Animal diseases 4

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Animal diseases 4

  1. 1. Animal Diseases
  2. 2. Disease <ul><li>Broad definition – not being at ease or uncomfortable </li></ul><ul><li>Producers have a vested interest to keep their animals healthy </li></ul>
  3. 3. Healthy Animals <ul><li>Grow faster and produce more profit for their owners </li></ul><ul><li>Some diseases are mild, others may be severe and cause rapid death </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sick animals <ul><li>Usually display outward signs of illness </li></ul><ul><li>Animal may be droopy, go off feed and water, be restless, have a dull haircoat </li></ul>
  5. 5. Infectious diseases <ul><li>Caused by microorganisms that invade the animal’s body </li></ul><ul><li>Usually contagious diseases that the animal can pass to another animal </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bacteria <ul><li>Live in a wide range of conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Live on and in the bodies of all animals </li></ul><ul><li>More numerous than the cells of the body </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bacteria <ul><li>Many are beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>Those living in the stomachs of ruminant animals aid in digestion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bacteria <ul><li>Useful in production of foods such as cheese and sauerkraut </li></ul><ul><li>Many can be harmful </li></ul><ul><li>Invade the cells of an animal’s body </li></ul>
  9. 9. Parasitic bacteria <ul><li>May harm the animal by feeding off the body cells or secreting a material known as a toxin </li></ul>
  10. 10. Toxin <ul><li>Substance that causes harm to an organism </li></ul><ul><li>A poison </li></ul>
  11. 11. Harmful bacteria <ul><li>When large numbers invade, the animal becomes ill </li></ul><ul><li>Type and form of the illness depends on the type of bacteria that invades the animal </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cocci <ul><li>Round spherical shaped bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Some forms of pneumonia and strep are caused by this bacteria </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bacillus <ul><li>Rod shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Single, pairs, or arranged in chains </li></ul><ul><li>Cause some serious diseases in animals </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bacillus <ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus </li></ul><ul><li>Blackleg </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal coliform </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella and tuberculosis </li></ul>
  15. 15. Spirilla <ul><li>Shaped like spirals or corkscrews </li></ul><ul><li>Very motile </li></ul><ul><li>Require moist atmosphere to live </li></ul>
  16. 16. Spirilla <ul><li>Live very well in the reproductive tracts of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Leptospirosis </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrosis and spirochetosis </li></ul>
  17. 17. Most bacteria <ul><li>Can be controlled by the use of antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin was one of the first </li></ul><ul><li>Produced from extracts of molds </li></ul>
  18. 18. Penicillin <ul><li>Many forms are now produced </li></ul><ul><li>Very effective against bacterial infection. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Viruses <ul><li>Very tiny particle of matter composed of a core of nucleic acid and a covering of protein that protects the virus </li></ul>
  20. 20. Viruses <ul><li>Have characteristics of both living and nonliving material </li></ul><ul><li>Are on the borderline between living and non living </li></ul>
  21. 21. Viruses <ul><li>Made up of some of the material found in cells but are not cells because they do not have a nucleus or other cell parts. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Viruses <ul><li>Do not grow and cannot reproduce outside a living cell </li></ul><ul><li>Once inside a living cell, virus reproduces using energy and materials in the invaded cell </li></ul>
  23. 23. Viruses <ul><li>Harm cells by causing them to burst during reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>And by using material that the cell needs to function properly </li></ul>
  24. 24. Virus <ul><li>Viral diseases cause the animal to be sick by preventing certain cells in the body from functioning properly </li></ul>
  25. 25. Virus <ul><li>More difficult to treat than bacterial diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections </li></ul>
  26. 26. Viral diseases <ul><li>Foot and mouth disease </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Hog cholera </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudorabies </li></ul>
  27. 27. Viral diseases <ul><li>Best means of dealing with them is prevention </li></ul>
  28. 28. Protozoa <ul><li>Microorganism that causes disease </li></ul><ul><li>Single celled organisms that are often parasitic </li></ul>
  29. 29. Protozoa <ul><li>Cause harm by feeding on cells or producing toxins </li></ul><ul><li>African sleeping sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Anaplasmosis </li></ul>
  30. 30. Protozoa <ul><li>Coccidiosis </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most costly poultry diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Caused diarrhea and weight loss </li></ul>
  31. 31. Protozoa <ul><li>Most can be controlled by drugs </li></ul>
  32. 32. The immune system <ul><li>Several lines of defense in fighting disease </li></ul><ul><li>Physical barriers that keep pathogens out </li></ul>
  33. 33. The immune system <ul><li>Nostrils are lined with hairs that attract particles that harbor germs before they can enter the body </li></ul>
  34. 34. The immune system <ul><li>Mucous membranes secrete viscous water substance that traps and destroys bacteria and viruses </li></ul>
  35. 35. The immune system <ul><li>Digestive and respiratory systems – greatest avenue for entry </li></ul><ul><li>Some disease germs can live in the soil for many years </li></ul>
  36. 36. Soil borne disease <ul><li>Animals come into contact with the ground when they graze </li></ul><ul><li>Many pathogens are breathed in by livestock </li></ul>
  37. 37. Germs <ul><li>Swallowed by animals are destroyed by digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Inhaled germs are trapped in mucous membranes of respiratory tract </li></ul>
  38. 38. 2 nd line of defense <ul><li>Blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>White and Red </li></ul><ul><li>Red – carry oxygen and other nutrients to other body cells </li></ul>
  39. 39. White Blood Cells <ul><li>Are produced in the bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>Circulate throughout the body to get rid of worn out cells </li></ul>
  40. 40. Phagocytes <ul><li>White blood cells that intercept and destroy pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Also migrate to certain organs and remain there to intercept pathogens </li></ul>
  41. 41. White Blood Cells <ul><li>Circulate through other body fluids and the mucous membranes </li></ul>
  42. 42. Phagocytes <ul><li>Release chemicals that can induce the production of more white blood cells to help fight disease </li></ul>
  43. 43. Phagocytes <ul><li>An elevated WBC count indicated that there are disease organisms present in the animal’s body and a large number of phagocytes have been produced to combat them </li></ul>
  44. 44. Lymphocytes <ul><li>Lymph glands that produce certain WBC’s </li></ul><ul><li>These cells react to foreign substances by releasing chemicals that kill the pathogen or inactivate the foreign substance </li></ul>
  45. 45. Antigens <ul><li>Substances that cause the release of chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>May be viruses, bacteria, toxins, or other substances </li></ul>
  46. 46. Antibodies <ul><li>The chemicals released by the lymphocytes </li></ul>
  47. 47. 2 nd Immune Response <ul><li>Lymphocytes become memory cell and are ready to release the antibody if the antigen enters the body at a later time </li></ul>
  48. 48. 2 nd Immune Response <ul><li>Response occurs much more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts longer than primary response </li></ul>
  49. 49. Immunity <ul><li>Means than an animal is protected from catching a certain disease </li></ul><ul><li>Animal’s body is capable of producing enough antibodies fast enough to neutralize the disease </li></ul>
  50. 50. Immunity <ul><li>Active or passive </li></ul><ul><li>Active –animal is more or less permanently immune </li></ul><ul><li>Passive – animal is only temporarily immune </li></ul>
  51. 51. Immunity <ul><li>Animals are born with some immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Colostrum is rich in antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Serve the new animal until its own immune system can take over </li></ul>
  52. 52. Immunity <ul><li>As the animal is exposed to more antigens, antibodies build up within the animal. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally acquired active immunity results from the animal actually contracting the disease and recovering </li></ul>
  53. 53. Artificial Active <ul><li>Induced by injecting antigens into the animal </li></ul><ul><li>Causes phagocytes to react without making the animal seriously ill </li></ul>
  54. 54. Edward Jenner <ul><li>Late 1700’s </li></ul><ul><li>Began vaccination process </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox and cow pox </li></ul><ul><li>Collected material from sores of people with cowpox </li></ul>
  55. 55. Edward Jenner <ul><li>Injected healthy people with material </li></ul><ul><li>Became mildly ill with cow pox </li></ul><ul><li>Then were immune </li></ul>
  56. 56. Louis Pasteur <ul><li>Developed several vaccines following Jenner’s lead </li></ul>
  57. 57. Vaccines <ul><li>Live </li></ul><ul><li>Killed or weakened strain </li></ul><ul><li>Both stimulate production of antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Killed – less dangerous when compared to live vaccine </li></ul>
  58. 58. Noninfectious Disease <ul><li>Not contagious </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by defects in the genes </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or disease can be passed from parent to offspring </li></ul>
  59. 59. Genetic Diseases <ul><li>Cannot be spread through contact with other animals </li></ul><ul><li>Control of genetic diseases, using good selection practices </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid breeding animals that are known to have genetic defects in their line </li></ul>
  60. 60. Nutritional Diseases <ul><li>Milk fever in dairy cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Cows lie down and are unable to stand </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient amount of Ca in the bloodstream </li></ul>
  61. 61. Milk fever <ul><li>Usually cured by injection of Ca salts </li></ul><ul><li>Effects are immediate and dramatic </li></ul>
  62. 62. Overeating <ul><li>Founder – horses, cattle and sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Eat too much grain </li></ul><ul><li>Causes feet to become inflamed and hooves to grow upward and outward </li></ul>
  63. 63. Poisoning <ul><li>Moldy feed can contain toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Aflatoxins and ergot – fungi that grow on grains </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing on poisonous plants </li></ul>
  64. 64. Disease prevention <ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>Humans can carry disease from one farm to another </li></ul><ul><li>Many farms require plastic boots be worn over the shoes of visitors </li></ul>
  65. 65. Quarantine <ul><li>Isolation of newly purchased animals </li></ul><ul><li>Government regulates quarantine for animals coming into the US </li></ul>
  66. 66. Quarantine <ul><li>Many states have quarantine periods or require health papers for animals crossing state lines </li></ul><ul><li>Animals tested positive for Brucellosis (Bangs) are branded and sent to slaughter. </li></ul>

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