Abnormal odors, especially the male sexual odor, are most apparent immediately after slaughter.
They may result from:
Diet, e.g. fish meal
Drugs administered shortly before slaughter e.g. linseed oil, turpentine oil, ether, chloroform, aromatic spirits, etc.
Absorption of the odor of strong-smelling substances whilst meat is stored, e.g. refrigerated meat during transport can absorb odors like oranges, etc.
Catty odor due to mesityl oxide in paint thinners, adhesive, plastics etc.
Sexual odor (goats)
Acetonemia or ketosis (sweet smell)
Rother’s test for acetone: 100 g amm. Sulph.; 50 g anhydrous sod. Bicarb.; 3 g sod. Nitroprusside. Shake up 10 g of meat in a test tube containing 15 ml water. Add one tea spoonfu Of the reagent. Shake and allow to stand for 2-3 minutes. A purple colour denotes The presence of acetonel Cont……
Specific diseases e.g. blackquarter, which causes a cheesy smell
Abcesses, especially affecting fat.
Judgment: Total rejection. Take a piece of meat 24 hrs after slaughter and boil in water or fry
This is associated with the growth of the putrefactive anaerobic bacteria Cl. perfringens and Cl. putrefaciens, giving a typical smell to musculature. It generally occurs in the region of the hip joint. The main cause probably is improper cooling
Physical contamination of the carcass or organs by stomach or intestinal contents.
It is caused by damage to the stomach or intestinal tract during the slaughter and dressing of the animal.
This type of contamination is a significant route of transmission for food poisoning organisms such as Compylobactor, Salmonella, and Escherchia coli.
Judgment: Trim and reject the affected parts.
Rimmington and Fowrie test : to differentiate jaundice and carotene. Place 2 g of fat in the test tube and add 5ml of a 5% sol. of sodium hydroxide. Boil for about I minute, shaking until the fat is dissolved. Then cool under tap until tube is comfortably warm to the hand. Add an equal volume of ether and mix gently. Allow to settle. The solution settles out into two layers. The bile salts are soluble in water and so if color is due to jaudice, the bottom layer is colored yellow. If color is due to carotene or xanthophylls, top layer is colored yellow, these are soluble in ether
Anthracosis – reject affected parts
Bile staining – trim and reject affected parts
Brown atrophy (lipofuchsination) – fit
Brine staining – leakage from the refrigeration plant – depends upon severity of condition
Caused by a high pH of the muscle at slaughter. If the pH is between 5.8 and 7, the muscle gets progressively darker in color
High pH arises because most of the glycogen in muscle before death had been used. It is associated with prolonged or chronic stress
Chilling and lack of feed tend to increase the incidence, and it is more prevalent in frosty weather
The meat is palatable and provides the same nutritive value as normal beef
The muscle proteins will be above their isoelectric point (pH 5.5) i.e. the point at which muscles will lose their associated water, and the muscle fibers will be tightly packed together, presenting a barrier to diffusion
Judgment: depends on the severity of the condition