Chapter 5: Word Formation

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Chapter 5: Word Formation

  1. 1. Chapter 5
  2. 2.  Etymology – the origin and history of a word  Lexicon – the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge  Lexicography – the compiling, writing, and editing of dictionaries  TED Talks: Erin McKean, The Joy of Lexicography: http://www.ted.com/talks/erin_mckean_redefines_t he_dictionary.html
  3. 3.  Can you think of any new words that have entered the English language in your lifetime?  When a new word enters a language, it is called a neologism.
  4. 4.  The invention of a totally new term  Often comes from a product name  Examples:
  5. 5. Kleenex Xerox
  6. 6.  Eponym – a new word based on the name of a person or place Sandwich – named after the Earl of Sandwich Fahrenheit – named after Gabriel Fahrenheit
  7. 7.  Taking words from another language
  8. 8.  Russian: спорт [spɔrt]  Korean: 스포츠 [ʃəpɔtʃə]  Japanese: スポーツ [spɔtsɛ]  Cognates are “borrowed” words!
  9. 9.  The direct translation of the elements of a word into another language  gratte-ciel (“scrape sky,” French)  wolkenkrabber (“cloud scratcher,” Dutch  Wolkenkratzer (“cloud scraper,” German)  skyscraper (English)
  10. 10. Spanish: perro caliente • calque Russian: хот дог [hɔt dɔg] • regular borrowing Korean: 보이 프렌드 [bɔjpəɾɛndə] · regular borrowing Chinese: 男朋友 [nan paŋjaow] “male friend” · calque
  11. 11.  Joining two different words to make a new word compound nouns
  12. 12.  Compound Adjectives ◦ good-looking ◦ low-paid ◦ fast-food She is a good-looking, low-paid, fast-food restaurant employee.
  13. 13.  Combining two forms to produce a new word  Done by joining the beginning of one word with the end of another  smoke + fog = smog  breakfast + lunch = brunch  information + commercial = infomercial  Spanish + English = Spanglish
  14. 14.  Occurs when a long word is shortened, typically to its first syllable  ad vertisement  deli catessen  demo nstration  condo minium  lab oratory
  15. 15.  When a word of one type is reduced to form a word of another type ◦ Usually a noun is reduced to form a verb  television (n) – televise (v)  donation (n) – donate (v)  babysitter (n) – babysit (v)  worker (n) – work (v)  editor (n) – edit (v)
  16. 16.  When the function (part of speech) of a word changes  We think of bottle, butter, and chair as nouns…
  17. 17.  Bottle, butter, and chair can also be verbs! ◦ I bottle my own wine. ◦ Butter your toast! ◦ He chairs the committee meetings.  Verbs can become nouns ◦ to spy (v) – a spy (n) ◦ to take over (v) – a takeover (n)  Verbs can become adjectives ◦ to see through (v) – see-through (adj)  Adjectives can become verbs ◦ empty (adj) – to empty (v)
  18. 18.  New words formed by using the first letters of a set of words  Laser: “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”  Zip (in zip code): “zone improvement plan”
  19. 19.  When a word is changed by adding an affix to it.  Affix – small groups of letters added to a word to change its meaning  In English we have two types of affixes: prefixes and suffixes ◦ Prefixes come at the beginning of a word (misguide) ◦ Suffixes come at the end of a word (respectful)  Some other languages also use infixes ◦ Infixes are inserted into the middle of a word ◦ In English these are rarely used, and only with profanity: ◦ “absof@#$%inglutely!”

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