design for environmental


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design for environmental

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT FITRIA INTAN AYUNINGTIAS 105030200121014 A. Definition Systematic approach to evaluate the consequences of the environmental impact of products and processess, and their impact on human health and the environment (Fiksel, 1996) A systematic consideration of design performance with respect to environmental, health, and safety objectives, over the full product and process life cycle (Jonathan Weaver). The key focus of DfE is to minimize the environmental-economic cost to consumers B. The three main goals 1. Promoting green cleaning and recognizing safer consumer and industrial and institutional products through safer product labeling. 2. Defining Best Practices in areas ranging from auto refinishing to nail salon safety. 3. Identifying safer chemicals, including life cycle considerations, through Alternatives Assessment. C. Implementation 1. Identification the environmental aspect 2. Providing the society for environment management 3. Evaluation the environment D. Characteristic 1. Natural resources are transformed into useful goods and harmful by-products 2. Our economic system measures the efficiency of production or “productivity” in a way that keeps better track of the good things we produce than the bad1 1 Senator Al Gore – earth in the balance, 1992
  2. 2. 3. The “Crossroad” DfE is at the “conceptual crossroad between the drive toward Enterprise Integration and the drive toward Sustainable Development.” Enterprise Integration is the re-engineering of business processes and information systems to improve teamwork and coordination across organizational boundaries, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the enterprise as a whole. Total Quality Management is the foundation for enterprise integration, and has led to the concept of Integrated Product Development. IPD uses cross-functional design teams to consider the full spectrum of quality factors simultaneously. Sustainable Development is defined as “industrial progress that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Environmental Stewardship is the foundation for this concept, and its first widely applied practice is Pollution Prevention. DfE is put forward as the way to achieve sustainability while seeking competitive advantage. E. Principles 1. Improve worker safety, public health, and environmental health. And also improve performance and qulity of product. 2. Use resources wisely 3. Incorporating environmental consideration into the product design, process, and technical management system.
  3. 3. 1. Eco-Efficiency Approaches Cleaner processes : reduced emmissions, manufacturing, and paint methods. Usually involves incremental refinement of production or manufacturing processes to reduce waste and its byproducts. (pollution prevention) Cleaner products : use of recycled products and environment friendly materials Fundamental product designs are still dynamic. Takes into account all stages of the product life cycle, from material selection to end-of-life use and recovery. (environmental responsibility) Sustainable resources use : industrial ecology Evaluate product and production system as a whole. Includes supplier and customer impacts on resource consumption 2. Product Life Cycle Perspective Consider all of the aspects of this chart and the potential impact on the environment within your design process - raw materials / products used, - manufacturing and assembly operations, - product use by customer, and
  4. 4. - fate of materials / substances at the end of life of the product Acknowledge that most product design effort is usually focused on the product performance during the “System Use” Stage 3. Integrated Cross-Functional Product Development DfE Enablers in Product Development – Integrated product realization process – Concurrent development of product and production processes – Environmental performance metrics – Analysis methods for comparing and selecting alternatives F. Motivation 1. Reduced Future Liability Informed decisions during the design stage can avoid costly future liabilities Eliminating toxic materials and designing more recyclable products can reduce product disposal responsibility Reducing toxic releases during processing helps eliminate later treatment of contaminated water or soil 2. Reduced Regulatory Impact DfE enables anticipation of future trends in environmental regulations and standards Proactive approach incorporates future environmental demands and regulations into current product and process designs Early cooperation with regulatory agencies can be beneficial by allowing influence on implementation timing and/or metrics 3. Reduced Time to Market Hazardous or regulated substances in products and production processes often require permits and elaborate control systems to meet regulations Permits and controls take time and resources to obtain and establish By designing out such substances wherever possible, time to market can be reduced
  5. 5. 4. Reduced Cost Reduced production cost (by re-using or recycling content) Reduced waste management cost (less waste = less cost) Reduced product cost (through simplification and component integration) Reduced usage cost and end-of-life costs 5. Corporate Image and Market Position Consumers are increasingly conscious of environmental issues Perceptions about environmental responsibility of a company may affect consumer and government purchase decisions Environmental quality can be an effective marketing tool Governments and large corporations wishing to appeal to these consumers will establish purchasing standards regarding environmental friendliness and corporate environmental policies and management systems. Unless these organizations and individual consumers are convinced of a company’s proficiency in the area of environmental quality, sales to them will be difficult to maintain. On the other hand, if the company is able to demonstrate its environmental performance adequately, it can be an effective marketing tool to increase sales to those same consumers. 6. Enhanced Profitability Studies have shown that environmentally responsible companies have: 16.7% higher operating income growth 9.3% higher sales growth 3.9% higher return on investments 2.2% higher return on assets 1.9% higher asset growth
  6. 6. NB: Not only is environmental responsibility good for corporate image, but it can enhance a company’s profitability. G. Design Guidelines for 1. Product Structure Locate unrecyclable parts in one system that can be quickly removed. Locate parts with the highest value in easily accessible places. Access and break points should be made obvious. Specify remanufactured parts. 2. Material Selection Avoid regulated and restricted materials. Minimize the number of different types of materials. Mark the material on all part. Use recycled materials. Avoid composite materials. Hazardous parts should be clearly marked and easily removed. 3. Labelling and Finish Ensure compatibility of ink where printing is required on parts. Eliminate environmentally incompatible paints on parts. Use unplanted metals that are more recyclable than plated. Use electronic part documentation. H. Example program 1. EPA Is a United States Environmental Protection Agency program, created in 1992, that works to prevent pollution and the risk pollution presents to humans and the environment (responded to Eco-Efficient Approaches). The EPA DfE program provides information regarding safer electronics, safer flame retardants, safer chemical formulations. EPA program that distinguishes safer chemical products. EPA uses rigorous criteria to ensure that Design for the Environment-labeled products are safe for human health and the environment. The Design for the Environment label makes it easy for purchasers and users to quickly identify safer chemical products that do not sacrifice quality or performance.
  7. 7. • Assists companies to integrate health and environment considerations into business decisions. This is aimed at prevention before pollution is created. • Examines the hazards of chemicals used in an industry and pollution prevention. • Assesses alternative processes, formulations, and emerging technologies. • Promotes risk reduction through cleaner technologies and safer chemical choices. I. Case Study XEROX (Doc.Company) Xerox Corporation is engaged in the global document market selling equipment and providing document solutions including hardware, services and software world-wide. The Company's activities encompass developing, manufacturing, marketing, servicing and financing of a complete range of document processing products, solutions and services designed to make organizations around the world more productive. The environmental Performance : Customer Environmental Satisfaction Eco-Efficiency Clean Air and Air Emissions Waste Recycle Energy conservation Water conservation Waste to landfills Saving in recycle Sources : MPD575 Design for X by Jonathan Weaver
  8. 8. J. DFE Successes 1. XEROX Goal – zero materials to landfill Set trends to reuse, recycle and remanufacture their products Take accountability for products to end-of-life New copiers have easily removed components Disposable fuser rolls now made re-usable Result - saved $100’s of Millions to-date 2. IBM Their goal is to extend product life beyond just production, and to use reusable and recyclable products. This means that IBM is currently working on creating products that can be safely disposed of at the end of its product life. They are also reducing consumption of energy to minimize their carbon footprint Goals – reuse, recycle, less energy On/off power programming Coding of plastic parts for recycle Improved acoustic foam removal Recycled plastic in many product lines Plastic kept free of paint & label contamination Upgradeable printing systems Powder coating of components 3. GM Goals – up-front DfE design, reuse and recycle Developing energy & environmental impact software with University of Tennessee Track energy & environmental impact of every part during cars life-cycle Redesign parts to better reuse or recycle Analyze environment component of every design decision 4. Ford Goals – 100% recyclable vehicle Cross-functional recycling team since 1991 Plastic car bumpers recycled into tail lights – Taurus/Sable 2nd hand tires used to make parking brake pedal pads
  9. 9. Makes use of non-auto end-of-life materials o Household carpet recycled into air cleaner housings & fan modules – Ford/Mercury/Lincoln o Soda bottles into grille reinforcements & padding Recycling saves Ford $8M annually 5. Hewlett Packard (HP) HP is working towards reducing energy used in manufacturing, developing materials that have less environmental impact, and designing easily recyclable equipment Goals – reuse, recycle, less energy Recycle plastics Plastic parts marked & identified for recycling Thin-walled molding process uses less plastic Modular architecture Few permanent screws 80% less power than dot matrix models 50% less power than other ink jet models REFERENCE agus dkk.makalah perencanaan lingkungan.fakultas ilmu administrasi bisnis : universitas brawijaya