Diversidad y abundancia de árboles a gran escala en los Américas: estudios de especímenes y parcelas juntos - Richard Condit

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  • 1. The rarest species of Colombia:Local abundance and range sizes Conservation of the most vulnerable Richard Condit1 1 SIGEO & Center for Tropical Forest Science Instituto Alexander von Humboldt Bogotá, Colombia, September 2011
  • 2. Conservation of rare speciesTropical forest renowned for rarityHabitat heterogeneity relates to beta-diversity and range limits
  • 3. Conservation of rare speciesTropical forest renowned for rarityHabitat heterogeneity relates to beta-diversity and range limits • Does Colombia have very rare species? • Does Andean heterogeneity lead to species with small ranges? • Are there ’hot spots’ where very rare species are concentrated?
  • 4. Center for Tropical Forest Science: Smithsonian & Harvard SIGEO­CTFS: A network of forest censuses following common methods Wabikon HaliburtonHarvard Wytham China  Wind R CRC Thailand (x5) Yosemite Lilly­Dickey (x3) SERC Mudumalai Taiwan (x4) Luquillo Panama Palanan Hawaii Amacayacu Brunei (x3) Malaysia (x2) La Planada Korup Sinharaja (x3) Ituri (x2) Wanang Yasuní Manaus Rabi Singapore Robson Ck Cardoso 33 completed plots have data in a common database format on one of 4 servers  ­­ 3,802,654 trees (ie 3.80x106)  ­­ 9,073,531 measurements (ie 9.07x106) in 89 plot censuses
  • 5. Center for Tropical Forest Science: Smithsonian & Harvard SIGEO­CTFS: A network of forest censuses following common methods Wabikon HaliburtonHarvard Wytham China  Wind R CRC Thailand (x5) Yosemite Lilly­Dickey (x3) SERC Mudumalai Taiwan (x4) Luquillo Panama Palanan Hawaii Amacayacu Brunei (x3) Malaysia (x2) La Planada Korup Sinharaja (x3) Ituri (x2) Wanang Yasuní Manaus Rabi Singapore Robson Ck Cardoso 33 completed plots have data in a common database format on one of 4 servers  ­­ 3,802,654 trees (ie 3.80x106)  ­­ 9,073,531 measurements (ie 9.07x106) in 89 plot censuses
  • 6. CTFS South American census plots
  • 7. La Planada, Colombia, CTFS census plot q Hyeronima oblonga • 1996-2004 • Instituto von Humboldt500 q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q qq qq q q C. Samper q q q qq q qq q q q qq q q q qqq q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q H. Mendoza q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q400 qq q qq qq q q M. Vallejo q qq q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q qq qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qqq q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q300 q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q qq qq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq qqq qq q qq q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qqq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qqq qq qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q q q q q q200 q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qqq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q qq q q qq q qq q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q qq q q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q qq qqq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q100 q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qqq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q qqq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q qq q qqq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q qqq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q qqq q q qq q q q qq q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq qq qq q q q q q q q q q qqq q qq q q q qq q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q0 q q q q q q q q q q q q 0 100 200 300 400 500
  • 8. La Planada, Colombia, CTFS census plot q Axinaea sodiroi • 1996-2004 • Instituto von Humboldt500 C. Samper H. Mendoza400 q M. Vallejo q300 q q q200 q q q100 q0 0 100 200 300 400 500
  • 9. La Planada, Colombia, CTFS census plot q Weinmannia tomentosa • 1996-2004 • Instituto von Humboldt500 C. Samper H. Mendoza400 q M. Vallejo3002001000 0 100 200 300 400 500
  • 10. Locally rare speciesAbundance of all 241 species in La Planada plot, Colombia Family Species Population Rubiaceae Faramea coffeoides 16417 Rubiaceae Palicourea gibbosa 6145 Rubiaceae Elaeagia utilis 4495 . . . . . . . . . Phyllanthaceae Hyeronima oblonga 2185 . . . . . . . . . Myrtaceae Matisia bolivarii 1725 . . . . . . . . . Clusiaceae Clavija laplanadae 46 . . . . . . . . . Ericaceae Psammisia urichiana 1 Cunoniaceae Weinmannia tomentosa 1 17 more species 1
  • 11. BIEN: Botanical Information for Ecology NetworkBIEN is a group of botanists interested inbroad-scales in ecology and seeking ecoinformaticsolutions
  • 12. BIEN: Botanical Information for Ecology NetworkBIEN is a group of botanists interested inbroad-scales in ecology and seeking ecoinformaticsolutions • seeking very large collections of plot and specimen data publicly available • harmonizing the format and the taxonomy in order to maximize the records available • offering convenient access
  • 13. BIEN: The team• B. Enquist (Arizona)• P. Jørgensen (Missouri)• B. Boyle (Arizona)• S. Dolins (Bradley)• R. Condit (STRI)• M. Schildauer (NCEAS)• R. Peet (N. Carolina)• ... and more
  • 14. Outline1 CTFS plot network Complete local censuses Many rare species2 BIEN Working Group3 Range statistics from 9 million specimens Species in the Americas Colombian species Species with very localized records Plot abundance vs. range size4 Conclusions Range of Colombian species Hot spots
  • 15. BIEN database• 12 million occurrences in a single table Albizia adinocephala
  • 16. BIEN database• 12 million occurrences in a single table - Abundances for a single taxon from a single plot - Herbarium specimens with locations (e.g. Missouri) Albizia adinocephala
  • 17. BIEN database• 12 million occurrences in a single table• 11.3 million occurrences in the Americas Albizia adinocephala
  • 18. BIEN database• 11.3 million occurrences in the Americas• 10.3 million have a verified province name• 6.6 million have precise coordinates Albizia adinocephala
  • 19. BIEN database• 11.3 million occurrences in the Americas• 10.3 million have a verified province name• 6.6 million have precise coordinates• The taxonomy challenge - 9.5 million have a verified, harmonized, complete Latin binomial - 5.6 million have coordinates and a verified Latin name Albizia adinocephala
  • 20. BIEN database taxonomyTaxonomic Name Resolution Servicehttp://tnrs.iplantcollaborative.org/TNRSapp.htmla product of the BIEN group which will check 1000s of names andreport misspellings and synonomy
  • 21. BIEN database taxonomy• 315,488 distinct taxa names in 12 million records • Many incorrect, or are spelling ’variants’ • Many are not complete binomials • Some are ferns, algae, mosses• 180,283 names can be matched to an authoritative list (Missouri)• 129,998 species of higher plants in the Americas Lacistema aggregatum (plant photos Rolando Pérez)
  • 22. Plant species of the Americas BIEN database occurrence records129,998 valid names in the Americas: Ocotea whiteii
  • 23. Plant species of the Americas BIEN database occurrence records129,998 valid names in the Americas: • 11,999 have no records with coordinates nor with province name • 7,197 with just one record • 11,177 occur in only one country Ocotea whiteii
  • 24. Plant species of the Americas BIEN database occurrence records129,998 valid names in the Americas: • 11,999 have no records with coordinates nor with province name • 117,999 have at least one province name • 85,889 have at least one record with coordinates Ocotea whiteii
  • 25. Plant species of the Americas BIEN database occurrence records129,998 valid names in the Americas: • 22,841 have exactly one record, period (singletons) Ocotea whiteii
  • 26. Colombian species BIEN database occurrence records20,299 valid names in Colombia: Maranthes panamensis
  • 27. Colombian species BIEN database occurrence records20,299 valid names in Colombia: • 16,667 have at least one record with coordinates Maranthes panamensis
  • 28. Colombian species BIEN database occurrence records20,299 valid names in Colombia: • 16,667 have at least one record with coordinates • 1,585 have only one record anywhere (singletons) Maranthes panamensis
  • 29. Colombian species BIEN database occurrence records20,299 valid names in Colombia: • 16,667 have at least one record with coordinates • 1,585 have only one record anywhere (singletons) • 228 have exactly one record anywhere, and it has coordinates Maranthes panamensis
  • 30. Colombian species BIEN database occurrence records20,299 valid names in Colombia: • 16,667 have at least one record with coordinates • 1,585 have only one record anywhere (singletons) • 228 have exactly one record anywhere, and it has coordinates • 4,346 are endemic to Colombia Maranthes panamensis
  • 31. 2000 Range sizes in South American tropics Axinaea sodiroi 1.5 · 104 km21000 q qqq q q q0−1000−2000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000
  • 32. 20001000 Range sizes in South American tropics Faramea coffeoides 3.8 · 104 km2 qq q qq qq qq q0−1000−2000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000
  • 33. 2000 Range sizes in South American tropics q1000 q q q qq q q qq q qq q qq qq q q q Weinmannia tomentosa 1.4 · 106 km20−1000−2000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000
  • 34. 2000 Range sizes in South American tropicsqqq q q q qq qq q qq qqqq qq qqq q q q q q qq q qq q qq qq q qq q qq q 1000 qqq q q q qqq q q q q q q q q q q 0 q Hyeronima oblonga q q 11.1 · 106 km2 −1000 q q q q q q −2000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000
  • 35. Range size and singletons Colombian range sizes American Colombian Amazonian La Planada singleton 22687 (17.6) 1581 (7.8) 1190 (4.7) 2* (1.4) narrow 6463 (5.0) 348 (1.7) 562 (2.2) 3* (2.1) wide 44458 (34.6) 12964 (63.9) 17458 (69.0) 117 (83.6) total 128668 20295 25285 140 median range 0.12 1.61 1.60 2.15 Singleton: one specimen only (often lack coordinates) Narrow: > 1 specimen, but only known at one location Wide: > 105 km2* including Matisia bolivarii and Clavija laplanadae
  • 36. Locally rare speciesAbundance of all 241 species in La Planada plot, Colombia Family Species Population Rubiaceae Faramea coffeoides 16417 Rubiaceae Palicourea gibbosa 6145 Rubiaceae Elaeagia utilis 4495 . . . . . . . . . Phyllanthaceae Hyeronima oblonga 2185 . . . . . . . . . Myrtaceae Matisia bolivarii 1725 . . . . . . . . . Clusiaceae Clavija laplanadae 46 . . . . . . . . . Ericaceae Psammisia urichiana 1 Cunoniaceae Weinmannia tomentosa 1 17 more species 1
  • 37. Collection frequencyHistogram of collections per species in BIEN database (9 million total) • Across Americas: high proportion have one specimen only • Colombian species and plot species: many collections American species Colombian species 0.30 Plot species q q fraction of species q 0.20 q q q q q q q q q 0.10 q q q q q q q q q q q 0.00 q q q 1 5 10 50 500 collections
  • 38. Range size vs. specimen number Colombian species q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q 22,413 species: q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qqq q q q q q qq q qq q qqq q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q q q q q qq q qq qqq q q qq q q q qqq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qqq q qqq q q qq qq qq q q qqq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q qq q q qq qq qq q qq q q q qqq q q q q q qq q qq q q q qq qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq qqq q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q qq qq q q q q q q q q q qq qq q q qq q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q qq qq q q qq q q q q qqq q q q qqq q q q qq qq q q qqq qq q q q q q qqq q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q qq qq q q qq q q q q q q q qq qqq q qq q q q q q qq qq q q q q q qq q q qq q qq q q qq q q q qq qq qq q qq q q q q q qqq q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qqq q qq q q qq qqq q q q qqq qqq qq q q q q q q qqqq qqqq q qq q q q qq qqqqq q q q q qq q qq q q q q q qq qq q q q q qq q q q qq qqq q q q qqq qq qq q q q qq q qq q q qqq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq qq qqqq qq q q q q q q q q q q q q qqqq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q qq q qq qqq qq q q q q q q q qq q q qqq q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qqq qq qq qqqq q q qq qq qq q q q q q q q q qqq qq q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qqq q 11K have < 10 records q q q qq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qqq q q q q qq q q q q q q qq qqq q q q q qq q q q q qqqq q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q qqq qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q qqq q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq qq q q qqq q q q qq q qq q qq q q q q q q q qq q qq q qq q q qq qqqq qq qq qq qq q q q q qqqq q q q q qq q q q qqq qq q qq qq qq qqq q q q qqqqqqqq qq q q qq q qqq qq qqq q qqq qqq qq qq q qq qq q q q q qq q q qq qq q q qq q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q qq q q qq q q q q qqq q q q q q q qq qqq q q qq q qqq q q q q qq q q qq q q q q q qq q q q q q qqq q qq qq q q qq q qq q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q qqq qq q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q qqq q q q q qqqqq q q qqqq qqq qq q q qq qq qq q qq qqqq qq q qq q qq q qq q q q qq qqqq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qqq qq q qqqqqq qq qqq qqq q qq qqqqqqqq qq q qq q q qq qqq qq q q qq qqqqqq qqqq qq q q qqq qqqq q qqq q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q qqq q qqq q q qqq qq q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q qqq qqq q q q q q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q qq qq q q qqq q qqq q qq q q q q q q q q q 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qqqqqqqqqqqqqq q q q qqq q qq q qq q q qqqqqqqqqqq qqq qq qqqqqqqq qq qq qqqqqqqqqq qq q q q qq qq q q q qq qqqqqq qqqqqqq qqqq qqqqq q qq q qqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqq q qqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqq qq q qqqqqqqqqqqq q qqqqqqqqqqqqq qq q q qqq qqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqq q q qqqqqqq qq qq qq qqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqq q qqqq q q qqqqqqqqq qqqq q qq q q q q q qqq q qqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqq qqqq qqqqqqq qqqqqq qq q q qq q qq q qq qq qqqqqqqqqqqqq q qqqqqqqqqqqqq q qqqqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqqqqq qq q q qq qqqq q qq q qqqqqqqqqqqq qqqqq qqqqqqqqq qqqq q qqqqqqq q q q qq q q q qqqqqqqqqqqq qqq q qqqqqqqq qqqqqqqqqq qqq q qq qq qqq q q q q q qqqqqqqqqqqqq qq qqqqq q qq q qqqqqq q qq qq q qqqq qq qq qqqqqqqqqqqqqq q qq qq qqqqq qqqqqq q 2 3 10 100 300 Number specimens 1.5 million 3e3 1e3 records
  • 39. 219 singleton species of Colombia q q q q q q q q q q10 q q q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q qq q q q q qq qq q qq q q q q q q q Hot spots? q q q q q qq q qq q qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq5 q qq q q q q q q qqq qq q q q q q qq q q qq qq qq q q qqq qq qq qq q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q0 q q q q q q q q q qq q q q−5 −80 −78 −76 −74 −72 −70 −68 −66
  • 40. 219 singleton species of Colombia q q q q q q q q q q10 q q q q q q q q Byrsonima q magna q q q q q q qq q q qq q q q q qq q q q q qq qq q qq q q q q q q q Hot spots? q q q q q qq q qq q qq q q q q q q q q • Many in the Andes q q q qq q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q qq5 q qq q q q q q q qqq qq q q q q q qq q qq qqq • Concentrations due to q qq q q qqq qq qq Marila punctata qq q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q q q q q Philodendron merenbergense q q q favored collecting sites? q qq qq q q q q q q qq q q q q Rhodospatha nambiensis q0 q q q q q q q q q qq q q q−5 −80 −78 −76 −74 −72 −70 −68 −66
  • 41. 387 singleton species of Amazonia2000 q1000 q q q q q q qq qq q qqq q q q q q q Clavija fernandezii q qq q q q q q q q q q q q q qq q qq q q q q q q q q q q q qq q q q q q Hot spots? q q q qq q q q qqq qq q q q q qq qq q q q q q q • Problem:0 q q q q q q q q qq qq q q q q q q qq q q q q qq q q q q