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Spring 2010 CHS 335

Spring 2010 CHS 335
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4 race in_colonial_america 4 race in_colonial_america Presentation Transcript

  • Race and Culture in the Americas Online Presentation Week Four Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation in Colonial America (1492-1821)
  • Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation
      • Re-peopling of the New World
      • Native Communities
      • Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration
      • Mestizos, Mulatos, Castizos, Moriscos, Lobos, Cambujos, and Their Friends
      • Gender and Sexuality in América
    Source: http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Noel's%20Images/chinese_mestizo_costume.jpg Chinese Mestizos (Philippines) This Week’s Topics
    • The re-peopling of the New World occurred at multiple levels.
    • Europeans continued to migrate to various areas of the Americas. Europeans and their descendents continued to construct their various interpretations of native peoples.
    • At the same time, the forced migrations of Africans, who were also racialized, came to play a major role in the New World.
    Re-Peopling of the New World http://www.floridahistory.com/us@1544-munster.jpg Munster's Map of the World - 1544 Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation
    • Europeans, natives, and Africans produced offspring that were quickly placed within a European hierarchy of peoples.
    • While all this was going on, native communities survived and continued to practice their culture and evolve, albeit in a hostile environment of European domination.
    http://metascholar.org/TASTD-Voyages/Images/T-Amap.gif An Excerpt of Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis Geographica Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Re-Peopling of the New World
  • Native Communities
    • Natives in the Americas could be differentiated between sedentary and non-sedentary communities.
    • While there were great variety within both groups, Europeans developed various techniques when approaching these two types of native communities.
    • For example, the Spanish developed a system of labor exploitation for sedentary natives and a system of management for non-sedentary natives, the mission system.
    • The system of labor for sedentary natives was know as the encomienda.
    Source: http://www.puc.cl/sw_educ/historia/america/fotos/f2_1-45c.jpg Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation The encomienda is discussed further on the next slide
  • Native Communities: The Encomienda From Meredith Scott’s The Encomienda “ The encomienda system is deeply entrenched in the history and culture of South and Central America, and is one of the most damaging institutions that the Spanish colonists implemented in the New World. The system came to signify the oppression and exploitation of Native Americans, although its originators did not set out with such intent.” http://www.platiquemos-letstalk.com/Comments/FlogIndian.gif Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation
    • What differences do they point out between Columbus’ view of colonization and that of the Spanish?
    • How did the encomienda operate? How did it mange Spanish and Native interactions?
    • What role did precious metals play in the colonizing project?
    • How did the Spanish deal with natives on the periphery who may have been non-sedentary?
    • What was the process of Spanish expansion?
    Reading Questions: Lockhart’s and Schwartz’s “From Island to Mainland” Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Lockhart’s and Schwartz’s explains the social and economic structures that developed in the early years of Spanish colonization in the Caribbean. These same structures appear on the Latin American mainland.
    • Natives faced a dramatic demographic collapse in the first three generations after the arrival of the Europeans. A combination of European policies and susceptibility to European diseases resulted in a major decline in native populations, especially in sedentary communities.
    Native Communities Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation "When the Spaniards fled we thought we had seen the last of them but this was not to be a great pestilence came, the smallpox. It caused great misery. It covered the body with pustules, those who suffered could only lie in their beds. Many died of hunger for there was no one left alive in their homes to look after them.” (Florentine Codex) • Source: http://www.famsi.org/research/pohl/pohl_meeting.html Florentine Codex, c 1570
  • In Mexico, the population may have been as high as 20 million in 1519, but it collapsed to a little over two million in 1605. While these numbers are only estimates, it is clear that there was a striking demographic collapse of the native population in the first century after the Spanish conquest of Mexico. Source: http://www.medscape.com/content/2002/00/43/21/432138/art-eid432138.fig1.gif Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Native Communities Cocoliztli is the Nahuatl word for pestilence and both word and concept appeared in the native language only after the arrival of the Spaniards. Cocoliztli probably describes a form of hemorrhagic fever that was new to Central Mexico after the conquest, though the exact diagnosis remains unknown
  • Online Reading Source: http://www.ssc.uwo.ca/geography/faculty/luckman/trl/images/Mega.jpg Native Communities Read Chapter one from David Cook’s Born to Die Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation
    • What is the “Black Legend”? How does Cook respond to this explanation?
    • What was the purpose of the “Black Legend”?
    • How does he explain the demographic disaster in the New World?
    • Does Cook convince you? Why?
    Reading Questions: Cook’s “Introduction” Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Cook provides an explanation for the rapid decline of natives in the first generation of Spanish colonization.
  • Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration
    • African were introduced into the New World as a source of labor, especially after the decline in the native population.
    • One encounters plantation style production on some Mediterranean islands as well as islands in the Atlantic Ocean, including Madeira, the Azores, Cape Verde, and the Canaries.
    Source: http://www.gracegalleries.com/images/AT/AT154.jpg Online Reading Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Detailed maps of the Madeira Islands, the Azores. Canaries and Cape Verde are on the following slides European use of slave labor in plantations system predated European use of African slave labor in the New World.
  • Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration Madeira Islands Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Source: http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/europe/madeira.htm
  • Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Source: http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/europe/azores.htm Azores
  • Azores, Madeira, and Portugal Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration
  • Canary Islands Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation
  • Cape Verde Islands Source: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/cape_verde_pol_2004.jpg Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration
    • The labor on the plantations on the Mediterranean islands often came from captured soldiers in the wars between Christian Europe and the Ottoman Empire.
    • Of course, you are welcome to read the whole MSN Encarta article.
    Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Gentile_Bellini_003.jpg Mehmed II Online Reading Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration Read the “Introduction” and “Roots of the Slave Trade” in MSN Encarta “ Atlantic Slave Trade ”
    • As the demand for labor grew, Africans provided a new source. Thus as sugar plantations appeared on the Caribbean islands, the flow of African slaves grew.
    Slaves in a Sugarcane Mill Source: http://encarta.msn.com/media_461539907_761595721_-1_1/Slaves_in_a_Sugarcane_Mill.html Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration
    • The increased demand for African labor coincided with Portugal’s desire to find another trade route to Asian markets after the mid-1400s.
    • As they move down the west coast of Africa, they engaged in trading with the communities on the coast. Among the products they acquired through trade were Africans as slaves.
    • And as the profitability of slaves grew, the Portuguese set up “factories” on the islands off the coast of Africa to trade.
    The Arrival of Europeans in Africa Online Reading Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Source: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1h306b.html An example of one these Portuguese factories is the Elmina factory. Click here to read more Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration
  • Source: http://encarta.msn.com/media_461547221_761595721_-1_1/Slave_Destinations.html Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation
    • For a brief overview of the Transatlantic Slave Trade go to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture In Motion: The African American Migration Experience .
    • Please read the seven sections below. If you can find a copy of the video at your local public library or campus, you can also watch it instead.
      • Overview
      • The Development of the Trade
      • Capture and Enslavement
      • Traders and Trade
      • The Middle Passage
      • Africans in America
      • Ethnicities in the United States
    Online Readings Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Africans, Slavery, and Forced Migration
    • How would you explain the historical development of the slave trade?
    • How did the trade operate?
    • Where did the slaves come from?
    • How were the Africans transported to the New World?
    • Explain the operation of the plantation economy?
    Reading Questions: “In Motion” Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation You have read five online articles about the slave trade and the plantation economy. Image source: http://www.inmotionaame.org/home.cfm
  • Mestizos, Mulatos, Castizos, Moriscos, Lobos, Cambujos, and Their Friends
    • In Spanish America, the initial Native, African, and European populations began to intermix.
    • As the trade route between Asia and Spain often went through America, even Asians were involved in the mix.
    • This led to the formation of “las castas.” This was a system of placing various mixed individuals in a hierarchy with Europeans at the top.
    Source: http://www.puc.cl/sw_educ/historia/america/fotos/f2_2-3g.jpg Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation See next slide for larger image
  • Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation For translation see next slide.
    • Españoles/Spaniards :
    • Viceroys, governors, presidents and oidores (judges) of Audiencias
    • Archbishops, bishops, priests at important parishes, and heads of religious orders
    • Crown functionaries and major merchants
    • Criollos
    • Encomenderos and hacienda owners with access to the cabildo (municipal council)
    • Could participate in religious orders and head local parishes
    • Mestizos, mulatos, zambos
    • Agricultural peasants, artisans, carpenters, bricklayers, etc. in cities
    • Could enter the clergy
    • Indians
    • Part of encomienda system under Spanish and criollo control or under their care for work on haciendas and mines
    • Blacks
    • Slaves. Working in mines and plantations
  • Mestizos and Their Friends Some estimates place the total number of castas in use in colonial Mexico at sixty or more. The table in the following slide describes some of the most common castas . As can be seen even in this abbreviated list, many of the castas overlap and contradict one another. The system of castas was never fully codified. Different terminologies grew up in different regions, among different ethnic groups, and among different occupations. Many researchers have found that often a change in classifying official (priest, government clerk, etc.) resulted in an abrupt shift in the system of racial classification used.  Source: http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/colonial/casta-mulata.jpg Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation
  • Mestizos and Their Friends   A Description of the Most Common Castas Caste Origin or Meaning Ethnic Makeup Spanish/Criollo A Criollo was a Spaniard born in the colonies Two "white" Spanish Parents * or one Spanish parent and one Castizo parent Mestizo Literally, a person of "mixed" ethnic heritage Offspring of one (white) Spanish parent and one Indian parent Castizo From the word "casta" or caste Offspring of one Spanish parent and one Mestizo parent Mulatto A reference to the interbreeding of horses and donkeys. People believed Mulattos would be sterile. Offspring of one Spanish parent and one African/Black parent Morisco From Spanish moro , "Moor" Offspring of one Mulatto parent and one Spanish parent Albino From albino: total or partial absence of pigmentation Offspring  of one Morisco parent and one Spanish parent Ahi te estas Mexican localism: "stay where you are" Offspring of one Mulatto parent and one Coyote parent Coyote From Nahuatl: coyotl, "coyote" Offspring of either one Mestizo parent and one Indian parent  Lobo From Latin lupus, "wolf" Offspring of:  Black/African and Indian; Mulatto and Indian  Torna-atras and Mulatto; or several others Zambo From Latin strambus : "bowlegged" Offspring of one Black or Mulatto parent and one Indian parent Torna-atras "turn back," a throw back to the African/Black "race" Offspring of one Spanish parent and one Albino parent, one Lobo parent and one Indian parent, or one Mestizo parent and one Mulatto parent
  • Mestizos and Their Friends In the following series of fourteen slides, you will view a particular set of 18th century painting of las castas . The painter is unknown, but paintings are known to date from the very late 1700s. The 18th Century tradition of Casta paintings has received little attention. Casta paintings generally appear in groups of sixteen portraits that trace the complex racial mixing or mestizaje of the people of New Spain. Each painting depicts a couple along with one or two children. Typically an inscription is present describing the ethno racial make-up of the mother, the father, and the child or children. Source: http://www.artehistoria.jcyl.es/historia/obras/10441.htm Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-b.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-b.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-d.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-e.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-f.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-g.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-i.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-j.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-k.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-l.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-m.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-n.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-o.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
  • Source: http://www.unc.edu/courses/2007fall/hist/142/001/images/castaS1o-p.jpg Mestizos and Their Friends
    • Europeans visualized America, just like Asia and Africa, through an erotic lens. Both the population and the lands were defined by this male anxiety.
    • Native, African, and later mestiza women were seen as hypersexual, while men were perceived as effeminate.
    • At the same time the new land was presented as female—both open and dangerous.
    Source: http://jolson.myweb.uga.edu/malinche Gender and Sexuality in America Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Gender and sexuality marked the European project in the New World.
  • Gender and Sexuality in America
    • From the start of the colonial project, the New World was feminized as depicted in Theodore Galle’s “America.” See engraving on the next slide.
    • The engraving on this slide captures another side of the renaissance fantasy.
    Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation See next slide for larger version of this picture Vespucci is clothed bearing his flag, cross, and astrolabe. The Amerindian is naked and provocative, she seems to be inviting the European to herself and the exotic new land. In the background notice other Amerindians portrayed as cannibals. Anne McClintock refers to this vision as an example of “porno-tropics”.
  • Source: http://www.wmich.edu/dialogues/sitepages/vespucci.html
    • Europeans arriving to the New World had an ambivalent feeling about native women. This conflict between attraction and repulsion reflected the fantasies of race and desire that these men possessed.
    • Native and later African and mestiza women were hyper sexualized. At one level, these women were represented with larger than normal body parts. At another, these women were portrayed as immoral and promiscuous.
    Gender and Sexuality in America Source: http://theatre.asu.edu/venus/images/saartjie.jpg Saartjie Baartman, a Khoikhoi woman Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Online Reading An example of this eroticization of native women is the African Venus • Read this short article about the return of the “African Venus” to South Africa
    • European men were presented as unable to fend off these women, feeding male fantasies. Hybridity was often the result of these interactions. At the same time, the violence directed toward native and other women was erased.
    • At the same time the imagined eroticism of native, African, and mestiza women, underscored the emasculation of the native, African, and mestizo male. These males were often gendered as not fully male.
    This is the photograph on the cover of Young’s Colonial Desire . For a discussion please click on the link Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Gender and Sexuality in America Online Reading Read the Preface and Chapter One from Robert J.C. Young’s Colonial Desire • The following slide provides a short introduction to the reading along with points to consider
    • Feminizing Men of Color
    Source: http://www.imagesonline.bl.uk/britishlibrary/ Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation Gender and Sexuality in America With all the attention that Europeans gave to hybridity and mestizaje, it is obvious that race and sex were tied together. Young’s piece seeks to explore this relationship through a discussion of Gobineau’s Essay on the Inequality of Races . Young begins the chapter by arguing that aside from race being a social construction , he also believes it is a cultural construction . Think about and try to explain his argument as you read Young’s chapter.
    • How does he explain Gobineau’s thesis that the decline of civilization was tied to racial degeneration?
    • Why does Young state that hybridity sits at the center of Gobineau’s argument?
    • If hybridity is the natural course, how does Gobineau balance white men’s repulsion of the native with his sexual desire for the native women?
    • Why does Young suggest that this sexual relationship is sadistic?
    • From Gobineau’s view, what about men of colo r?
    Reading Questions: Young’s “Colonial Desire” Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation By looking at European fears of “overwhelming sexual production” and “ungovernable fertility,” Young argues that colonialism was also a desiring machine. Here he turns to Gobineau .
    • Projects of the Week
    • Do not answer the questions from this presentation. The powerpoint presentations will be used for your final exam.
    Continue to work on your projects and or events. Go to the Blog and discuss any questions provided for the week. This is the last slide Race and Culture in the Americas Race, Class, Gender, and Miscegenation