A3 Flagship Programs: Opportunity, Challenge and Innovation (Spring)


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Flagship Programs: Opportunity, Challenge and Innovation (A3)
Speakers: Jennifer Liu, Ed McDermott Madeline K. Spring

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  • It is harder at the first semester. Students just got enrolled in the program and are fully exposed to mandarin courses. They had a hard time even to comprehend information, let alone produce information. So we decided to use 500 characters for the first semester. Then when the 2 nd semester came, students felt more at ease to produce lengthy essays. It is very natural for them to exceed 600 characters. Around midterm, we coordinated with their content course teachers and announced that the rest semester the essay would be 800. The final then is 3000, the same length as college students in China.
  • Recognize basic cultural and historical manifestations of Chinese throughout the centuries. Expand knowledge of cultural and linguistic theory and related terms and concepts that are essential in the understanding of the diverse composition of current Chinese autonomous communities, as well as the participation of China as a member of the Asia Community. Demonstrate understanding of connections among perspectives of the Chinese culture and its practices and products, while recognizing the value and role of literary and cultural texts, and using them to interpret and reflect upon perspectives of the target cultures over time  Recognize basic cultural and historical manifestations of Chinese throughout the centuries. Expand knowledge of cultural and linguistic theory and related terms and concepts that are essential in the understanding of the diverse composition of current Chinese autonomous communities, as well as the participation of China as a member of the Asia Community. Demonstrate understanding of connections among perspectives of the Chinese culture and its practices and products, while recognizing the value and role of literary and cultural texts, and using them to interpret and reflect upon perspectives of the target cultures over time 
  • 存储平片 – memory chip
  • A3 Flagship Programs: Opportunity, Challenge and Innovation (Spring)

    1. 1. FLAGSHIP PROGRAMS: OPPORTUNITY, CHALLENGE, AND INNOVATION Madeline K. Spring Director, ASU Chinese Language Flagship Partner Program Arizona State University © The Language Flagship 2008
    2. 2. CURRENT CHINESE FLAGSHIP PROGRAMS <ul><li>Brigham Young University: upper level undergrads; post BA </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio State University & Ohio Public Schools: K-12, upper level undergrads; post BA </li></ul><ul><li>University of Mississippi: undergraduate </li></ul><ul><li>University of Oregon & Portland Public Schools: K--16 </li></ul><ul><li>Arizona State University Partner Program: undergraduate </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana University Partner Program: undergraduate </li></ul><ul><li>University of Rhode Island Partner Program: undergraduate </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco State University Partner Program: undergraduate </li></ul><ul><li>Western Kentucky University Pilot Program: undergraduate </li></ul>
    3. 3. WHAT ARE GOALS FOR CHINESE FLAGSHIP STUDENTS? <ul><li>Become independent learners and thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a meta-awareness of themselves as language learners </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to be risk takers in language classes </li></ul><ul><li>Be literate in China-related topics-- history, film, literature, political science, art, economics, etc. </li></ul>
    4. 4. ASU CHINESE LANGUAGE FLAGSHIP OVERVIEW <ul><li>Targeted to upper-intermediate and advanced speakers of Mandarin Chinese (ILR 1 and above) </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative and intensive multi-year campus and overseas curriculum with generous scholarships </li></ul><ul><li>Credits for Flagship coursework count for “Flagship Track” in Chinese Major, in the School of International Letters and Cultures (SILC) </li></ul><ul><li>Students can graduate with professional level proficiency in their field or discipline and a major in Chinese (Flagship Track) </li></ul>
    5. 5. CURRICULAR FEATURES <ul><li>Curricular materials needed to meet the challenges of advanced level students of Chinese in the next decade </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional model to meet the academic needs advanced-level students </li></ul><ul><li>Guide for integrating academic language development, content area instruction and explicit instruction in learning strategies for both content and language acquisition </li></ul>
    6. 6. FLAGSHIP OPTIONS AT ASU <ul><li>Flagship-Bound : pre-Collegiate programs, e.g. STARTALK, Collegiate Scholars, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>*Flagship, Level 1 : Novice-High (ILR 0+) to Intermediate-Mid (ILR 1) levels of proficiency or students with higher levels but lacking Flagship pre-requisites </li></ul><ul><li>*Flagship, Levels 2-3 curriculum: Intermediate-Mid (ILR 1) to Advanced-Mid (ILR 2/2+) levels of proficiency (1-2 years of coursework at ASU + Capstone Year in China) </li></ul><ul><li>*May involve intensive summer language study at Flagship approved programs in China or stateside </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    7. 7. ASU CHINESE LANGUAGE FLAGSHIP CURRICULUM : LEVELS 2--3 (LEVEL 2: IM – IH; LEVEL 3: AL-AH) <ul><li>STAGE 1 STRATEGICALLY SELECTED COURSEWORK </li></ul><ul><li>Determined through individual advising sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Factors involved: </li></ul><ul><li>Language proficiency (successful completion of regular Chinese language courses through 4 th yr. or evidence of comparable level) </li></ul><ul><li>Required courses in major(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Year in college (e.g. freshman, sophomore, etc.) </li></ul>
    8. 8. PREREQUISITES: Cultural literacy, phase 1 <ul><li>Students will have taken at least one university-level course about China offered in English & (ideally) one semester of Literary Chinese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible topics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Film and Civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Science and Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Cultural History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historiography of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China and Globalization </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. ASU CHINESE LANGUAGE FLAGSHIP CURRICULAR OPTIONS, Levels 2-3: FALL SEMESTER <ul><li>CHI 407 Chinese for Professional Purposes I </li></ul><ul><li>HST 385 History of Chinese Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>REL 343 Chinese Religions </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 307 Introduction to Literary Chinese I </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 399 Writing Module (one credit) </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 394 Pathways to Chinese Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized tutorial sessions (domain specific) </li></ul>
    10. 10. ASU CHINESE LANGUAGE FLAGSHIP CURRICULAR OPTIONS, Levels 2-3: FALL SEMESTER <ul><li>CHI 408 Chinese for Professional Purposes II </li></ul><ul><li>SGS 494 Understanding China’s Economic Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 482 History of Chinese Language </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 308 Literary Chinese II </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 399 Writing Module (1 credit) </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 499 Cross Cultural Communication (1 credit) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual tutorial sessions (domain specific) </li></ul>
    11. 11. CAPSTONE YEAR (APPLIES TO STUDENTS IN ALL CHINESE LANGUAGE FLAGSHIPS <ul><li>Semester A: Students take courses at Nanjing University in their major field of study (e.g., architecture, communications, business, economics, history, etc.) + required coursework at Nanjing Flagship Center </li></ul><ul><li>Semester B : Structured 4-6 month internships overseen by Qingdao Flagship Center </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    12. 12. CAPSTONE YEAR IN CHINA:SAMPLE OF COURSES TAKEN AT NANJING UNIVERSITY (FALL ‘09) <ul><li>Architec ture Studio 建筑设计与研究-设计基础 </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of Traditional Chinese Architecture 中国传统建筑设计理论 </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime Law 海商法 </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology of Law 法律社會學 </li></ul><ul><li>Internet &Communication Topics 网络传播专题 </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative & Modern Chinese Literature 比较文学与中国现代文学 </li></ul><ul><li>Kunqu Opera 昆曲 </li></ul>
    13. 13. SAMPLE OF COURSES TAKEN AT NANJING UNIVERSITY, CONT’D (FALL 2009) <ul><li>Introduction to Buddhism 佛教概论 </li></ul><ul><li>International Finance 国际金融研究 </li></ul><ul><li>Investment & Finance 投资与金融研究 </li></ul><ul><li>South Asian Society Anthropology Topics 南亚社会人类学专题 </li></ul><ul><li>Management Strategies 战略管理 </li></ul><ul><li>The Study of Communication 传播学研究 </li></ul>
    14. 14. C ) <ul><li>ASU 2010 COHORT #1: Student 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Domain: Business, Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Internship: Mint Trust Cultural Exchange and Development Co. 岷信文化交流发展公司 </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Chengdu </li></ul><ul><li>Work: Assisting the company on developing their web-generated business and bi-lingual and cross-cultural training programs </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008 CAPSTONE YEAR: SEMESTER 2 STRUCTURED 4-6 MONTH INTERNSHIP
    15. 15. ASU FLAGSHIP INTERNSHIPS (2) <ul><li>Student 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Domain : Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Internship: Nanjing International Group 南京国际集团 </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Nanjing </li></ul><ul><li>Work: Assisting on the marketing efforts for the company’s newly built Nanjing International Center </li></ul>
    16. 16. ASU FLAGSHIP INTERNSHIPS (3) <ul><li>Student 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Domain: Law International Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Internship: Bridge Law Firm 柏瑞律师事务所 </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Qingdao </li></ul><ul><li>Work: Assisting the firm’s director-attorney on international trade related cases </li></ul>
    17. 17. ASU FLAGSHIP INTERNSHIPS (4 ) <ul><li>Student 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Domain: Business, Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Internship: Halberd Marketing Consultant 战戟营销咨询 </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Shanghai </li></ul><ul><li>Work: Work as research assistant on the company’s consulting projects related to China’s food and clothing industries </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    18. 18. ASU FLAGSHIP INTERNSHIPS (5 ) <ul><li>Student 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Domain : Communication, Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Internship: Continental Auto 大陆泰密克汽车系统 </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Shanghai </li></ul><ul><li>Work: Working as an intern at the company’s communication department </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    19. 19. ASU FLAGSHIP INTERNSHIPS (6) <ul><li>Student 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Domain: Architecture, City Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Internship: Design and Designing 《设计家》 </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Shanghai </li></ul><ul><li>Work: Working as assistant editor for this most well-known Chinese journal on architecture design </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    20. 20. PREPARING STUDENTS FOR CAPSTONE YEAR: CURRICULAR FEATURES <ul><li>Identify key components of cultural literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a curricular structure that leads to specific objectives of proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Match academic levels with cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Provide individuated curricular map based on linguistic and cognitive levels </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate on-going formative and summative assessments that drive curricular objectives </li></ul>
    22. 22. SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERIOR-LEVEL PROFICIENCY (ILR 3 or above) <ul><li>Explicit attention to learners’ strategies for comprehension of text (written, oral, or visual) </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation (oral and written ) of argument and ability to defend an argument </li></ul>
    23. 23. GUIDING STUDENTS TOWARD HIGHER LEVELS OF CULTURAL LITERACY <ul><li>Facilitate student engagement of learning strategies (self correction, domain-specific academic/professional language) </li></ul><ul><li>Matching curricular development to expected outcomes (backward design) </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent reference to student levels through multiple measures of assessment (e-portfolio) </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    24. 24. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERIOR LEVEL PROFICIENCY IN WRITING (BASED ON ACTFL GUIDELINES) <ul><li>Able to express self effectively in most formal and informal writing on practical, social and professional topics. </li></ul><ul><li>Good control of a full range of structures, spelling or nonalphabetic symbol production </li></ul><ul><li>a wide general vocabulary allow the writer to hypothesize & present arguments or points of view accurately and effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>An underlying organization, such as chronological ordering, logical ordering, cause and effect, comparison, and thematic development is strongly evident </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in writing rarely disturb natives or cause miscommunication. </li></ul>
    26. 26. GOALS OF THE WRITING MODULE PROGRAM 3000 characters before students go overseas essay Project paper essay essay
    27. 28. SAMPLES OF COURSE SYLLABI <ul><li>SGS 494Understanding China’s Economic Transformation 解释中国经济大变革 </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 394 Communication in China </li></ul><ul><li>中国当代传播概论 </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 482 The History of the Chinese language 汉语发展史 </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 407-408 Chinese for Academic and Professional Purposes </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    28. 29. 解释中国经济大变革 UNDERSTANDING CHINA’S ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION <ul><li>Course Description : China’s post-Mao economic transformation, which began in the late 1970s, is one of the most significant events in the second part of the 20 th century. The rise of Chinese economy and its increasing integration into the global community is now among the most powerful forces reshaping the global economy. This course looks at China’s economic transition and its social, political, and ecological impact upon the changing Chinese society as well as its regional and global ramifications. The course provides a solid understanding of the Chinese market transformation, its origin and zigzag progress, which offers a rich case to examine economic globalization, with all its promises and pitfalls. </li></ul>
    29. 30. CHI/SGS 494 UNDERSTANDING CHINA’S ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION 解释中国经济大变革 <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>课程简介 : 于 1970 年代末拉开序幕的中国经济改革毫无疑问在二十世纪下半叶占有举足轻重的地位 . 中国经济由于其在过去三十多年中的快速增长并与国际经济的全面接轨已经成为左右全球经济的一只重要力量 . 本课程介绍中国经济大变革的来龙去脉 , 从毛泽东时代的计划经济到市场经济的逐步转化 , 以及经济变革对中国政治 , 社会 , 和环境的冲击 . 同时 , 本课程还兼讨论中国经济的发展和全球化对全球经济一体化的影响 . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    30. 31. CHI/SGS 494 UNDERSTANDING CHINA’S ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION <ul><li>Sample assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>我们今天在课堂上讨论了统购统销政策的来龙去脉及其对中国经济 , 政治 , 和社会的深远影响 . 结合课堂讨论 , 阅读材料 , 和中文期刊资料 ( 至少 3 篇 ) 写一篇有关统购统销的短文 . 文章可以强调统购统销政策的某一个或多个方面 </li></ul><ul><li>Today in class, we discussed the origin and far-reaching impact of the unified procurement and distribution system on China’s economy, politics, and society. Building on the course lectures, reading materials as well as additional readings of Chinese materials (at least 3), write a paper on the subject. You could focus one or more aspects of the policy that we discussed in class. </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    31. 32. 中国当代传播概论 CHI 394 COMMUNICATIONS IN CHINA <ul><li>本课程将介绍当代中国 ( 特别是 1978 年改革开放以后 ) 新闻和传播事业发展的总体情况和主要特点。讨论重点包括:中国当代新闻媒体的管理体系、发展脉络、重要事件,中国政治传播的现状与问题,中国商业传播大格局 ( 广告、公关、电影 ) ,以及网络新媒体对中国社会、政治、经济体系的冲击。通过教授讲解、课堂讨论、案例分析、和评论写作,本课程可以帮助学生: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>构建一个完整、清晰、实时的中国新闻传播事业整体框架 </li></ul><ul><li>理解当代中国政治制度、社会变革和民意形成的内在基础 </li></ul><ul><li>增强用中文阅读、分析、评论和写作的能力 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    32. 33. 中国当代传播概论 CHI 394 COMMUNICATIONS IN CHINA <ul><li>This course offers students an opportunity to examine the evolution, characteristics, and political implications of China’s new communication reality. Special focus will be given to three major areas, namely, China’s new media order (online media included), China’s public relations practice, and China’s overall political communication system. In addition to a bird’s-eye overview of China’s multifaceted transitions in mass media and communication areas over the past two decades, students will broaden and deepen their understandings through in-depth case analyses, open-minded class discussions, and on-site visits to China’s leading newspapers, PR agencies, and government sectors. </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    33. 34. COMMUNICATIONS IN CHINA (SYLLABUS, CONT’D) <ul><li>After successfully completing this class, students should: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a good understanding on a variety of communication-related issues in China; </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a framework to critically examine China’s current communication reality and its social and political implications; </li></ul><ul><li>Finish an original research paper on a China-communication-related topic. </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    34. 35. CHI 482 THE HISTORY OF THE CHINESE LANGUAGE 汉语发展史 <ul><li>是为具有高级汉语水平的本科生所开设的一门课程。本课程系统介绍汉语在语音、词汇、句法及汉字方面的发展历史。主要内容包括上古、中古和早期官话音系、汉语七大方言的语音特征及这些特征与上古和中古音的关系、汉字的形成及其形体的演变过程、汉语构词法的发展、汉语词序及一些重要句型的产生和发展。课程内容也涉及汉语语义的变化和与社会语言学相关的题目 </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    35. 36. CHI 482 THE HISTORY OF THE CHINESE LANGUAGE <ul><li>This course is an introduction to the history of the Chinese language. It is designed to be an advanced undergraduate-level introductory course on the historical changes of the sounds, writing system, syntactic structures, lexicon, and sociolinguistic aspects of the Chinese language. Specifically, we will look at the phonological characteristics in old and middle Chinese. We will also examine the development of grammatical features and emergence of major grammatical structures in Chinese. Included as part of this course will also be Chinese dialects, semantic development of words, and language planning and standardization. </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    36. 37. CHI 482 HISTORY OF CHINESE LANGUAGE <ul><li>By the end of the semester, students are expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>gain a general knowledge of the historical development of Chinese language with respect to its phonology, grammatical structures, lexicon, and writing system,  </li></ul><ul><li>develop ability to read linguistic articles carefully and to analyze and synthesize the ideas in different articles in their discussion, </li></ul><ul><li>develop a better understanding of Modern Standard Chinese in terms of its pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and Chinese characters. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    38. 39. SAMPLES OF STUDENT PRESENTATIONS <ul><li>CHI 482 The History of the Chinese Language </li></ul><ul><li>CHI 408 Chinese for Professional Purposes II </li></ul>© The Language Flagship 2008
    39. 40. 客家话 ( Hakka) 范捷轩
    40. 41. 梅县 <ul><li>梅县是客家话的代表区域。 </li></ul><ul><li>除了梅县之外客家话地区还包括台湾、港澳、东南亚,广东、江西、福建、广西、川渝、湖南、海南、浙南等地 </li></ul>
    41. 42. 客家话与普通话的差异 <ul><li>普通话 </li></ul><ul><li>浊音完全清化 </li></ul><ul><li>辅音韵尾简化 </li></ul><ul><li>四个声调 </li></ul><ul><li>客家话 </li></ul><ul><li>浊音还分阴阳两类 </li></ul><ul><li>入声 p, t, k </li></ul><ul><li>保留中古汉语的声母( ng ) </li></ul><ul><li>五到六个声调 </li></ul>
    42. 43. 客家话的特点 <ul><li>有流音( liquid )/ v / </li></ul><ul><ul><li>中古舌上音如( zh, ch) 仍读舌头音如( t, d) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>次浊声母分阴阳两类 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>完整的入声韵尾 p 、 t 、 k </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>还保留声母 ( ŋ ), (ng) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>学一点客家话 </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. 作者:蒲浩淼
    44. 45. <ul><li>四川话是古蜀语融合巴语以及中原汉语,尤其融入了元末明初和清前期的两次湖广大移民的移民方言逐步形成统一的四川话 </li></ul><ul><li>又称四川方言、巴蜀方言,属于西南官话 </li></ul><ul><li>目前约有 1 亿 2 千万使用者 </li></ul><ul><li>四川方言分为 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>成渝片:成都话、重庆话、宜昌话 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>灌赤片:岷江小片(乐山话)、雅棉小片(雅安话)、仁富小片(自贡话)、丽川小片(丽江话) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>其它:客家话、闽语、赣语、东北话、湘语 </li></ul></ul>
    45. 49. <ul><li>被动句中的“被”字一般说为“遭”,但此时带有不情愿、不高兴的感情色彩,所以平时被动句使用较少。如“他遭开除了。”普通话中说为“他被开除了。” </li></ul><ul><li>还有一些比较有特色不能不提的形容词,黑,不说黑,说“去( qio )黑”;重,不说重,说“帮重”;快,不说快,说“飞快”;甜,不说甜,说“抿甜”;酸,不说酸,说“溜酸” </li></ul><ul><li>倒装现象:“热闹”,要说“闹热” </li></ul>
    46. 50. 时尚的改革 蓝凯琳 从皛芊 FPPC
    47. 51. FPPC 将受到女生们的青睐 <ul><li>FPPC 满足了每个女生爱美的心情,省去了看流行杂志,自己无头绪搭配的时间,在几秒钟之内就可以让所有的女生变成最抢眼的时尚达人 </li></ul>
    48. 52. 利润 <ul><li>FPPC 生产的价格 $ 50 </li></ul><ul><li>FPPC 消费品价格 $ 150-300 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(最基本的存储平片比较便宜,更贵的 FPPC 有 16MB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>利润率: 67.67% - 83.3% </li></ul><ul><li>所有的生产都在中国 = 最大的林润率 </li></ul><ul><li>为了保证很成功的铲平发布,我们选择的地方都是世界史上的中心:纽约,罗三级,巴黎,伦敦,香港, 和东京。 </li></ul>
    49. 53. FPPC 的基本应用程序 <ul><li>操作简单,与一般电脑 Windows 系统的应用程序十分相似 </li></ul><ul><li>输入基本信息 </li></ul><ul><li>- 当天出入场合 </li></ul><ul><li>- 心情 </li></ul><ul><li>- 天气 </li></ul><ul><li>- 或其他特殊要求 </li></ul>
    50. 54. “ 迷你出行助手” <ul><li>触屏技术 </li></ul><ul><li>易于使用的 </li></ul><ul><li>安装很简单 </li></ul><ul><li>电池 / 线 </li></ul><ul><li>二十四个小时技术支持 </li></ul><ul><li>软件界面 </li></ul>
    51. 55. 冯安 , 施德婉 , 赖冠任 自动水版
    52. 56. 介绍 <ul><li>自动水板是什么样的产品? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>是自动的尾流冲浪板。它有喷射推进式的发动机。 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>什么是尾流冲浪板? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>尾流冲浪板很像滑雪板,但是不是在雪山上,而是在湖上。而且,需要快艇来拖你。 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>尾流冲浪板与冲浪板有什么不同? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>冲浪板是在海上的冲浪作的,尾流冲浪板是在快艇后面的尾流作的。 </li></ul></ul>
    53. 57. 自动水板最近的原型
    54. 58. 尾流冲浪板的收益:产品的成本,回收期以及利润 施德婉
    55. 59. 投资金额 <ul><li>拥有自己的工厂 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>长期来算会比较便宜 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>失去冲浪水板的独家优势 </li></ul></ul>
    56. 60. 投资需要 <ul><li>建造或者租用工厂 </li></ul><ul><li>打好广告 , 促進产品 </li></ul>
    57. 61. 海上娛樂的未來 <ul><li>能够去任何湖或海上玩 </li></ul><ul><li>而且比買快艇便宜很多 </li></ul><ul><li>自动水版会 </li></ul>
    58. 62. 謝謝大家 [email_address]