Ksu meat preservation


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  • Sulfur Dioxide Gas or Liquid Form Dried fruits, lemon juice, molasses, wines, fruit juices NOT permitted in meats Insects, microorganisms Nitrates and Nitrites Curing – Stabilize Red Color Contribute to Flavor Development Inhibit microorganisms - C. bot. Meat Products Nitrosamines – Nitrite reacting to secondary amines – Carcinogenic BHA/BHT butylated hydroxyanisole butylated hydroxytolune Inhibit Gram positive and negative more in foods than in lab media are needed for inhibition PRIMARY ROLE - antioxidant
  • MAP- Gaseous environment on or around foods Carbon Dioxide 90% of boxed beef 90-95% of fresh pasta – UK Icreased CO2 and decrease in Oxygen Hypobaric – Store in air under low pressure, low temp and high humidity. All very controlled. Very Limited in Use Vacuum Air evacuated from gas impermeable pouches and then sealed O removed and increased co2 results from tissue and microbial respiration Meats 10-20% CO2 in 4 hours MAP The chamber of the packaging material is alternated by flushing with mixtures of CO2, Nitrogen and/or Oxygen. Concentrations can’t be adjusted during storage Equilibrium flush gas permeable pouches with gas – Used for fresh f and v Controlled Atmosphere A form of MAP MAP uses high barrier plastic films CAP uses foil laminates, metal or glass containers so the gas concentrations do not change
  • Ksu meat preservation

    1. 1. Meat Preservation                              
    2. 2. Meat Putrefication <ul><li>Meat is putrefied due to the action of bacteria , moulds , yeasts. </li></ul><ul><li>To grow and proliferate the organisms temperature is necessary. Due to this classify the organisms, </li></ul><ul><li>1-Pschyrophiles: have optimum temperature range of -2 to 7*c. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Mesophiles: have 10 to 40*c. </li></ul><ul><li>3-Thermophiles: have 43 to 66*c . </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms also need water for growth. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why Preserve Meat??? <ul><li>Delays product spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>Extends life of the product </li></ul><ul><li>Improves product quality </li></ul>
    4. 4. Preserve Meat <ul><li>To preserve the meat temperature must be </li></ul><ul><li>1- : -2*c by chilling or freezing. </li></ul><ul><li>2- : 66*c by pasteurization , cooking or sterilization. </li></ul><ul><li>To preserve the meat , remove the water by dehydration , freezing , curing. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Types of Preservation Techniques <ul><li>Freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiation </li></ul>
    6. 6. Types of Meat Preservation <ul><li>Drying- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of water from meat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heating- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kills bacteria if temperatures reaches 160 degrees. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refrigeration- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slows the growth of bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freezing- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 degrees below zero eliminates bacterial growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acidification- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low pH retards bacterial growth </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Types of Meat Preservation <ul><li>6. Irradiation - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels kill bacteria in fresh meat products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canning- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging meat into sealed containers and heating meat to kill bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Curing- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds make meats inhospitable to microbial growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salting and Sugaring- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents microbial growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smoking- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms antibacterial chemicals to the meats surface </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Typical Methods of Food Preservation : <ul><li>High temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasteurization kills spoilage and pathogenic organisms (1864 – Pasteur) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer temperatures and times can sterilize foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refrigeration or freezing inhibits microbial growth </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Typical Methods of Food Preservation : <ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air drying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical preservatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibitors of organism growth such as salt, sodium nitrite, and propionates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bactofugation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removing bacteria from liquids by centrifugation </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Freezing <ul><li>Optimum temperature (0 °F or lower) </li></ul><ul><li>Meat freeze at -1.4*C </li></ul><ul><li>Works by completely stopping enzyme activity & inhibiting spoilage microorganisms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yeasts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Freezing <ul><li>REMEMBER: Thaw meat at refrigeration temps or in the microwave </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT THAW AT ROOM TEMPS </li></ul>
    12. 12. How long with frozen meat last? <ul><li>Beef – 12 months </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pork - 6 months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lamb – 6-9 </li></ul><ul><li>months </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry – 3-6 months </li></ul>
    13. 13. Disadvantages of freezing <ul><li>Frozen meat stored too long become dry , less palatable and rancid. </li></ul><ul><li>After thawing it is less durable than fresh-killed or chilled meat. </li></ul><ul><li>When frozen meat is thawed it weeps or drips which consist mainly of water, salt, protein and demaged blood corpuscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of weight due to drip in beef is up to 3% while in mutton , lamb or pork loss is less than beef. </li></ul>
    14. 14. FREEZER BURN <ul><li>Yellowish –brown or whitish areas seen on the surface of frozen meats. </li></ul><ul><li>It is due to excessive drying of the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenon involves the formation of a </li></ul><ul><li>condensed layer of the muscular tissue just under the surface. this prevents moisture coming to the surface from the depth of the meat. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Chilling of meat <ul><li>It is useful when meat is stored for short time up to 35 days. </li></ul><ul><li>It is kept at b/w -1.4*c and 1*c preferably in the dark as light has the effect of oxidizing fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere keep dry to prevent the mould formation </li></ul><ul><li>5-10%CO2 helps to prevent the growth of mould and bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that temperature does not reach -1.4*c otherwise meat is frozen.. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Cold shortening <ul><li>Toughness develops in lamb carcasses, if they are exposed to low temperature within about 16 hours after slaughtering </li></ul><ul><li>pH is about 6.3 and ATP levels are high ,lowering of the temperature causes the muscle to contract. It starts normally at 15*c and become greater down to 0*c. </li></ul><ul><li>Beef carcass do not chilled quickly b/c of the thickness of the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to rapid fall in the pH there is no problem of cold shortening in the pig carcass. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Cooking <ul><li>Works by heating products to high temperatures to kill microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>2 types of cooking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasteurization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sterilization </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Pasteurized Cooking <ul><li>Products are cooked to 150-170 °F </li></ul><ul><li>Kills most (but not all) microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>Product must be REFRIGERATED </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “Hotdogs” </li></ul>
    19. 19. Sterilized Cooking <ul><li>Products cooked under pressure to 250 °F </li></ul><ul><li>All microorganisms killed </li></ul><ul><li>Products are shelf stable </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Canned Hams </li></ul>
    20. 20. Smoking <ul><li>- Meat, fish and some other foods may be both preserved and flavored through the use of smoke, typically in a smoke house . The combination of heat to dry the food without cooking it, and the addition of the aromatic (phenolic)hydrocarbons from the smoke preserves the food. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Vacuum packing <ul><li>Vacuum-packing stores food in a vacuum environment, usually in an air-tight bag or bottle. The vacuum environment strips bacteria of oxygen needed for survival, slowing spoiling. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Canning <ul><li>Canning : food is sealed in a container such as a can or glass jar and heated to kill all living organisms, or at least to ensure that there will be no growth of residual organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic foods should be heated to 100 °C, whereas nonacidic foods should be heated to 121°C. Properly canned foods may not be sterile b/c heating them for the time required might alter the foods’ taste and nutritional value. </li></ul><ul><li>Since some of the anaerobic organisms that can grow in cans are from the genus Clostridium , food from a can that is visibly altered, ex. bulged can, should not be eaten . </li></ul>
    23. 23. Dehydration <ul><li>Oldest forms of preserving meat </li></ul><ul><li>Works by removing water from the product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water is required by all microorganisms to grow NO WATER = NO GROWTH </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Dehydration <ul><li>Dehydrate by air drying, heating, or freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “Beef Jerky” </li></ul>
    25. 25. Chemical <ul><li>Chemicals inhibit microorganism growth </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salting or curing draws moisture from the meat through a process of osmosis. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Nitrite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Lactate </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Chemical Preservatives <ul><li>Sodium Benzoate </li></ul><ul><li>Sorbate </li></ul><ul><li>Proprionates </li></ul>
    27. 27. Chemical Preservatives <ul><li>Sulfur Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates and Nitrites </li></ul><ul><li>BHA/BHT </li></ul>
    28. 28. Chemical <ul><li>Other benefits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add flavor to the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve product shelf life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a pink cured-meat color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All Chemicals added to meat are FDA approved </li></ul>
    29. 29. Fermentation <ul><li>Works by changing sugar into acid </li></ul><ul><li>Acid prevents microorganisms from growing </li></ul><ul><li>Tangy flavor and special texture developed </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “Pepperoni” </li></ul>
    30. 30. Modified Atmosphere Preservation <ul><li>MAP – Modified Atmosphere Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypobaric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum Packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled Atmosphere Packaging </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. MAP Equipment
    32. 32. Irradiation <ul><li>A new process to make food SAFER!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Works by exposing meat to radiant energy </li></ul><ul><li>Destroys most (but not all) microorganisms </li></ul>“ Radura” sign on labels
    33. 33. Irradiation <ul><li>Reduces spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiated meat is still nutritious </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiated meat needs to be COOKED </li></ul><ul><li>IRRADIATED MEAT IS SAFE TO EAT!!!! </li></ul>
    34. 34. Irradiation unit
    35. 35. The 5 Factors in the Curing Process <ul><li>Flavor </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Tenderness </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation </li></ul><ul><li>Yield </li></ul>
    36. 36. Preservation <ul><li>3 main ingredients to preservation process </li></ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrite </li></ul>
    37. 37. Flavor <ul><li>Flavor is the primary reason consumers purchase meat more than once </li></ul><ul><li>Salt- Predominant flavor in most processed meats </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar- Used to reduce the harshness of the salt flavor </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrite- Provide a characteristic flavor you recognize as a ham flavor </li></ul><ul><li>Smoked- Contains a smoke flavoring rather than being traditionally smoked </li></ul>
    38. 38. Color and Tenderness <ul><li>Color- If nitrate is used the meat will take on a distinctive red color. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenderness- The type of process will affect the tenderness of the meat. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Jerky the meat is dry and tough </li></ul><ul><li>Ham usually fairly tender </li></ul>
    39. 39. Yield <ul><li>When meat products are cooked and smoked, some water and juices are lost, making the product weigh less, thus reducing the product’s value. </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture- Helps prevent moisture loss during cooking and smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Profits- Adds weight to products increasing the price of the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Curing- Used to deliver cure ingredients into the fresh meat prior to curing. </li></ul>
    40. 40. The Curing Process <ul><li>Non-Meat Ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Not meat!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Increase product yield </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in color, texture or flavor development </li></ul><ul><li>Increase product shelf-life </li></ul><ul><li>Increase process efficiency </li></ul>
    41. 41. Questions <ul><li>Please contact Dr. Elizabeth Boyle or Ryan Timm at (785)532-1247 </li></ul><ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Please contact Dr.M.Arshad.Javid </li></ul><ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Call your county extension office </li></ul>
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