Adverb clause group e (autosaved)Document Transcript
ADVERB CLAUSES LECTURE : YB. Unggul Djatmika, S. Pd. Members of Group : 1. Intan Sari 201012500767 2. Theresia Meta S. 201012500779 3. Rico Sinaga 201012500881 Class R4HUNIVERSITY OF INDRAPRASTA PGRIJl. Nangka No. 58 C (JL T.B. Simatupang) Tanjung Barat, Jagakarsa, Jak-sel Telp. : (021) 78835283 – 7818718 Fax. : (021) 78835283 Website : http//:www.unindra.ac.id E-mail : email@example.com
Introduction:Adverb : Words which are used to modify verbs, adjectives or adverbs are usually referred toas adverbs.Clause : It is a group of words containing a subject and its verb. A clause forms a sentence or part of asentence and often functions as a noun, adjective or adverb.So, adverb clauses are group of words which contains a subject and a Predicate of its own, and does thework of an Adverb, which modifies the meaning of a Verb, an Adjective or another Adverb in the mainclause.Adverb clauses are dependent clauses. They cannot stand alone as a sentence in written English. Theymust be connected to an independent clause.Note :Punctuation : When an adverb clause precedes an independent clause, a comma is used to separatethe clause. When the adverb clause follows, usually comma is no needed.Words that introduce adverb clauses are called “subordinating conjunctions.”Example :Because Intan was sleepy, she went to bed.Intan went to bed because she was sleepy.Summary list of words used to introduce Adverb ClausesTime : after, before, when, while, as, as soon as, since, until, by the time, once, as/so long as,whenever, every time, the first time, the last time, the next timeCause and Effect : because, now that, sinceContrast : even though, although, thoughDirect contrast : while, whereasCondition : if, only if, unless, whether or not, even if, in case, in the event that.Result or consequence : so-that, such-that
Comparison : Comparison of degree : than Comparison of manner : as, as if, as thoughConcession/ supposition/ contrast : though, even though, although, while, even if, wherever, whenever,whatever, whereas, no matter if.The uses of Adverb clauseUsing Adverb clause to show cause and effect : - Because e.g. : Because Tessa was tired, she took a rest. Tessa took a rest because she was tired. - Now that Now that means “because now”, now that is used for present causes of present of future situation. e.g. : Now that we have a lot of money, we are going to take a vacation around the world. Intan lost his job. Now that she is unemployed, she can’t pay her house rent. - Since When since is used to mean “because” , it expresses a known cause; it means “because it is a fact that” or “given that it is true that.” Cause and effect sentences with since say: “Given the fact that X is true, Y is the result.” e.g.: Since Rico is a good artist, he draws very well. Since Monday is holiday, he doesn’t have to go to work.Expressing contrast ( Unexpected Result ) : Using even though - Because and Even though Because is used to express expected results. Even though is used to express unexpected results.
Note : Like because , even though introduces an adverb clause e.g.: (a) Because the weather was cold, I didn’t go swimming. (b) Even though the weather was cold, I went swimming. (a)Because I wasn’t tired, I didn’t go to bed. (b) Even though I wasn’t tired, I went to bed.Showing direct contrast: While and Whereas - While and Whereas are used to show direct contrast: “this” is exactly the opposite of ”that”. While and Whereas may be used with the idea of either clause with no difference meaning. Whereas mostly occurs in formal written English. - Note: A comma is usually used even if the adverb clause comes second. e.g.: (a) Intan is rich, while Ical is poor. (b) Ical is poor, while Intan is rich. (a) Fire is hot, whereas ice is cold. (b) Whereas fire is hot, ice is cold.Expressing conditions in adverb clauses : If –clauses - If-clauses (also called ”adverb clauses of condition”) present possible conditions. The main clause expresses results. e.g.: If it rains, the streets get wet. It rains = POSSIBLE CONDITION The streets get wet = RESULT - A present tense, not a future tense, is used in an if-clause even though the verb in the if-clause may refer to a future event or situation. As in this example : e.g.: If it rains tomorrow, I will take my umbrella. Words that introduce adverb clauses of condition ( if-clauses ) If in case unless Whether or not in the event that only if Even if
Adverb clause of condition : Using Whether or not and Even if - Whether or not expresses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters; the result will be the same. e.g.: I’m going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold. In this example : “if it is cold, I’m going swimming. If it is not cold, I’m going swimming. I don’t care about the temperature. It doesn’t matter.” - Sentences with even if are close in meaning to those with whether or not. Even if gives the idea that a particular condition doesn’t matter. The result will not change. e.g. : I have decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the weather is cold, I’m going to go swimming.Adverb clauses of condition: Using In Case and In The Event That - In case and in the event express the idea that something probably won’t happen, but it might. e.g. : I’ll be at my uncle’s house in case you (should) need to reach me - In case /in the event that means “if chance this should happen” e.g. : In the event that you (should) need to reach me, I’ll be at my uncle’s house. Notes: In the event that is more formal than in case. The use of should in the adverb clause emphasizes the speaker’s uncertainty that something will happen.Adverb clauses of condition: Using Unless - Unless = If … not e.g. : (a) I’ll go swimming tomorrow unless it’s cold. (b) I’ll go swimming tomorrow it it isn’t cold. In (a): unless it’s cold “if isn’t cold.” (a) And (b) have the same meaning.Adverb clauses of condition: Using Only If - Only if expresses the idea that there is only one condition that will cause a particular result e.g.: (a) The picnic will be canceled only if it rains.
If it’s cold, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s windy, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s damp and foggy, we’ll go on the picnic. If it’s unbearably hot. We’ll go on the picnic.- When only if begins a sentence, the subject and verb of the main clause are inverted, as in (b). *No commas are used. e.g. : (b) Only if it rains will the picnic be canceled. Adverb Clauses in Complex SentencesFrame: Adverb Clauses before or after main clauses ADVERB CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE ADVERB CLAUSE CLAUSE SUBJECT + SUB- VERB/VERB PHRASE CLAUSE SUBJECT + MARKER PREDICATE, JECT MARKER PREDICATE, ETC. ETC. 1 We used to live in the before we moved here. village 2 You didn’t tell me about when we left school. it 3 A car hit a tree where the street makes a turn. 4 I wanted to spend my As I thought best. time 5 After I wrote a I decided to see a letter, movie. 6 While I was I saw a traffic walking, accident.
7 Because I didn’t find I went by myself. you, 8 Since I had I came here. nothing to do, 9 After the balls are they are sent to shops. packed, 10 She has been the since I first taught here in headmaster 1987 11 Because she was she was angry. disturbed, 12 Please, release me for I don’t love you let me go anymore.Usage1. In the sentences in the above frame, the adverb clauses modify the verb phrases of the main clauses.2. An adverb clause may come at the beginning or at the end of the complex sentence. If it comes at the beginning of the sentence, it is commonly followed by a comma (see sentence 5—8). If it comes at the end of the sentence it needs not and usually should not be preceded by a comma (see sentences 1—4). Note: A sentence may have adverb clauses at the beginning and at the end of the sentence at the same time. Example: While I was walking, I saw a traffic accident where a similar accident had happened a week before.3. Adverb clauses may be divided into several types, depending on the kind of information they give.
• There are adverb clauses of; a) Time An adverb clause of time can be introduced by the following clause markers: after, before, when, whenever, as, as soon as, until, while, once, since The adverb clauses in sentences 1, 2, 5 and 6 in the frame are adverb clauses of time. In sentence 1, for example, the adverb clause ‘before we moved here‘ gives information about when we ‘used to live in the village‘. b) Place An adverb clause of place can be introduced by: where, wherever. In sentence 3 in the frame, the adverb clause is an adverb clause of place. It tells about where a car ‘hit a tree’. c) Purpose An adverb clause of purpose can be introduced by: so, so that, in order that, such … that, … enough that Example: He studied hard so that he would pass the exam. The adverb clause ’so that he would pass the exam’ tells what ‘he studied hard’ for. d) Cause (reason) An adverb clause of cause (reason) may be introduced by: because, since, as, for. The adverb clauses in sentences 7 and 8 are adverb clauses of cause (reason). In sentence 8, for example, the clause ’since I had nothing to do’ gives information about why ‘I came here’. e) Condition An adverb clause of condition may be introduced by if, unless, as long as, on condition that. Example: I’ll go by myself if you can’t go.
f) Result or consequence An adverb clause of result or consequence may be introduced by so-that and such- that. g) Comparison An adverb clause of comparison divided into 2 sections : 1. Comparison of degree : than 2. Comparison of manner : as, as if, as though h) concession An adverb clause of concession may be introduced by though, although, even though, while , nevertheless , even if , ( Inspite of .. phrase, despite clause) Example: He failed even though he had studied hard.Sources :Azar, Betty Schramper, Understanding And Using English Grammar, Third Edition, 1999, Longman.English for The SLTA-Structure Reference Book II & III, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.Structure, Work Book for student, UNINDRA PGRi