DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT
FITRIA INTAN AYUNINGTIAS 105030200121014
Systematic approach to evaluate the consequences of the environmental impact of
products and processess, and their impact on human health and the environment (Fiksel, 1996)
A systematic consideration of design performance with respect to environmental, health,
and safety objectives, over the full product and process life cycle (Jonathan Weaver).
The key focus of DfE is to minimize the environmental-economic cost to consumers
B. The three main goals
1. Promoting green cleaning and recognizing safer consumer and industrial and
institutional products through safer product labeling.
2. Defining Best Practices in areas ranging from auto refinishing to nail salon safety.
3. Identifying safer chemicals, including life cycle considerations, through Alternatives
1. Identification the environmental aspect
2. Providing the society for environment management
3. Evaluation the environment
1. Natural resources are transformed into useful goods and harmful by-products
2. Our economic system measures the efficiency of production or “productivity” in a way
that keeps better track of the good things we produce than the bad1
Senator Al Gore – earth in the balance, 1992
3. The “Crossroad”
DfE is at the “conceptual crossroad between the drive toward Enterprise Integration and the
drive toward Sustainable Development.”
Enterprise Integration is the re-engineering of business processes and information
systems to improve teamwork and coordination across organizational boundaries, thereby
increasing the effectiveness of the enterprise as a whole. Total Quality Management is the
foundation for enterprise integration, and has led to the concept of Integrated Product
Development. IPD uses cross-functional design teams to consider the full spectrum of
quality factors simultaneously.
Sustainable Development is defined as “industrial progress that meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Environmental Stewardship is the foundation for this concept, and its first widely applied
practice is Pollution Prevention.
DfE is put forward as the way to achieve sustainability while seeking competitive advantage.
1. Improve worker safety, public health, and environmental health. And also improve
performance and qulity of product.
2. Use resources wisely
3. Incorporating environmental consideration into the product design, process, and technical
1. Eco-Efficiency Approaches
Cleaner processes : reduced emmissions, manufacturing, and paint methods.
Usually involves incremental refinement of production or
manufacturing processes to reduce waste and its byproducts.
Cleaner products : use of recycled products and environment friendly materials
Fundamental product designs are still dynamic. Takes into
account all stages of the product life cycle, from material
selection to end-of-life use and recovery. (environmental
Sustainable resources use : industrial ecology
Evaluate product and production system as a whole.
Includes supplier and customer impacts on resource
2. Product Life Cycle Perspective
Consider all of the aspects of this chart and the potential impact on the environment within
your design process
- raw materials / products used,
- manufacturing and assembly operations,
- product use by customer, and
- fate of materials / substances at the end of life of the product
Acknowledge that most product design effort is usually focused on the product performance
during the “System Use” Stage
3. Integrated Cross-Functional Product Development
DfE Enablers in Product Development
– Integrated product realization process
– Concurrent development of product and production processes
– Environmental performance metrics
– Analysis methods for comparing and selecting alternatives
1. Reduced Future Liability
Informed decisions during the design stage can avoid costly future liabilities
Eliminating toxic materials and designing more recyclable products can reduce product
Reducing toxic releases during processing helps eliminate later treatment of
contaminated water or soil
2. Reduced Regulatory Impact
DfE enables anticipation of future trends in environmental regulations and standards
Proactive approach incorporates future environmental demands and regulations into
current product and process designs
Early cooperation with regulatory agencies can be beneficial by allowing influence on
implementation timing and/or metrics
3. Reduced Time to Market
Hazardous or regulated substances in products and production processes often require
permits and elaborate control systems to meet regulations
Permits and controls take time and resources to obtain and establish
By designing out such substances wherever possible, time to market can be reduced
4. Reduced Cost
Reduced production cost
(by re-using or recycling content)
Reduced waste management cost
(less waste = less cost)
Reduced product cost
(through simplification and component integration)
Reduced usage cost and end-of-life costs
5. Corporate Image and Market Position
Consumers are increasingly conscious of environmental issues
Perceptions about environmental responsibility of a company may affect consumer and
government purchase decisions
Environmental quality can be an effective marketing tool
Governments and large corporations wishing to appeal to these consumers will establish
purchasing standards regarding environmental friendliness and corporate environmental
policies and management systems. Unless these organizations and individual consumers are
convinced of a company’s proficiency in the area of environmental quality, sales to them will be
difficult to maintain. On the other hand, if the company is able to demonstrate its environmental
performance adequately, it can be an effective marketing tool to increase sales to those same
6. Enhanced Profitability
Studies have shown that environmentally responsible companies have:
16.7% higher operating income growth
9.3% higher sales growth
3.9% higher return on investments
2.2% higher return on assets
1.9% higher asset growth
NB: Not only is environmental responsibility good for corporate image, but it can enhance a
G. Design Guidelines for
1. Product Structure
Locate unrecyclable parts in one system that can be quickly removed.
Locate parts with the highest value in easily accessible places.
Access and break points should be made obvious.
Specify remanufactured parts.
2. Material Selection
Avoid regulated and restricted materials.
Minimize the number of different types of materials.
Mark the material on all part.
Use recycled materials.
Avoid composite materials.
Hazardous parts should be clearly marked and easily removed.
3. Labelling and Finish
Ensure compatibility of ink where printing is required on parts.
Eliminate environmentally incompatible paints on parts.
Use unplanted metals that are more recyclable than plated.
Use electronic part documentation.
H. Example program
Is a United States Environmental Protection Agency program, created in 1992, that
works to prevent pollution and the risk pollution presents to humans and the environment
(responded to Eco-Efficient Approaches). The EPA DfE program provides information
regarding safer electronics, safer flame retardants, safer chemical formulations.
EPA program that distinguishes safer chemical products. EPA uses rigorous criteria to
ensure that Design for the Environment-labeled products are safe for human health and
the environment. The Design for the Environment label makes it easy for purchasers and
users to quickly identify safer chemical products that do not sacrifice quality or
• Assists companies to integrate health and environment considerations into business
decisions. This is aimed at prevention before pollution is created.
• Examines the hazards of chemicals used in an industry and pollution prevention.
• Assesses alternative processes, formulations, and emerging technologies.
• Promotes risk reduction through cleaner technologies and safer chemical choices.
I. Case Study
Xerox Corporation is engaged in the global document market selling equipment and providing
document solutions including hardware, services and software world-wide. The Company's
activities encompass developing, manufacturing, marketing, servicing and financing of a
complete range of document processing products, solutions and services designed to make
organizations around the world more productive.
The environmental Performance :
Customer Environmental Satisfaction
Clean Air and Air Emissions
Waste to landfills
Saving in recycle
Sources : MPD575 Design for X by Jonathan Weaver
J. DFE Successes
Goal – zero materials to landfill
Set trends to reuse, recycle and remanufacture their products
Take accountability for products to end-of-life
New copiers have easily removed components
Disposable fuser rolls now made re-usable
Result - saved $100’s of Millions to-date
Their goal is to extend product life beyond just production, and to use reusable and
recyclable products. This means that IBM is currently working on creating products that can
be safely disposed of at the end of its product life. They are also reducing consumption of
energy to minimize their carbon footprint
Goals – reuse, recycle, less energy
On/off power programming
Coding of plastic parts for recycle
Improved acoustic foam removal
Recycled plastic in many product lines
Plastic kept free of paint & label contamination
Upgradeable printing systems
Powder coating of components
Goals – up-front DfE design, reuse and recycle
Developing energy & environmental impact software with University of Tennessee
Track energy & environmental impact of every part during cars life-cycle
Redesign parts to better reuse or recycle
Analyze environment component of every design decision
Goals – 100% recyclable vehicle
Cross-functional recycling team since 1991
Plastic car bumpers recycled into tail lights – Taurus/Sable
hand tires used to make parking brake pedal pads
Makes use of non-auto end-of-life materials
o Household carpet recycled into air cleaner housings & fan modules –
o Soda bottles into grille reinforcements & padding
Recycling saves Ford $8M annually
5. Hewlett Packard (HP)
HP is working towards reducing energy used in manufacturing, developing materials that
have less environmental impact, and designing easily recyclable equipment
Goals – reuse, recycle, less energy
Plastic parts marked & identified for recycling
Thin-walled molding process uses less plastic
Few permanent screws
80% less power than dot matrix models
50% less power than other ink jet models
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