretive Communication 4. Written and Print Interpretive Communication 5. Spoken Presentational Communication 6. Written Presentational Communication
  • 8. Standards (3.2): AP Chinese Language and Culture course description (Italian) ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL DESCRIPTIONS (ALDs) 1. Interaction 2. Strategies 3. Opinions 4. Language structures 5. Vocabulary 6. Register 7. Pronunciation 8. Cultures, connections, and comparisons
  • 9. Question: Are postsecondary Chinese programs’ placement criteria and practices based on these standards?  Diversified needs and varied instructional goals • Massachusetts Institute of Technology - 4-year bachelor’s degree programs - no foreign language requirement - a 4-subject concentration in HASS required • Northeastern University - 4-, 5-, and 6-year degree programs - varied foreign language requirements
  • 10. Postsecondary placement “tests” • On-line tests • Paper-and-ink tests • Face-to-face interviews • Combination of these testing forms High-school placement • Honor class • AP class
  • 11. MIT’s Chinese curriculum 3rd-year Chinese (1 semester) 2nd-year Chinese (2 semesters) 1st-year Chinese (2 semesters) True beginners 1 2 semesters of 3rd-year Chinese 2 semesters of 2nd-year Chinese 2nd semester of 1st-year Chinese 1st semester of 1st-year Chinese Advanced beginners True beginners 2 1 semester of 2 Very Fast Track classes (2 half-semester courses)
  • 12. MIT placement: criteria & practice 1 Pre-college credit: 1. AP Chinese score of 5  9 general elective units A semester-long language class is 12 units of HASS elective credit at MIT. 2. Classes taken at other accredited 4-year degree- granting universities transfer credit may be granted
  • 13. MIT placement: criteria & practice 2 1. No computer adaptive test 2. No written exam with vocabulary, grammar, reading and/or writing tasks 3. Most students are placed through face-to-face assessment of their Chinese skills.
  • 14. MIT placement: criteria & practice 2 • The instructors check what the students can do and what they can not do yet in Chinese, looking at their speaking, listening, reading and character-writing skills, and how they interact with native Chinese speakers, i.e., the instructors, in Chinese. • The assessment is heavily textbook-oriented. • True beginners are mostly placed in the regular track. • Advanced beginners are mostly placed in the streamlined track.
  • 15. Study Chinese at NEU • 13 languages offered at World Languages Center (about 1,500 enrollment) • Required three language courses for B.A., and six language courses for Bachelor of Science in International Business with Minor in Chinese
  • 16. Students taking Chinese language courses at NEU Fall 2005 Spring 2006 Fall 2006 Spring 2007 Fall 2009 Fall 2010 Fall 2011 Fall 2012 Spring 2013 students 40 55 68 95 108 129 130 151 173 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
  • 17. NEU Course Offerings, Spring 2013 • CHNS 1101 Elementary Chinese 1 • CHNS 1102 Elementary Chinese 2 • CHNS 2101 Intermediate Chinese 1 • CHNS 2102 Intermediate Chinese 2 • CHNS 3101 Advanced Chinese 1 • CHNS 3102 Advanced Chinese 2 • CHNS 4101 Advanced Proficiency Chinese 1 • CHNS 1501 Elementary Chinese 1 for Heritage Speakers • CHNS 1502 Elementary Chinese 2 for Heritage Speakers • 17 classes of about 180 students
  • 18. NEU curriculum • New Practical Chinese Reader, vol. 1- 3 up to intermediate levels • All Things Considered, advanced levels • Discussing Everything Chinese, advanced proficiency levels
  • 19. Moving Placement Online • Initiated by Dr. Dennis Cokely, director of World Languages Center (WLC), NEU. • Main researcher and creator: Dr. Luigia Maiellaro, coordinator of Italian Language Program, WLC. She set the criteria and principles, and created a model in Qualtrics in spring 2012. • Five languages were chosen to test the model: Italian, French, Portuguese, Japanese and Chinese. • Took more than a year for each language group to develop its own questions for four levels.
  • 20. NEU placement criteria (1) • Grammar, vocabulary, and knowledge of pragmatic and sociolinguistic skills (75% for Elem. Levels, 70% for Interm. Levels) • listening comprehension (10% for both Elem. & Interm. Levels) • reading comprehension (15 % for Elem. Levels, 20% for Interm. Levels) Source: Dr. Luigia Maiellaro
  • 21. NEU placement criteria (2) 1. a minimum number of items has been given; 2. every test topic area has been covered; 3. sufficient items have been administered to maintain test validity. Source: Dr. Luigia Maiellaro
  • 22. Designing Placement Test in Qualtrics: PRINCIPLES • Decide on language content – Make a comprehensive list of the language content taught at each level. – Decide the proportion among the elements chosen. • Decide on forms and tasks: – multiple-choice – true/false activities – matching activities – discrimination activities Source: Dr. Luigia Maiellaro
  • 23. Designing Placement Test in Qualtrics: EXAMPLES (1) Qualtrics Survey Software 4/ 5/ 13 10:09 PM! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! CHINESE LANGUAGE PLACEMENT TEST ! ! English | &i体中文 ! Questionnaire ! ! ! Personal information Please provide your information to identify your exam result. ! ! Last name ! First name ! NU ID # (including all leading zeroes) ! Email address ! ! ! ! ! Chinese Language Experience
  • 24. Designing Placement Test in Qualtrics: EXAMPLES (2) 1st Semester I don't know. 什么 怎么 什么 候 哪 I don't know. A: 今天天气____? B: 今天天气不好。
  • 25. Designing Placement Test in Qualtrics: EXAMPLES (3) 1st Semester suān tiān kǔ là suán tián kǔ là suān tián kǔ là suān tián kǔ lá I don't know. Which one of the following pinyin matches what you hear?
  • 26. Designing Placement Test in Qualtrics: EXAMPLES (4) 1st Semester 4/ 5/ 13 10:1trics Survey Software Read the following paragraph and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F) 大 的家在美国, 他家有爸爸, , 哥哥, 姐姐和他。 他没有弟弟, 也没有妹妹。 他爸爸在餐 工作, 是老 。 他哥哥是 者,姐姐在 北大学学 美 。 大 去年16 。 他 在在中国学 。 今天十二月九号, 昨天是他的生日。 True False 大 有弟弟和妹妹。 大 有姐姐和哥哥。 他爸爸是医生。 他姐姐是 者。 他哥哥 在没有工作。 大 在在中国学 。 大 的姐姐也在中国。 大 家有四口人。 明天是七月十号。
  • 27. Designing Placement Test in Qualtrics: EXAMPLES (5) 1st Semester liáng shī yì yǒu liāng shí yì yǒu 大 的姐姐也在中国。 大 家有四口人。 明天是七月十号。 大 今年十六 。 Find the best matching sentences to complete the dialogues. 有 。 , 坐。 很抱歉,明天我 很忙。今天去, 好 ? 他 都很忙。 在学,好 ? 我在中国,我不 在美国。 我 明天去打球,好 ? 你在哪儿? 医生,您 在有 ? 你爸爸、 怎么 ? 我 什么 候学 ? Which one of the following pinyin matches what you hear?
  • 28. Designing Placement Test in Qualtrics: EXAMPLES (6), 3rd Semester 正式 好 I don't know. 也有 有 是 也是 I don't know. 就 都 没 不 I don't know. 是北京大学的 ,那儿是教学楼,北 ____一个湖,叫未名湖。 他从来____听 么好的音 会。
  • 29. Challenges for Placement • Accuracy of Placement Tests • Retention: – students stop taking Chinese classes between high school and college – Students stop taking Chinese classes between semesters in college, e.g. co-ops
  • 30. For a smoother transition from HS to college • Characters: read? copy? write from memory? • Pronunciation: tones important? • Grammar: memorized phrases or sentences? explanation? • Pragmatic competence?  Question: What role(s) do the standards play?
  • 31. Open discussion and Q & A time • Postsecondary: placement at different institutions • K-12: expectations
  • 32. References American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century, 3rd edition (Executive Summary) http://www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/StandardsforFLLexecsumm_rev.pdf American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (2012) ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines http://actflproficiencyguidelines2012.org/ American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (2006) ACTFL Performance Descriptors for Language Learners http://www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/PerformanceDescriptorsLanguageLearners.pdf Bai, Patrick, Robinson (2009) Strengthening K-16 Articulation through Assessment and Placement http://www.slideshare.net/internationaled/robinson-patrick-bai-strengthening-k16-articulation College Board (2011) AP Chinese Language and Culture course description http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap08_chinese_coursedesc.pdf College Board (2011) AP Italian Language and Culture Course and Exam Description http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/AP_ItalianCED.pdf