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Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011
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Thinking Through Networks Workshop_InterFace2011

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  • Funded by german government
  • Funded by german government
  • Funded by german government
  • Funded by german government
  • Funded by german government
  • Funded by german government
  • Funded by german government
  • Funded by german government
  • IMPORTANT: Difference of text types: Plato vs Atthidographers
  • SWITH ALOOS --> MBUECHLER: talking about “ literal ” citations - not in a modern way, but deviations -> personal focus centered on them - to verify Platonic text How can this be made easier for me?
  • SWITCH: MBUECHLER --> ALOOS Link to visualisation SWITCH: ALOOS --> MBUECHLER Ohne Worte
  • SWITCH: MBUECHLER --> ALOOS Link to visualisation SWITCH: ALOOS --> MBUECHLER Ohne Worte
  • Funded by german government
  • SWITCH: MBUECHLER --> ALOOS Link to visualisation SWITCH: ALOOS --> MBUECHLER Ohne Worte
  • Transcript

    • 1. Thinking through networks: generating, visualizing and analysing complex re-use graphs in the Humanities Section 1 Introduction Marco Büchler Natural Language Processing Group Department of Computer Science University of Leipzig Tom Brughmans Archaeological Computing Research Group Department of Archaeology University of Southampton Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 2. Who are we? <ul><li>Tom Brughmans </li></ul><ul><li>University of Southampton (since 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Research Assistent (2009-2010) </li></ul><ul><li>PhD student (since 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Research interests: </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeological network analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Networks in the humanities </li></ul><ul><li>Citation analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Büchler </li></ul><ul><li>Leipzig University (since 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Manager eAQUA ('08-'11) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Man. eTRACES ( since 07/2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Research interests: </li></ul><ul><li>Historical text re-use </li></ul><ul><li>Authorship attribution </li></ul><ul><li>OCR correction </li></ul>Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 3. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction (30 min) </li></ul><ul><li>What is a graph/network? (30 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to text re-use graphs (20 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Working with text re-use graphs (30 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion/final discussion (10 min) </li></ul>Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 4. Who are you? Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 5. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans What do you „associate “ with networks/graphs ?
    • 6. What is a network/graph? The world consists of objects such as persons, buildings but also events like a celebration, conference or a war. All these objects and events do not move solely through time and space but the are connected . Object 2: Marco Object 1: Tom Connection : Colleagues <ul><li>A network/graph consists of two sets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of objects (nodes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of pairwise connections (edges) </li></ul></ul>Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 7. Application: Social networks <ul><li>From Sokrates to Alexander the Great </li></ul>Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 8. Application: Archaeology Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 9. Application: Archaeology Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 10. Application: co-occurrences in text graphs Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 11. A visualisation of the contrastive semantics Source: F. Baumgardt: Visualisierung von Kookkurrenzgraphen. Bachelorarbeit Abteilung Automatische Sprachverarbeitung, Universität Leipzig, 2010. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 12. Networks/graphs: Moretti's distant vs. Close reading <ul><li>What do you think? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is network/graph analysis more close or distant reading? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This workshop use networks/graphs in order to highlight macro structure information as distant reading mode. </li></ul>Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 13. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Thinking through networks: generating, visualizing and analysing complex re-use graphs in the Humanities Section 2 What is a graph/network
    • 14. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Graph VS network “ A graph is a set of vertices and a set of lines between pairs of vertices. A network consists of a graph and additional information on the vertices or the lines of the graph. ” (Nooy et.al. 2005, 6-7) Simple undirected graph Graph VS network
    • 15. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Simple directed graph Weighted directed graph Graph VS network
    • 16. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans History of research Complex network science <ul><li>Complexity theory </li></ul><ul><li>Small-world network </li></ul><ul><li>Scale-free network </li></ul><ul><li>Actors can be anything </li></ul><ul><li>Actors are interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Relations are channels for transfer or 'flow' of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Typical applications: WWW, internet, movie actors, scientific collaboration, citations, human sexual contacts, cellular networks, ecological networks, phone call networks, flight patterns, linguistics, neural networks, protein networks </li></ul><ul><li>Sociometry </li></ul><ul><li>Actors are social entities </li></ul><ul><li>Actors are interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Relations are channels for transfer or 'flow' of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Typical applications: the diffusion and adaptation of innovations, belief systems, markets, exchange and power, occupational mobility </li></ul>Social Network Analysis (SNA)
    • 17. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Graph visualization Geographical visualization
    • 18. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Topological visualization Graph visualization Linkedin Maps
    • 19. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Graph visualization Circular visualization
    • 20. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Graph visualization Grouped visualization sites ITS ESB ESA ESC ESD
    • 21. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Analytical techniques Degree (k i ) Outdegree (k out j ) Indegree (k in i ) Average degree = average of all degree scores in a single network
    • 22. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Shortest path Average shortest path = average of all shortest path scores between all possible pairs of vertices in the network Analytical techniques
    • 23. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Clustering coefficient (c) = average of the fraction of all possible relationships between all nodes and their direct neighbours. K i = 3 6 c i = 3/6 = 0.5 C = ( c i , c j , … c n ) / n Analytical techniques
    • 24. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Analytical techniques Small-world networks (Watts and Strogatz 1998) L = average shortest path length; C = clustering coefficient; P = random probability
    • 25. How are persons connected? Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans
    • 26. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Analytical techniques Degree distribution Degree Number of nodes Scale-free networks (Barabási and Albert 1999)
    • 27. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Thinking through networks: generating, visualizing and analysing complex re-use graphs in the Humanities Section 3 Introduction to text re-use graphs
    • 28. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans What do you want to measure? Similarity of branches of the “ same ” knowledge, knowledge is changing over time
    • 29. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans What is of interest? Functionality of objects vs. object of interest, critical amount of re-use
    • 30. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Agenda for this section <ul><li>What is text re-use? </li></ul><ul><li>Text re-use techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Bible data </li></ul><ul><li>What decisions need to be made to make a text re-use applicable? </li></ul>
    • 31. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Definitions/Terminology <ul><li>Citation/quotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern: (SOURCE, <TEXT>) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient: mostly (∅, <TEXT>) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern: mostly (∅, <TEXT>) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text Re-use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal right aspects are ignored: For this reason: (<TEXT>) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literal citations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paraphrases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text Re-use graph G =( V,E ), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V is set of sentences , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E set of links between elements of V (Hyper-textual structure in a Digital Library) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A text re-use graph is not directed. </li></ul></ul>
    • 32. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans 7 different versions of the Holy Bible The data: * American Standard Version (ASV) * Bible in Basic English (Basic) * Darby Bible (Darby) * King James Version (KJV) * World English Bible (WEB) * Webster Bible (Webster) * Young's Literal Translation (YLT) 28,632 verses are selected that occurred in all versions. Bible version Word tokens Word types Token/type ratio ASV 741267 13485 54.97 Basic 791367 7350 100.85 Darby 732928 14971 48.96 KJV 746746 13466 55.45 WEB 722817 13556 54.68 Webster 744137 13655 54.50 YLT 745422 13973 53.34
    • 33. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans 6 levels of text re-use <ul><li>Level 1: Pre-processing </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2: Feature training </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3: Feature selection (Fingerprinting) </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4: Linking </li></ul><ul><li>Level 5: Scoring </li></ul><ul><li>Level 6: Post-processing </li></ul>
    • 34. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Level 1: Pre-processing <ul><li>Capitalisation (e. g. all letters to lowercase) </li></ul><ul><li>Normalisation (e. g. removing all diacritics) </li></ul><ul><li>Lemmatisation (e. g. replace inflected words by baseform) </li></ul><ul><li>Synonym replacements (e. g. replace a word by the most common (most frequent) synonym) </li></ul><ul><li>String similarity (words that are similar written) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced strings by word length </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Cleaned text regarding language evolution, dialects, spelling or OCR errors, etc. </li></ul>
    • 35. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Level 2: Syntactical training – details N-gram feature Overlapping Non overlapping Shingling Local hash breaking Longest Common Consecutive Words Property of overlapping features Syntactical feature Property of constant or variable n-gram length Global hash breaking
    • 36. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Level 3: Selection of training data – building a re-use fingerprint <ul><li>- local selection strategies work with the knowledge within a re-use unit such as </li></ul><ul><li>- Local 0 mod p (e. g. position of a word within a re-use unit) </li></ul><ul><li>- random selection </li></ul><ul><li>- Winnowing </li></ul><ul><li>- global selection strategies work with global knowledge such as a word list of the entire corpus like </li></ul><ul><li>- Global 0 mod p (e. g. rank of a word (cf. Zipfian law) ) </li></ul><ul><li>- Selection of special word classes such as nouns </li></ul><ul><li>- Inverted Document Frequency (IDF) score </li></ul><ul><li>- Minimum feature frequency selection </li></ul><ul><li>- Maximum feature frequency selection </li></ul>
    • 37. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Level 4: Linking – types comparing re-use units Intra corpus detection (Text re-use): Inter corpus detection (Modern: Plagiarism, Ancient: e.g. bible):
    • 38. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Level 5: Usage of text re-use by similarity
    • 39. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Some results – problem focused <ul><li>What is a good similarity threshold (literal citations)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissimilarity vs. Fragments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plato: Low threshold provides good results as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atthidographers: Poor quality – precision less than 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi word expressions like King Alexander the Great (literal citations) </li></ul><ul><li>Phrases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ “ (Engl.: in the Name of Our Lord Jesus Christ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Again: „We are the people! “ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Editorial references to publications </li></ul><ul><li>Works in different editions </li></ul><ul><li>- Embedded text re-use (relation </li></ul><ul><li>between linking and scoring) </li></ul><ul><li>- Detection boundaries of text re-use </li></ul>We are the people!
    • 40. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Thinking through networks: generating, visualizing and analysing complex re-use graphs in the Humanities Section 4 Working with text re-use graphs
    • 41. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Accessing text re-use graphs I
    • 42. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Accessing text re-use graphs II
    • 43. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Macro view (very distant reading) I
    • 44. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Macro view (very distant reading) II Middle Platonism Neoplatonism
    • 45. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Micro view (close reading) I αἱ δ' ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν αὖ μῆτραί τε καὶ ὑστέραι λεγόμεναι διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ζῷον ἐπιθυμητικὸν ἐνὸν τῆς παιδοποιίας ὅταν ἄκαρπον παρὰ τὴν ὥραν χρόνον πολὺν γίγνηται χαλεπῶς ἀγανακτοῦν ϕέρει καὶ πλανώμενον πάντῃ κατὰ τὸ σῶμα τὰς τοῦ πνεύματος διεξόδους ἀποϕράττον ἀναπνεῖν οὐκ ἐῶν εἰς ἀπορίας τὰς ἐσχάτας ἐμβάλλει καὶ νόσους παντοδαπὰς ἄλλας παρέχει μέχριπερ ἂν ἑκατέρων ἡ ἐπιθυμία καὶ ὁ ἔρως συναγαγόντες οἷον ἀπὸ δένδρων καρπὸν καταδρέψαντες ὡς εἰς ἄρουραν τὴν μήτραν ἀόρατα ὑπὸ σμικρότητος καὶ ἀδιάπλαστα ζῷα κατασπείραντες καὶ πάλιν διακρίναντες μεγάλα ἐντὸς ἐκθρέψωνται καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο εἰς ϕῶς ἀγαγόντες ζῴων ἀποτελέσωσι γένεσιν αἱ δ' ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν αὖ μῆτραί τε καὶ ὑστέραι λεγόμεναι διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ζῷον ἐπιθυμητικὸν ἐνὸν τῆς παιδοποιίας ὅταν ἄκαρπον περὶ τὴν ὥραν χρόνον πολὺν γίγνηται χαλεπῶς ἀγανακτοῦν ϕέρει καὶ πλανώμενον πάντῃ κατὰ τὸ σῶμα τὰς τοῦ πνεύματος διεξόδους ἀποϕράττον ἀναπνεῖν οὐκ ἐῶν εἰς ἀπορίας τὰς ἐσχάτας ἐμβάλλει καὶ νόσους παντοδαπὰς ἄλλας παρέχει μέχριπερ ἂν ἑκατέρων ἡ ἐπιθυμία καὶ ὁ ἔρως ξυναγαγόντες οἷον ἀπὸ δένδρων καρπὸν καταδρέψαντες ὡς εἰς ἄρουραν τὴν μήτραν ἀόρατα ὑπὸ σμικρότητος καὶ ἀδιάπλαστα ζῷα κατασπείραντες καὶ πάλιν διακρίναντες μεγάλα ἐντὸς ἐκθρέψωνται καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο εἰς ϕῶς ἀγαγόντες ζῴων ἀποτελέσωσι γένεσιν περὶ δὲ τῆς μήτρας ὅτι τε ζῷόν ἐστι καὶ αὕτη καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐξερχόμενα μόρια ταῦτα πάλιν λέγει Πλάτων αἱ δ' ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν αὖ μῆτραί τε καὶ ὑστέραι λεγόμεναι διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ζῷον ἐπιθυμητικὸν ἐνὸν τῆς παιδοποιίας ὅταν ἄκαρπον παρὰ τὴν ὥραν χρόνον πολὺν γίνηται χαλεπῶς ἀγανακτοῦν ϕέρει καὶ πλανώμενον πάντῃ κατὰ τὸ σῶμα τὰς τοῦ πνεύματος διεξόδους ἀποϕράττον καὶ ἀναπνεῖν οὐκ ἐῶν εἰς ἀπορίας τὰς ἐσχάτας ἐμβάλλει καὶ νόσους παντοδαπὰς ἄλλας παρέχει μέχριπερ ἂν ἑκατέρων ἡ ἐπιθυμία καὶ ὁ ἔρως ξυναγαγόντες οἷον ἀπὸ δένδρων καρπὸν καταδρέψαντες ὡς εἰς ἄρουραν τὴν μήτραν ἀόρατα ὑπὸ σμικρότητος καὶ ἀδιάπλαστα ζῷα κατασπείραντες καὶ πάλιν διακρίναντες μεγάλα ἐντὸς ἐκθρέψωνται καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο εἰς ϕῶς ἀγαγόντες ζῴων ἀποτελέσωσι γένεσιν Plato: Timaeus 91b7 ff.
    • 46. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Micro view (close reading) II Plato: Timaeus 91b7 ff. αἱ δ' ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν αὖ μῆτραί τε καὶ ὑστέραι λεγόμεναι διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ζῷον ἐπιθυμητικὸν ἐνὸν τῆς παιδοποιίας ὅταν ἄκαρπον παρὰ τὴν ὥραν χρόνον πολὺν γίγνηται χαλεπῶς ἀγανακτοῦν ϕέρει καὶ πλανώμενον πάντῃ κατὰ τὸ σῶμα τὰς τοῦ πνεύματος διεξόδους ἀποϕράττον ἀναπνεῖν οὐκ ἐῶν εἰς ἀπορίας τὰς ἐσχάτας ἐμβάλλει καὶ νόσους παντοδαπὰς ἄλλας παρέχει μέχριπερ ἂν ἑκατέρων ἡ ἐπιθυμία καὶ ὁ ἔρως συναγαγόντες οἷον ἀπὸ δένδρων καρπὸν καταδρέψαντες ὡς εἰς ἄρουραν τὴν μήτραν ἀόρατα ὑπὸ σμικρότητος καὶ ἀδιάπλαστα ζῷα κατασπείραντες καὶ πάλιν διακρίναντες μεγάλα ἐντὸς ἐκθρέψωνται καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο εἰς ϕῶς ἀγαγόντες ζῴων ἀποτελέσωσι γένεσιν αἱ δ' ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν αὖ μῆτραί τε καὶ ὑστέραι λεγόμεναι διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ζῷον ἐπιθυμητικὸν ἐνὸν τῆς παιδοποιίας ὅταν ἄκαρπον περὶ τὴν ὥραν χρόνον πολὺν γίγνηται χαλεπῶς ἀγανακτοῦν ϕέρει καὶ πλανώμενον πάντῃ κατὰ τὸ σῶμα τὰς τοῦ πνεύματος διεξόδους ἀποϕράττον ἀναπνεῖν οὐκ ἐῶν εἰς ἀπορίας τὰς ἐσχάτας ἐμβάλλει καὶ νόσους παντοδαπὰς ἄλλας παρέχει μέχριπερ ἂν ἑκατέρων ἡ ἐπιθυμία καὶ ὁ ἔρως ξυναγαγόντες οἷον ἀπὸ δένδρων καρπὸν καταδρέψαντες ὡς εἰς ἄρουραν τὴν μήτραν ἀόρατα ὑπὸ σμικρότητος καὶ ἀδιάπλαστα ζῷα κατασπείραντες καὶ πάλιν διακρίναντες μεγάλα ἐντὸς ἐκθρέψωνται καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο εἰς ϕῶς ἀγαγόντες ζῴων ἀποτελέσωσι γένεσιν περὶ δὲ τῆς μήτρας ὅτι τε ζῷόν ἐστι καὶ αὕτη καὶ τὰ ἀπὸ τοῦ πατρὸς ἐξερχόμενα μόρια ταῦτα πάλιν λέγει Πλάτων αἱ δ' ἐν ταῖς γυναιξὶν αὖ μῆτραί τε καὶ ὑστέραι λεγόμεναι διὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ζῷον ἐπιθυμητικὸν ἐνὸν τῆς παιδοποιίας ὅταν ἄκαρπον παρὰ τὴν ὥραν χρόνον πολὺν γίνηται χαλεπῶς ἀγανακτοῦν ϕέρει καὶ πλανώμενον πάντῃ κατὰ τὸ σῶμα τὰς τοῦ πνεύματος διεξόδους ἀποϕράττον καὶ ἀναπνεῖν οὐκ ἐῶν εἰς ἀπορίας τὰς ἐσχάτας ἐμβάλλει καὶ νόσους παντοδαπὰς ἄλλας παρέχει μέχριπερ ἂν ἑκατέρων ἡ ἐπιθυμία καὶ ὁ ἔρως ξυναγαγόντες οἷον ἀπὸ δένδρων καρπὸν καταδρέψαντες ὡς εἰς ἄρουραν τὴν μήτραν ἀόρατα ὑπὸ σμικρότητος καὶ ἀδιάπλαστα ζῷα κατασπείραντες καὶ πάλιν διακρίναντες μεγάλα ἐντὸς ἐκθρέψωνται καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο εἰς ϕῶς ἀγαγόντες ζῴων ἀποτελέσωσι γένεσιν
    • 47. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Micro view (close reading) III
    • 48. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Micro view (close reading) IV
    • 49. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Temperature view (distant reading) A text re-use from a document with a high text re-use coverage is more trustworthy than from a less frequently re-used text. A text re-use from a section of a document with a high text re-use temperature is more trustworthy than from a less frequently re-used part of a document.
    • 50. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Dotplot view (mid distant reading) Source (Plot): John Lee: A Computational Model of Text Reuse in Ancient Literary Texts, 2009.
    • 51. Marco Büchler – Tom Brughmans Thinking through networks: generating, visualizing and analysing complex re-use graphs in the Humanities Section 5 Discussion Join the networks network Google group! http://groups.google.com/group/the-networks-network?hl=en-GB Tom Brughmans [email_address] http://archaeologicalnetworks.wordpress.com/ Marco Büchler [email_address] http://www.asv.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/

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