• Save
Stephen Scrivener Keynote at InterFace 2011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Stephen Scrivener Keynote at InterFace 2011

on

  • 3,150 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,150
Views on SlideShare
2,078
Embed Views
1,072

Actions

Likes
2
Downloads
0
Comments
0

2 Embeds 1,072

http://www.interface2011.org.uk 1069
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 3

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Stephen Scrivener Keynote at InterFace 2011 Stephen Scrivener Keynote at InterFace 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • “ the great essays on storytelling are done in stories themselves” (Okri , 1997, Joys of Storytelling III: Aphorisms and Fragments ) stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • projective making and thinking stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • ways of design innovation
    • problem solving design practice
    • reflective design practice
    • projective design practice
    stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • three ways of design innovation articulated in relation to research stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • 1974 stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • I’m an artist stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • 1974 stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • I’m doing a PhD in Computing stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • 1981 stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • I’m a computer scientist: a researcher stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • defining research The Oxford English Dictionary defines research as as the systematic investigation into the study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish facts and to reach new conclusions, and an endeavour to discover new or collate old facts etc., by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • conditions of research research is: 1 ) a systematic investigation (method) 2 ) conducted intentionally 3 ) to acquire new knowledge, understanding, insights, etc., (goal) 4 ) that is justified (justification) 5 ) and communicated (communication) 6 ) about a subject. (subject) stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • 1974 stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • 1992 stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • I’m back in an art and design college stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • the context stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
    • Pre 1992
      • art and design in independent colleges and polytechnics
      • no government funding for art and design research
    • Post 1992
      • the binary divide removed
      • A&D in universities or colleges linked to them
      • doctoral degree awarding powers
      • funding for art and design research (AHRB, HEFCE through RAE)
      • overall reduction in funding for teaching and research
  • I understood art and design and research stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • problem solving research stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • given the failure of current diagrams in computer-aided learning to facilitate the mathematical understanding of young students the aim of the project was to develop a framework for designing and assessing diagrams to teach mathematical concepts to primary school students (aged 9-11 years old) problem solving example stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • need for the proposed method stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school developing the proposed method
  • the proposed method stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • applying the proposed method stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school evaluating the proposed method
    • pre-test, on the computer
    • students interacted with 20 diagrams for 40 minutes
    • post-test, t he questions were the same as those used in the pre-test
    • learning
      • quantitive - answers, performance score, time, and activities
    • knowledge construction
      • qualitative - interviews
      • quantitaitve - reaction time to questions
  • designs ways of thinking & doing design general pattern stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • designs ways of thinking & doing design critique general pattern stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • designs expanded design thinking & doing critique general pattern stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • designs expanded design thinking & doing critique design general pattern stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • designs expanded design thinking & doing critique design general pattern test of method stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • designs expanded design thinking & doing design method predicts solution set particular general stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • designs expanded design thinking & doing design easy to see as research 1 ) a systematic investigation 2 ) conducted intentionally 3 ) to acquire new knowledge, 4 ) that is justified 5 ) and communicated 6 ) about a subject. particular general contribution to design stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • for some this approach did not work stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • problem - stepping out of design designs expanded design thinking & doing critique design test ways of thinking & doing design stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • designs expanded design thinking & doing critique design problem – not design driven test ways of thinking & doing design stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school designs novel expansion of the particular cutting edge design
  • but this is design not research , even when the resultant design is novel stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • two hypothesis
    • the mismatch is indicative of the gap between the work of and works of art and design the work of and works of new knowledge and understanding.
    • the mismatch is indicative of what matters about the way that the work of and works of art and design contribute to knowledge and understanding
    stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • Chapters in Book Scrivener, S. A. R. (2006) Visual Art Practice Reconsidered: Transformational Practice and the Academy. In: M. Mäkelä & S. Routarinne (eds.) The Art of Research: Practice in Research of Art and Design. University of Art and Design: Helsinki, pp 156-177 Scrivener, S.A.R. (2009) The roles of art and design process and object in research. In: N. Nimkulrat and T. O’Riley (eds). Reflections and connections: On the relationship between creative production and academic research. [e-book] University of Art and Design Helsinki: Helsinki Scrivener, S.A.R. (2010) Transformational practice: on the place of material novelty in artistic change. In: M. Biggs and H. Karlsson (eds.) The Roultedge Companion to Research in the Arts. Routledge:: London Journal Papers Scrivener, S.A.R. (2000) Reflection in and on Action and Practice in Creative-production Doctoral Projects in Art and Design. Working Papers in Design , 1. http://www.herts.ac.uk/artdes/research/papers/wpades/vol1/scrivener2.html (accessed 20/6/2008) Scrivener, S.A.R. (2002) The art object does not embody a form of knowledge. Working Papers in Design , 2. http://www.herts.ac.uk/artdes/research/papers/wpades/vol2/scrivenerfull.html (accessed 20/6/2003) Scrivener, S.A.R. (2002) Characterising creative-production doctoral projects in art and design. International Journal of Design Sciences and Technology , 10 ( 2), pp. 25-44. (appeared 2004) Scrivener, S.A.R. & Chapman, P. (2004) The practical implications of applying a theory of practice based research: a case study. Working Papers in Design , 3. http://www.herts.ac.uk/artdes/research/papers/wpades/vol3/scrivenerfull.html stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school designs in the world change designing sharable methods (?) follow design? the practice of design innovation
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school painting that changed painting
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school designs ways of thinking & doing design from the particular to the general how is it that a particular design opens space for a set of designs and even a way of thinking about design? particular general
  • an example research project stephen scrivener CCW graduate school designs ways of thinking & doing design particular general
  • projective design practice stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • eye-jump skipping rope stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school designs ways of design thinking & doing ideas creative production pattern particular general
  • designs ways of design thinking & doing ideas design creative production pattern particular general stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • designs ways of design thinking & doing ideas design novel design embodies design potential particular general stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school designs ways of design thinking & doing ideas design then/during there is reflection particular general reflection & understanding of potential
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school analysis
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • fields of understanding stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • method stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • surprise in cognitive development? stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • evaluation stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school designs expanded design thinking & doing critique design general pattern test of method
  • if we are just presented with ‘eye-jump’ it appears as a novel work of design stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • the novelty of the design constitutes a gap in our understanding stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • because although we apprehend the novelty, we don’t know how to think or talk about it stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • in the thinking, talking and analysis of it concepts are formulated that open up the potential latent in it stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • although a specific work of design is produced it opens up a broad field of opportunity stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • in the research context the designer is required to articulate this potential stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • is projective the same as reflective design practice? stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • theories of design stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
    • Herbert Simon and Schön
    • the crisis of professional confidence
    • Simon: Technical Rationality and problem solving
    • what I described as problem solving design research can be understood as informed by Simon
    • Schön: Reflective Practice
  • Reflective Practice stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
    • Schön would have rejected the idea of general methods
    • because, according to him, practitioners deal well with situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness, and value
    • if every situation is unique then generalisations of past failures cannot help us in the future
  • Knowledge-in-action stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
    • In everyday action, Schön argued:
      • our knowledge is ordinarily tacit, implicit in our patterns of action and in our feel for the stuff with which we are dealing - our knowing is in action
      • similarly, the professional depends on tacit knowing-in-action
      • on the other hand, we often think about what we are doing
      • usually reflection on knowing-in-action goes together with reflection on the stuff at hand.
      • as the professional tries to make sense of it, he also reflects on the understanding which has been implicit in his action, understanding which he surfaces, criticises, restructures, and embodies in further action
  • surprise and the unexpected stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
    • theory of action is refuted; here the practitioner is obliged to reconsider its relevance and appropriateness
    • although the theory of action is refuted, since the result is desirable there is no obligation, in the logic of reflective practice, for the practitioner to surface and reflect on the underlying theory of action
    • the move is simply affirmed and design can continue without any need for reflection
    • although the theory of action has produced the expected result the outcome is undesirable. This will necessitate reflection so as to extend the theory of action to cover the observed case
  • limitations of reflective practice stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
    • ends are not known and cannot be known in advance because every practice situation is unique
    • Schön took the practice situation as given and explained how, first, the uniqueness of a particular situation comes to be understood and, second, how that knowledge is expanded to satisfy the demands of the situation at hand
    • thus, although the practitioner comes across surprising situations and working with that situation is rooted in prior habits of making and thinking
  • limitations of reflective practice stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
    • what Schön’s theory of Reflective Practice doesn’t explain is how we can step out of both the world as it presents itself to us and our habitual practices of production and thought, so as to create possible worlds that register desirable surprise
    • indeed, according to the logic of Reflective Practice desirable surprise is registered negatively, “In the second case [desirable surprise], the inquirer’s expectation is disappointed but the consequences taken as a whole are considered desirable
    • Schön appears to overlook the possibility that desirable surprise might be registered positively, which we can anticipate if
      • the inquirer’s habits of practice have been perturbed intrinsically, for example by adopting new strategies, or
      • extrinsically, for example as a result of locating himself or herself in an unfamiliar practice context.
    • In such situations desirable surprise indicates that the chosen or enforced displacement strategies are worth persisting with
  • conclusion projective practice goes beyond reflective practice stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • why might projective practice be important? stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • the problem with problems stephen scrivener CCW graduate school
  • “ the great essays on storytelling are done in stories themselves” (Okri , 1997, Joys of Storytelling III: Aphorisms and Fragments ) stephen scrivener CCW graduate school