Animal health db
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Animal health db Animal health db Presentation Transcript

  • ANIMAL HEALTH DAVID M. BENEFIELD CULLMAN HIGH SCHOOL
  • Types of Disinfectants and Antiseptics
    • Disinfectants “applied to the environment”
      • Sodium hydroxide – used widely as a germicide
      • Unslaked lime – mixed with water to form calcium hydroxide
      • Quaternary ammonium compounds – most common spray disinfectants (lysol, clorox spray)
    • Antiseptics “applied to the animal”
      • Iodine
      • Ethanol – ethyl rubbing alcohol
      • Isopropanol – isopropyl rubbing alcohol
  • cont.
      • Hydrogen peroxide
    • Cleansers
      • Detergents, wetting agents, emulsifiers
      • Soaps
  • METHODS OF ADMINISTERING MEDICINE
    • Topical – applied to skin or mucous membranes of eye,ear, or nasal passage
      • Ex. Ointments, powders, aerosols
    • Oral – given by mouth by feeding, balling gun, drench applicator (gun), or dose syringe
      • Ex. Pills, tablets, capsules, liquids
    • Anal or rectal – introduced into rectum
      • Ex. Suppository
  • Methods, cont.
    • Nasal – introduced into the nose
      • Ex. Spray for respiratory virus
    • Injectable – placed directly into animal’s body with needle and syringe
      • Ex. Intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal
    • Intrauterine – introduced directly into uterus
      • Ex. Bolus placed in uterus after calving problems
  • Common Types of Animal Medical Equipment
    • Balling Gun – used to administer pills, capsules, or boluses orally
    • Syringe – used with needle to administer liquid injectables
    • Thermometer – inserted into animal’s rectum to check body temperature
    • Drench Gun – used to administer orally liquid medications
    • Speculum Tube – 20-inch metal tube used with a rubber tube to relieve cattle of bloat
    • Implant Gun – used to deposit growth stimulant pellets in back of ear
  • TYPES OF INJECTIONS
  • SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION (SUB Q) Made in any area where skin fits loosely, such a neck, chest wall, or flank; dosage is deposited under raised skin, and area is then massaged to facilitate distribution.
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  • INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION (IM) Made deeply into large muscle with needle at least ¾ inch long. Not placed in high priced meat areas, can damaged muscle tissue.
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  • INTRAVENOUS INJECTION (IV) Made directly into jugular vein with 14- or 16- gauge. 1 ½ to 2- inch needle with point toward animal’s heart. Fastest route for medicine.
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  • INTRAPERITONEAL INJECTION (IP) Made into right flank at point in center of triangle formed by loin, last rib, and line from top of last rib to hip bone.
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  • INFUSION INTRAMAMMARY (IMM) Made with cannula directly into teat canal after disinfecting teat and depressing teat to open sphincter muscle. Mastitis (infection)
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  • INTRARUMINAL INJECTION (IR) Made through the left flank with a 14-gauge, 3-inch needle. Used to relieve bloat and injecting medicine directly into the rumen.
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  • INTRADERMAL INJECTION (ID) Made into skin with a 20- to 26-gauge needle. Should raise a blister. Hair is shaven in area.
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  • Types of Vaccines
    • Bacterial – vaccine which protects against diseases caused by bacteria
    • Killed virus – produced by infecting an animal with a specific virus which is harvested at the height of infection and subjected to killing agents (dead virus stimulates antibodies)
    • Live virus – produced by growing a live culture of the virus
    • Modified live virus – made by altering a disease-producing agent by growing it in another host or reducing virulence of the virus
  • cont.
    • Monovalent – vaccine which produces only one disease immunity
    • Polyvalent – vaccine which produces immunity against two or more diseases
    • Viral – vaccine which protects against diseases caused by viruses
    • Serum – fluid portion of blood without the cells or the clotting factors (obtained from animals immune to the disease and injected into other animals in order to give passive immunity
  • Common Diseases
    • Blackleg and clostridium infections (Sub Q or IM)
    • Vibriosis (IM)
    • Leptospirosis (IM)
    • Enterotoxemia (Sub Q)
    • Erysipelas (Sub Q or IM)
    • Anemia (IM)
    • Staph mastitis (IM)
  • GUIDELINES FOR PROPER VACCINATION OF ANIMALS
    • Use a clean syringe in good working order
    • Use only the dose directed
    • Use proper method and proper route
    • Keep vaccine bottles refrigerated
    • Do not expose live biologicals to sunlight
    • Observe slaughter withdrawal time
    • Do not inject in primal cuts; use shoulder of neck muscles
    • Disinfect or change needles for each different animal
    • Follow all manufacturer’s directions