http://youtu.be/sDocL7AfIRo
What is Language all about?
What is Language?
Language is the method of
human communication, either
spoken, written, consisting of
the use of words in...
Communication Interaction
 Substantial variation
 Flow of speech
 Eye-contact (cultural)
 Body language (cultural)
 R...
The Origins of Language
 Divine Source: God-given language, no exposure
needed
 Many religions state that a god or divin...
The Origins of Language
 Physical Adaptation: Specialization of the human
Vocal Tract
 The human body is specialized to ...
The Vocal Tract: How we speak
Lungs: Force air through the
vocal tract
Larynx: The “voice box” containing the
vocal cords/...
Chimp vs. Human:
Why we can speak but other primates can’t.
The physical structure of the human body allows us to produce ...
Language and the Brain – Chapter 12 (Yule)
 Neurolinguistics: The study of the relationship
between language and the brai...
Severe Brain Injury and Language
Phineas Gage (Cavendish, Vermont) - In 1848, a steel tamping
rod (13 lbs., 1.25” diameter...
Left Hemisphere: Parts of the brain that control speech
Broca’s Area: Involved in the
production of speech sounds
Wernicke...
http://youtu.be/241IFiPKR2o
Brain surgery and language
Speech Phenomenon: Tip of the Tongue
y
“This dog of yours is not very… what’s the
word I’m looking for? He doesn’t think
a...
Speech Phenomenon: Malapropisms
Malapropism: When we say an incorrect word which has
structural similarities to the word w...
Speech Phenomenon: Spoonerisms
Spoonerism (Slip of the tongue) – A spoken error often
involving the interchange of two ini...
Speech Phenomenon: Slip of the Ear
“Have you seen my
gray tape?”
“Your great ape?!”
To force heaven, Mars shall have a new angel.
247 Marshall Avenue, Angel (CA)
“AN IMPAIRMENT OF LANGUAGE FUNCTION
DUE TO LOCALIZED BRAIN DAMAGE THAT
LEADS TO DIFFICULTY IN UNDERSTANDING
OR PRODUCING L...
Aphasia
 Aphasia is an impairment of language function due
to localized brain damage
 Commonly caused by stroke, trauma,...
What do you think?
What do you think could happen if a stroke
occurred on the left side of the brain?
Aphasia
Broca’s (or expressive)
 Motor aphasia
 Reduced amount of speech
 Distorted articulation
 Slow, effortful spee...
Kirk Douglas
http://youtu.be/_k6aemk6sck
Actor Kirk
Douglas
suffered a
severe stroke in
1996, which
impaired his
ability t...
H T T P : / / W W W. Y O U T U B E . C O M / WAT C H ? V = B -
L D 5 J Z X P L E & F E AT U R E = S H AR E & L I S T = P L...
Different views on recovery for bilinguals
(Vaid and Genesee, 1980)
Ribot’s Law
“Languages learned
early in development
wo...
Language is a lot more than words…
Critical Period
 Is there a Critical Period to “learn” a first language?
 Feral child/wild child
 Noam Chomsky: acquisi...
Genie
http://youtu.be/VjZolHCrC8E
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Origins of Language and Language and the Brain

2,710

Published on

3 Comments
12 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,710
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
14
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
3
Likes
12
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Stroke: two types
  • Conduction Damage to arcuate fasciculusMispronounced words, hard to repeat what is heard
  • Origins of Language and Language and the Brain

    1. 1. http://youtu.be/sDocL7AfIRo What is Language all about?
    2. 2. What is Language? Language is the method of human communication, either spoken, written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way.
    3. 3. Communication Interaction  Substantial variation  Flow of speech  Eye-contact (cultural)  Body language (cultural)  Reaction to audience Is there a message always being conveyed? What else is language?
    4. 4. The Origins of Language  Divine Source: God-given language, no exposure needed  Many religions state that a god or divine being created language/languages  Natural Sound Theory: Bow-Wow Hypothesis, Onomatopoeia  Primitive languages began when humans imitated sounds that they heard in nature
    5. 5. The Origins of Language  Physical Adaptation: Specialization of the human Vocal Tract  The human body is specialized to produce speech. Other animals (specifically chimpanzees and apes) have similar bodily structures, but cannot speak. Only humans are specialized for speech.  Genetic Source: Innateness hypothesis  Humans are born with a special capacity for language genetically “hard-wired” into our brains. There may even be a language gene.
    6. 6. The Vocal Tract: How we speak Lungs: Force air through the vocal tract Larynx: The “voice box” containing the vocal cords/folds which produce speech sounds Pharynx: A cavity which acts as a resonator, making sounds louder, clearer, and giving them greater range Mouth: (Oral cavity) can be opened and closed rapidly Tongue: Muscular speech organ used to shape sounds inside the oral cavity Lips: Flexibility allows for creation of sounds like p and b Teeth: Upright and firm allowing for creation of sounds like f and v
    7. 7. Chimp vs. Human: Why we can speak but other primates can’t. The physical structure of the human body allows us to produce a wide variety of speech sounds. While chimpanzees and other primates have similar physical structures, they are arranged differently, in a manner not conducive to the production of speech sounds. Chimpanzee Human
    8. 8. Language and the Brain – Chapter 12 (Yule)  Neurolinguistics: The study of the relationship between language and the brain  Where is language production located inside the brain? Medical evidence shows that language is produced in specific brain locations: Broca’s Area and Wernicke’s Area, both located in the brain’s left hemisphere  Brain injuries might cause or be directly related to: Language-impairment, including language production and comprehension Conversation maintenance issues
    9. 9. Severe Brain Injury and Language Phineas Gage (Cavendish, Vermont) - In 1848, a steel tamping rod (13 lbs., 1.25” diameter) exploded through his skull and his left frontal cortex. He physically recuperated and returned to work, his speech ability apparently unaltered. Therefore, the left-front part of the brain does NOT control speech.
    10. 10. Left Hemisphere: Parts of the brain that control speech Broca’s Area: Involved in the production of speech sounds Wernicke’s Area: Involved in the understanding of speech Motor Cortex: Controls the movement of muscles, including those of the face, jaw, tongue, and larynx Arcuate Fasciculus: Connects Wernicke’s Area to Broca’s Area -A reduction in both size and activity in the arcuate fasciculus has been linked to dyslexia. http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2013/brain- scans-may-help-diagnose-dyslexia- 0813.html
    11. 11. http://youtu.be/241IFiPKR2o Brain surgery and language
    12. 12. Speech Phenomenon: Tip of the Tongue y “This dog of yours is not very… what’s the word I’m looking for? He doesn’t think about other people before he does something. It’s kind of a long word, starts with a C.” “Considerate?” “Yeah. This dog’s not very considerate.” Tip of the tongue: When you can think of the general structure of the word, often including the initial sound and number of syllables, but cannot produce the word.
    13. 13. Speech Phenomenon: Malapropisms Malapropism: When we say an incorrect word which has structural similarities to the word we meant to say. Examples: - apprehension instead of comprehension - unparalyzed instead of unparalleled - hostile instead of hostage - condemned instead of commended “We cannot let terrorists and rogue nations hold this nation hostile or hold our allies hostile.” ~George W. Bush August 21, 2000
    14. 14. Speech Phenomenon: Spoonerisms Spoonerism (Slip of the tongue) – A spoken error often involving the interchange of two initial sounds Examples: - Make a long shory stort (Make a long story short) - A tup of kea (A cup of tea) Spoonerisms get their name from William Spooner (1844-1930), a clergyman who once described Jesus as a “shoving leopard” when he meant to say “loving shepherd.”
    15. 15. Speech Phenomenon: Slip of the Ear “Have you seen my gray tape?” “Your great ape?!”
    16. 16. To force heaven, Mars shall have a new angel. 247 Marshall Avenue, Angel (CA)
    17. 17. “AN IMPAIRMENT OF LANGUAGE FUNCTION DUE TO LOCALIZED BRAIN DAMAGE THAT LEADS TO DIFFICULTY IN UNDERSTANDING OR PRODUCING LINGUISTIC FORMS” THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE, YULE, 2010 COMMON CAUSES OF APHASIA ARE STROKES AND TRAUMATIC HEAD INJURIES. APHASIA
    18. 18. Aphasia  Aphasia is an impairment of language function due to localized brain damage  Commonly caused by stroke, trauma, head injuries  Mild to severe  Difficulties understanding will lead to difficulties producing language  Understanding and speaking abilities are deeply connected
    19. 19. What do you think? What do you think could happen if a stroke occurred on the left side of the brain?
    20. 20. Aphasia Broca’s (or expressive)  Motor aphasia  Reduced amount of speech  Distorted articulation  Slow, effortful speech  Speech mainly formed by nouns and verbs  Agrammatic speech  “I eggs and eat and drink coffee breakfast.” Wernicke’s (or sensory)  Sensory aphasia  Difficulties in auditory (listening) comprehension  Production of fluent yet incomprehensible speech  Use of general terms  “I can’t talk all of the things I do, and part of the part I can go alright, but I can’t tell from the other people.”  Anomia – difficulty finding the correct word
    21. 21. Kirk Douglas http://youtu.be/_k6aemk6sck Actor Kirk Douglas suffered a severe stroke in 1996, which impaired his ability to speak.
    22. 22. H T T P : / / W W W. Y O U T U B E . C O M / WAT C H ? V = B - L D 5 J Z X P L E & F E AT U R E = S H AR E & L I S T = P L 2 E D 8 4 7 9 3 A9 0 F F B 5 5 Wernicke’s aphasia samples
    23. 23. Different views on recovery for bilinguals (Vaid and Genesee, 1980) Ribot’s Law “Languages learned early in development would be more resistant to impairment caused by brain damage and would recover before languages which have been acquired subsequently”(Vaid & Genesee, 1980, p.420) Pitres’s Law Pitres believed that the language(s) that were used the most preceding the cerebral insult before the brain damage occurred would recover first.
    24. 24. Language is a lot more than words…
    25. 25. Critical Period  Is there a Critical Period to “learn” a first language?  Feral child/wild child  Noam Chomsky: acquisition/learning (language is acquired, not taught or learned)  Eric Lenneberg: puberty as limit for language acquisition  Researchers have quite different opinions on the age for the critical period  The Forbidden Experiment  Is there a critical period for second language acquisition?
    26. 26. Genie http://youtu.be/VjZolHCrC8E

    ×