Specific and nonspecific lesions of different organs of the body

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  • 1. Specific and nonspecific lesions of different organs of the body
  • 2. Abnormal and General Pathological Conditions
    • Poorness
      • Physiological state of very young and older animals
      • It can be caused by shortage of food, over milking etc.
      • The carcass sets well, but there is marked scarcity of fat, which, however, is of normal firm consistency
      • The flesh is generally darker in color and on the cut surface is firm and dry
      • If carcass is allowed to hang for some time, it becomes very dry and dark on the surface
      • Judgment:
        • Fit for human consumption
  • 3.
    • Emaciation
      • Due to some pathological condition, generally chronic, e.g., Johne’s disease (cattle), parasitic infestation (sheep)
      • Wasting of muscular tissue and by a reduction in the amount of fat, which is soft, wet and, in advanced cases, gelatinous
      • The flesh is wet, soft and flabby (this is best detected on a freshly cut surface when the muscles pit on pressure and are soft and sticky to the touch)
      • The carcass does not set and the outside is wet, as are the pleura and peritoneum.
      • The region of the brisket is generally a particularly wet area in cattle
      • In ewes the kidney fat gives a good indication
      • Where doubt exists, the carcass should be hung for 12-24 hrs to see if it will set and dry out
      • Emaciated carcasses in fact tend to get wetter
      • Judgment:
        • Total rejection
  • 4.
    • Oedema or Dropsy
      • Excessive accumulation of a clear fluid in the tissues or serous sacs of the body
      • According to the sites of the oedema other terms are used (Anasarca, Ascites, Hydro-thorax, etc.)
      • General or local
      • Judgment: if general oedema, total rejection
  • 5.
    • Imperfect bleeding
      • This occurs when the animal is moribund (dying) or very distressed and is said to have been killed to ‘save its life’.
      • The flesh is dark, there is capillary bleeding, the organs, particularly liver, lungs, and kidneys, are dark and congested and when cut, blood runs out
      • The intercostal veins are full of blood and are clearly visible
      • The fore legs often tend to be ‘tucked up’.
      • The carcass sets badly and decomposes rapidly
      • Judgment : Such carcasses are rejected as unfit for human consumption
  • 6.
    • Bruising
      • Judgment : Depending on the extent and severity of the bruising, total rejection, otherwise reject the affected parts
    • Haematoma
      • Judgment : Reject the affected parts
  • 7.
    • Suffocation
      • This may result from choking, drowning, or trampling and crushing during transit
      • It is probably the most common cause of animals arriving dead at the abattoir, particularly in sheep and goats
      • Blood or bloody froth often emanates from the nostrils
      • The organs of the suffocated animal are generally congested, especially the lungs, which also contain frothy mucus.
      • The right side of the heart is full of clotted blood and the left side is emply
      • The flesh is dark and sets badly
      • The blood vessels, particularly the subcutaneous vessels of the side on which the animal was lying, are markedly congested
      • The carcass decomposes quickly
      • Judgment : Dead animals should not be eviscerated. Total rejection
    Malachite Test
  • 8.
    • Fevered flesh
      • This generally arises through the action of bacteria or viruses and their toxins circulating in the blood
      • The flesh is darker in colour with small, scattered haemorrhages
      • The pleura, peritoneum, and fat show a diffuse redness and the organs, and lymph nodes are congested
      • The carcass as a whole has dull red appearance and can be easily picked out if along side normal carcass
      • Judgment: Total rejection
  • 9.
    • Fetal flesh
      • This is flesh of unborn or still-born animals and is regarded unfit for human consumption
      • The lungs are solid and sink in water
      • There is an open urachus (the canal that joins the bladder with the allantoic cavity, which sometimes persists after birth, the urine escaping via the umblicus).
      • The umblical veins and arteries gap widely.
      • The eyes may be closed and the hooves are soft and un-walked upon (‘golden slippers’)
      • Further signs are the flabby, sodden, conditions of the muscles, the gelatinous condition of the fibrous tissue around the kidneys and the presence of red marrow in the long bones
      • The stomach is empty
      • Judgment: Total Rejection
  • 10.
    • Immaturity
      • The only food animal that is likely to be sold for food while immature is calf.
      • Various countries have regulations that calves shall not be slaughtered less than so many days old.
      • Other countries go by the weight, but as the size of the calves varies with different breeds, this seems to not a good criteria.
      • The following are the characteristics of immaturity:
        • The meat has the appearance of being water-soaked, is loose, flabby and tears easily and can be perforated by fingers, or
        • The color is grey red, or
        • Good muscle development especially of the hind legs is lacking, or
        • Tissue around the kidneys is oedematous, dirty-yellow or grayish-red, tough and intermixed with islands of fat
      • Judgment: total rejection
  • 11.
    • Abnormal odors
      • Abnormal odors, especially the male sexual odor, are most apparent immediately after slaughter.
      • They may result from:
        • Diet, e.g. fish meal
        • Drugs administered shortly before slaughter e.g. linseed oil, turpentine oil, ether, chloroform, aromatic spirits, etc.
        • Absorption of the odor of strong-smelling substances whilst meat is stored, e.g. refrigerated meat during transport can absorb odors like oranges, etc.
        • Catty odor due to mesityl oxide in paint thinners, adhesive, plastics etc.
        • Sexual odor (goats)
        • Acetonemia or ketosis (sweet smell)
    Rother’s test for acetone: 100 g amm. Sulph.; 50 g anhydrous sod. Bicarb.; 3 g sod. Nitroprusside. Shake up 10 g of meat in a test tube containing 15 ml water. Add one tea spoonfu Of the reagent. Shake and allow to stand for 2-3 minutes. A purple colour denotes The presence of acetonel Cont……
  • 12.
    • Specific diseases e.g. blackquarter, which causes a cheesy smell
    • Abcesses, especially affecting fat.
    • Gangrene
    • Putrefaction
    • Judgment: Total rejection. Take a piece of meat 24 hrs after slaughter and boil in water or fry
    • Bone taint
      • This is associated with the growth of the putrefactive anaerobic bacteria Cl. perfringens and Cl. putrefaciens, giving a typical smell to musculature. It generally occurs in the region of the hip joint. The main cause probably is improper cooling
      • Judgment: reject affected tissue
  • 13.
    • Inflammation – definition – lesions
      • Judgment: Abscesses are a visual sign of infection. Secondary inspection for pyemia, septicemia, viremia, and toxemia should be carried out.
      • Judgment: If evidence of systemic infection is found, then total rejection, otherwise reject affected parts
  • 14.
    • Fecal contamination
      • Physical contamination of the carcass or organs by stomach or intestinal contents.
      • It is caused by damage to the stomach or intestinal tract during the slaughter and dressing of the animal.
      • This type of contamination is a significant route of transmission for food poisoning organisms such as Compylobactor, Salmonella, and Escherchia coli.
      • Judgment: Trim and reject the affected parts.
  • 15. Rimmington and Fowrie test : to differentiate jaundice and carotene. Place 2 g of fat in the test tube and add 5ml of a 5% sol. of sodium hydroxide. Boil for about I minute, shaking until the fat is dissolved. Then cool under tap until tube is comfortably warm to the hand. Add an equal volume of ether and mix gently. Allow to settle. The solution settles out into two layers. The bile salts are soluble in water and so if color is due to jaudice, the bottom layer is colored yellow. If color is due to carotene or xanthophylls, top layer is colored yellow, these are soluble in ether
    • Pigmentation
      • Anthracosis – reject affected parts
      • Bile staining – trim and reject affected parts
      • Brown atrophy (lipofuchsination) – fit
      • Brine staining – leakage from the refrigeration plant – depends upon severity of condition
      • Carotene pigmentation - fit
  • 16.
    • Dark cutting beef
      • Caused by a high pH of the muscle at slaughter. If the pH is between 5.8 and 7, the muscle gets progressively darker in color
      • High pH arises because most of the glycogen in muscle before death had been used. It is associated with prolonged or chronic stress
      • Chilling and lack of feed tend to increase the incidence, and it is more prevalent in frosty weather
      • The meat is palatable and provides the same nutritive value as normal beef
      • The muscle proteins will be above their isoelectric point (pH 5.5) i.e. the point at which muscles will lose their associated water, and the muscle fibers will be tightly packed together, presenting a barrier to diffusion
      • Judgment: depends on the severity of the condition
  • 17.
    • Injection coloration
      • Occasionally subcutaneous tissues, lymph nodes, fat and muscle may be found to be colored, owing to the injection of colored medical products
      • Judgment: reject affected parts
  • 18. Jaundice or Icterus
    • In this condition the tissues of the body are colored yellow. This is most obvious in the white tissues of the body, e.g. fat, spinal cord, and meninges, tendon sheaths and white of the eye.
    • Judgment: total rejection
  • 19.
    • Melanosis
      • Judgment: depending on the severity of the condition reject affected part
    • Nitrate or nitrite poisoning
      • Hemoglobin to methemoglobin – brown color
      • Judgment: total rejection
  • 20. Disease
    • Infection
      • Bacteraemia – temporary
      • Septicaemia – total rejection
      • Pyemia – total rejection
      • Toxemia – depends on severity of condition
      • Viremia – total rejection
      • Necrosis – reject affected parts
      • Caseation – reject affected part
      • Metaplasia – reject affected part
      • Gangrene – total rejection
  • 21. Specific Diseases
    • Actinobacillosis (Actinobacillus lignieresi)
      • Judgment: Affected organs are rejected
    • Actinomycosis (Actinomyces bovis)
      • Judgment: Reject Affected Parts
    • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
      • Judgment: Total Rejection
    • Blackquarter (Clostridium chauvoei)
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
      • Judgment: Total rejection
  • 22.
    • Bovine virus diarhoea
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Brucellosis
      • Judgment: Reject genital organs and mammary glands
    • Calf diphtheria (Bacteriodes necrophorus)
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Caprine arthritis encephalitis(virus)
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Caseous lymphadenitis (C. ovis)
      • Judgment: Total rejection if generalized
    • Gastroentritis
      • Judgment: Total rejection
  • 23.
    • Enzootic abortion of ewes (Chlamydia psittaci)- zoonotic
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Enzootic bovine leukosis
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Enzootic Puemonia (Mycoplasma hyopneumonae)
      • Judgment: Reject affected parts
    • FMD
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Johne’s disease
      • Judgment: depends upon degree of emaciation
  • 24.
    • Leptospirosis (L. interrogans in all animals; L. pomona in cattle; L. hardio in sheep)
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Listeriosis (L. monocytogenes) all animals
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Lymphadenitis
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Malignant catarrhal fever
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Mucosal disease
      • Judgment: Total rejection
  • 25.
    • Contagious pustular dermatitis (Orf)
      • Judgment: If generalized total rejection , otherwise affected parts
    • Rabies
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Salmonellosis
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Scrapie
      • Judgment: Total rejection
    • Tetanus
      • Judgment: Total rejection
  • 26.
    • Tuberculosis
      • Judgment: If generalized or associated with emaciation, total rejection. If localized affected portion are rejected.
  • 27.  
  • 28. Parasites
    • Nematodes
      • Intestinal Worms
        • Oesophagostomum radiatum (pimply gut) in cattle
        • O. columbianum – sheep
        • Trichinella spiralis – adult in intestines and larval form in the muscles of animals and humans
      • Lung Worms
        • Dictyocaulus viviparous – cattle
        • D. filaria – lambs
        • Muellerius capillaris – old sheep
      • Connective Tissue Worms
        • Onchocerca gibsoni – cattle intermediate host flies or mosquitoes
        • O. gutterosa
        • O. armilata
  • 29.  
  • 30.
    • Trematodes
      • Fasciola hepatica – migratory flukes
      • Dicrocoelium dendriticum
    • Protozoa
      • Coccidia
        • Eimeria
      • Toxoplasma gonadi
        • Total rejection
      • Sarcocysts
        • Judgment: depends upon degree of infection
  • 31. Arthropodes
    • Flies
      • sheep head fly (Hydrotaea irritans)
      • sheep ked fly (Melophagus ovianus)
    • Larval Stages
      • Warble fly (Hypoderma bovis and H. lineatum)
      • Sheep nostril fly (Oestrus ovis)
      • Sheep maggot fly (Lucilia sericata)
  • 32.
    • Lice
    • Mites
    Judgment depends upon the condition of the carcass
  • 33. Moulds
    • Only on chilled and frozen meat
      • Cladosporium herbarum
      • Sporotrichum carnis
      • Thamnidium
      • Penecillium
    • Parasitic fungi
      • Trichophyton
      • Aspergillus
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Affections of Specific Parts and Tumors
    • Blood
      • Anemia – the carcass and offal are rejected
      • Uremia – Rejection
      • Hemoglobinemia – depends upon the state of the carcass
      • Hypomagnesemia – depends upon state of the carcass
  • 41.
    • Bones
      • Fractures
      • Presternal calcification – trim
      • Rickets – total rejection
      • Osteomalacia – total rejection
      • Tumors (Sarcomas) – total rejection
  • 42. Head and Tongue
      • Sheep
        • Orf
        • Larvae of Oestrus ovis
        • Coenurus cerebralis
        • FMD
        • Sheep head fly disease
        • Drenching gun injuries
        • Ring worm
        • Actinomycosis
        • Actinobacillosis
        • Lice
      • Bovine
        • Actinobacillosis
        • Actinomycosis
        • FMD
        • Calf Diphtheria
        • TB of lymph glands
        • Ringworm
        • Cysticercus bovis
        • Melanosis
        • Xanthosis
        • Abscesses
        • Abscesses
        • Bovine Viral Diarrhea
        • Malignant Catarrhal Fever
  • 43. Heart
    • Bovine
      • Pericarditis – total rejection
      • Epicardial hemorrhages – rej. Hrt.
      • Cysticercus bovis
      • Pyemic abscesses in the myocardium – total rejection
      • Xanthosis
      • Endocarditis – rej. Heart
      • Melanosis
      • Echinococcus cysts
      • Brown atrophy
      • Periarteritis nodosa
      • Listeriosis
    • Sheep
      • Cysticercus ovis
      • Pericarditis
      • Myocarditis
      • Sarcocystis
      • Melanosis
      • Sarcocysts
      • Melanosis
      • Echinococcus cysts
      • Blood splashing in lambs
  • 44. Joints
    • Bovine
      • Septic Arthritis – total rejection
      • Rheumatism – depends upon if there is systemic involvement
      • Dislocation
    • Arthritis – total rejection
  • 45. Kidneys
    • Bovine
      • Nephritis – check uremia and reject kidneys
      • Hydronephrosis - check uremia and reject kidneys
      • Petechiae
      • Multiple congenital cysts
      • Pyaemic abscesses
      • Infarcts
      • Pyelonephritis – depends upon severity
      • TB
      • Fibroplastic nephritis
      • tumors
    • Sheep
      • Same as in bovines
  • 46. Liver
    • Bovine
      • Hepatitis
      • Peritonitis – total rejection
      • Fatty liver
      • Telangiectasis
      • Tumors
      • Bacterial necrosis
      • Abscesses – total rejection
      • TB
      • Actinomycosis
      • Cirrhosis
      • Ecchinococcus cysts
      • Melanosis
      • Xanthosis
      • Saw dust liver (necrosis)
    • Sheep
      • Hepatitis
      • Peritonitis
      • Fatty changes
      • Tumors
      • Fasciola hepatica
      • Ecchinococcus
  • 47. Lungs and Pleura
    • Bovine Lungs
      • Pneumonia – total rejection if systemic involvement
      • TB
      • Husk or hoose
      • Interlobular or interstitial emphysema
      • Ecchynococcus cysts
      • Melanosis
      • Contamination of trachea and lungs with ingesta and blood
      • Faciola hepatica migrating larvae
      • Pleurisy – total rejection if sytemic involvement
      • Tumors
      • anthracosis
    • Sheep
      • Mullarius capillaris
      • Pneumonia
      • Pleurisy
      • Ecchynococcus cysts
      • Contamination
      • Blood splashing (electric stimulation)
      • Tumors
  • 48. Lymph nodes
    • Bovine
      • TB
      • Actinobacillosis
      • Lymphadenitis
      • Enzootic leukosis
      • Anthracosis
      • Parasites (pentastomes, immature flukes)
    • Sheep
      • Lymphadenitis
      • Parasites (calcified)
      • Caseous lymphadenitis
      • Lymphosarcoma
      • Actinobacillosis
  • 49. Mammary glands
    • Bovine
      • Mastitis – total rejection if sytemic involvement
      • TB
      • Tumors
      • Bruising
      • FMD
      • Cow pox
    • Sheep
      • Mastitis
  • 50. Muscles
    • Bovine
      • Bruises
      • Cysticercus bovis
      • Actinobacillosis
      • Sarcocysts
      • Blood splashing
      • Myositis – interstitial (fibrosis/steatosis), eosinophilic
      • Black quarters – total rejection
      • Xanthosis
      • Nodular necrosis (golf ball size near tail)
    • Sheep
      • Bruises
      • Cysticercus ovis
      • Sarcocysts
      • Blood splashing
      • Steatosis
      • Injection abscesses
      • Black quarter – total rejection
  • 51. Skin
    • Bovine
      • Ring worm
      • FMD
      • Tumors
      • Foul of the foot
      • TB
      • Warble fly infection
      • Mucosal disease
      • Listeriosis
      • Lice
    • Sheep
      • Sjeep scb
      • Fly strike
      • FMD
      • Foot rot
      • Orf
      • Ring worm
      • Lice
      • Ticks
      • scrapie
  • 52. Spleen
    • Bovine
      • TB
      • Anthrax
      • Red water
      • Chronic venous congestion
      • Leukemia
      • Infarcts
      • Ecchinococcus cysts
      • Hematomas
      • Peritonitis
    • Sheep
      • Peritonitis
      • Leukemia
      • Ecchinococcus cysts
  • 53. Stomach and Intestines
    • Bovines
      • Peptic ulcers in abomasum –
      • Actinomycosis
      • Entritis
      • Peritonitis
      • Pimply gut
      • Johne’s disease
      • TB – mesenteric lymph nodes
      • Pentastome larvae in mesenteric lymph nodes
      • Traumatic reticulitis
    • Sheep
      • Parasitic gastritis
      • Johne’s disease
      • Caseous and calcified parasitic lesions in the mesenteric lymph nodes
  • 54. Uterus
    • Bovine
      • Metritis
      • Mummified fetus
      • TB
      • Tumors
      • Retained fetal membranes
      • Brucellosis
    • Sheep
      • Metritis
      • Pregnancy toxemia – reject liver – judge carcass on merit
      • Tumors
      • Mummified fetus
  • 55.
    • Fat necrosis