Animal diseases 4
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    Animal diseases 4 Animal diseases 4 Presentation Transcript

    • Animal Diseases
    • Disease
      • Broad definition – not being at ease or uncomfortable
      • Producers have a vested interest to keep their animals healthy
    • Healthy Animals
      • Grow faster and produce more profit for their owners
      • Some diseases are mild, others may be severe and cause rapid death
    • Sick animals
      • Usually display outward signs of illness
      • Animal may be droopy, go off feed and water, be restless, have a dull haircoat
    • Infectious diseases
      • Caused by microorganisms that invade the animal’s body
      • Usually contagious diseases that the animal can pass to another animal
    • Bacteria
      • Live in a wide range of conditions
      • Live on and in the bodies of all animals
      • More numerous than the cells of the body
    • Bacteria
      • Many are beneficial
      • Those living in the stomachs of ruminant animals aid in digestion
    • Bacteria
      • Useful in production of foods such as cheese and sauerkraut
      • Many can be harmful
      • Invade the cells of an animal’s body
    • Parasitic bacteria
      • May harm the animal by feeding off the body cells or secreting a material known as a toxin
    • Toxin
      • Substance that causes harm to an organism
      • A poison
    • Harmful bacteria
      • When large numbers invade, the animal becomes ill
      • Type and form of the illness depends on the type of bacteria that invades the animal
    • Cocci
      • Round spherical shaped bacteria
      • Some forms of pneumonia and strep are caused by this bacteria
    • Bacillus
      • Rod shaped
      • Single, pairs, or arranged in chains
      • Cause some serious diseases in animals
    • Bacillus
      • Anthrax
      • Tetanus
      • Blackleg
      • Intestinal coliform
      • Salmonella and tuberculosis
    • Spirilla
      • Shaped like spirals or corkscrews
      • Very motile
      • Require moist atmosphere to live
    • Spirilla
      • Live very well in the reproductive tracts of animals
      • Leptospirosis
      • Vibrosis and spirochetosis
    • Most bacteria
      • Can be controlled by the use of antibiotics
      • Penicillin was one of the first
      • Produced from extracts of molds
    • Penicillin
      • Many forms are now produced
      • Very effective against bacterial infection.
    • Viruses
      • Very tiny particle of matter composed of a core of nucleic acid and a covering of protein that protects the virus
    • Viruses
      • Have characteristics of both living and nonliving material
      • Are on the borderline between living and non living
    • Viruses
      • Made up of some of the material found in cells but are not cells because they do not have a nucleus or other cell parts.
    • Viruses
      • Do not grow and cannot reproduce outside a living cell
      • Once inside a living cell, virus reproduces using energy and materials in the invaded cell
    • Viruses
      • Harm cells by causing them to burst during reproduction
      • And by using material that the cell needs to function properly
    • Virus
      • Viral diseases cause the animal to be sick by preventing certain cells in the body from functioning properly
    • Virus
      • More difficult to treat than bacterial diseases
      • Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections
    • Viral diseases
      • Foot and mouth disease
      • Influenza
      • Hog cholera
      • Pseudorabies
    • Viral diseases
      • Best means of dealing with them is prevention
    • Protozoa
      • Microorganism that causes disease
      • Single celled organisms that are often parasitic
    • Protozoa
      • Cause harm by feeding on cells or producing toxins
      • African sleeping sickness
      • Anaplasmosis
    • Protozoa
      • Coccidiosis
      • One of the most costly poultry diseases
      • Caused diarrhea and weight loss
    • Protozoa
      • Most can be controlled by drugs
    • The immune system
      • Several lines of defense in fighting disease
      • Physical barriers that keep pathogens out
    • The immune system
      • Nostrils are lined with hairs that attract particles that harbor germs before they can enter the body
    • The immune system
      • Mucous membranes secrete viscous water substance that traps and destroys bacteria and viruses
    • The immune system
      • Digestive and respiratory systems – greatest avenue for entry
      • Some disease germs can live in the soil for many years
    • Soil borne disease
      • Animals come into contact with the ground when they graze
      • Many pathogens are breathed in by livestock
    • Germs
      • Swallowed by animals are destroyed by digestive enzymes
      • Inhaled germs are trapped in mucous membranes of respiratory tract
    • 2 nd line of defense
      • Blood cells
      • White and Red
      • Red – carry oxygen and other nutrients to other body cells
    • White Blood Cells
      • Are produced in the bone marrow
      • Circulate throughout the body to get rid of worn out cells
    • Phagocytes
      • White blood cells that intercept and destroy pathogens
      • Also migrate to certain organs and remain there to intercept pathogens
    • White Blood Cells
      • Circulate through other body fluids and the mucous membranes
    • Phagocytes
      • Release chemicals that can induce the production of more white blood cells to help fight disease
    • Phagocytes
      • An elevated WBC count indicated that there are disease organisms present in the animal’s body and a large number of phagocytes have been produced to combat them
    • Lymphocytes
      • Lymph glands that produce certain WBC’s
      • These cells react to foreign substances by releasing chemicals that kill the pathogen or inactivate the foreign substance
    • Antigens
      • Substances that cause the release of chemicals
      • May be viruses, bacteria, toxins, or other substances
    • Antibodies
      • The chemicals released by the lymphocytes
    • 2 nd Immune Response
      • Lymphocytes become memory cell and are ready to release the antibody if the antigen enters the body at a later time
    • 2 nd Immune Response
      • Response occurs much more quickly
      • Lasts longer than primary response
    • Immunity
      • Means than an animal is protected from catching a certain disease
      • Animal’s body is capable of producing enough antibodies fast enough to neutralize the disease
    • Immunity
      • Active or passive
      • Active –animal is more or less permanently immune
      • Passive – animal is only temporarily immune
    • Immunity
      • Animals are born with some immunity
      • Colostrum is rich in antibodies
      • Serve the new animal until its own immune system can take over
    • Immunity
      • As the animal is exposed to more antigens, antibodies build up within the animal.
      • Naturally acquired active immunity results from the animal actually contracting the disease and recovering
    • Artificial Active
      • Induced by injecting antigens into the animal
      • Causes phagocytes to react without making the animal seriously ill
    • Edward Jenner
      • Late 1700’s
      • Began vaccination process
      • Smallpox and cow pox
      • Collected material from sores of people with cowpox
    • Edward Jenner
      • Injected healthy people with material
      • Became mildly ill with cow pox
      • Then were immune
    • Louis Pasteur
      • Developed several vaccines following Jenner’s lead
    • Vaccines
      • Live
      • Killed or weakened strain
      • Both stimulate production of antibodies
      • Killed – less dangerous when compared to live vaccine
    • Noninfectious Disease
      • Not contagious
      • Genetic diseases
      • Caused by defects in the genes
      • Problem or disease can be passed from parent to offspring
    • Genetic Diseases
      • Cannot be spread through contact with other animals
      • Control of genetic diseases, using good selection practices
      • Avoid breeding animals that are known to have genetic defects in their line
    • Nutritional Diseases
      • Milk fever in dairy cattle
      • Cows lie down and are unable to stand
      • Insufficient amount of Ca in the bloodstream
    • Milk fever
      • Usually cured by injection of Ca salts
      • Effects are immediate and dramatic
    • Overeating
      • Founder – horses, cattle and sheep
      • Eat too much grain
      • Causes feet to become inflamed and hooves to grow upward and outward
    • Poisoning
      • Moldy feed can contain toxins
      • Aflatoxins and ergot – fungi that grow on grains
      • Grazing on poisonous plants
    • Disease prevention
      • Vaccination
      • Humans can carry disease from one farm to another
      • Many farms require plastic boots be worn over the shoes of visitors
    • Quarantine
      • Isolation of newly purchased animals
      • Government regulates quarantine for animals coming into the US
    • Quarantine
      • Many states have quarantine periods or require health papers for animals crossing state lines
      • Animals tested positive for Brucellosis (Bangs) are branded and sent to slaughter.