Overseas Plant and Animal Diffusion Before 1492 By Carl L. Johannessen Professor Emeritus, Biogeographer
World Map
India Detail Karnataka Pradesh
Letters From Ohio Agricultural Research and Developmental Center, Wooster Ohio
Letters from Wooster, Ohio
Corn, Sunflowers, Peanuts, and Annona
Temple Layout, Somnathpur, India
Halebid Temple, India
Variation in Shape of Corn Ears, Peru for comparison to India
Variation in the Shape of Corn Ears, China
Indian Sculpture of Corn
Indian Sculpture of Corn <ul><li>Corn Maiden Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Ear from Mexico </li></ul>
Maize Anatomical Structures <ul><li>Maize Seed Arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>American Maize </li></ul>
Maize Ears Sculpture and Hand Mudra Somnathpur Temple, India
Yaksha Sculpture with Maize <ul><li>8th Century </li></ul><ul><li>From 5000 Years of Art in India </li></ul><ul><li>Mexica...
Maize <ul><li>Somnathpur Four Row, Unpollinated and Husk </li></ul><ul><li>Maize Ear at end of Pollinating Season </li></ul>
Maize God, Mexico Note Curls on Headdress of Maize
Spiral Kernel Seeds Kedareshvara, Halebid, India
Sharp Kernelled Maize Ears, “Dog-Toothed”
Sculpture of Chihuahua with Maize Ear,Colima, Mexico
Tessellated Base Kernels Somnathpur
ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF MAIZE SHOWN IN INDIAN 20 TEMPLE SCULPTURES Traits Sculpture Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13...
 
Corn Maidens
Sunflowers Oriented Toward Sun
Nandi Seen From Inside Halebid Temple
Sunflower Sculpture Below Nandi’s Horn with sunflower as if at Dawn, Halebid Temple
Sunflower above Ear of Nandi (detail)
Sunflower under Nandi’s Tail used as a calendar, Halebid Temple
Nandi at Amruthteshvara with Sunflower Below Horn
Sunflower at Foot of Corn Maiden
Sunflower under Skirt of Corn Maiden (detail)
Long-tailed Indian Parrot on Sunflower, Pattadakal, India
Lotus Flower
Lotus Flowers in Rajasthan Temple, Representation of the Heart Chakra
Lotus Flower Seed Pods, at Center
Modern Primitive Peanut, Southern China
Annona in Hindu and Buddhist Art, (note Cashew on Stupa Art as well)
Annona Sculpture, Ahole, India
Other Evidence
Mexican Prickle Poppy (Medicine)
Datura (Medicinal)
Two Transferred Gourds <ul><li>Lagenaria Gourd </li></ul><ul><li>Malabar Gourd </li></ul>
Grain Amaranth
Marigold and Bixa Tree
Entire Corn and Chili Plants Note Ears on middle stem (top plate) and Chili Peppers (bottom plate), Java, Indonesia
Corn Cob Used in Mortuary Bird,  Head and Tail Broken Off <ul><li>Maize Cob used as armature for ceramic bird. </li></ul><...
Unintentional Transfers <ul><li>Domestic Cat </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser Grain Borer </li></ul>
Unintentional Transfers Rat and its Fleas
Conclusion
Educational Opportunities <ul><li>This is only the beginning of the research. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Traits and other ...
 
The End
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Difusión transoceánica de plantas y animales antes de 1492 - Carl Lewis Johannessen

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  • Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Handout 1st European Regional Research Conference Tuesday, May 24, 2011 Title Page
  • Difusión transoceánica de plantas y animales antes de 1492 - Carl Lewis Johannessen

    1. 1. Overseas Plant and Animal Diffusion Before 1492 By Carl L. Johannessen Professor Emeritus, Biogeographer
    2. 2. World Map
    3. 3. India Detail Karnataka Pradesh
    4. 4. Letters From Ohio Agricultural Research and Developmental Center, Wooster Ohio
    5. 5. Letters from Wooster, Ohio
    6. 6. Corn, Sunflowers, Peanuts, and Annona
    7. 7. Temple Layout, Somnathpur, India
    8. 8. Halebid Temple, India
    9. 9. Variation in Shape of Corn Ears, Peru for comparison to India
    10. 10. Variation in the Shape of Corn Ears, China
    11. 11. Indian Sculpture of Corn
    12. 12. Indian Sculpture of Corn <ul><li>Corn Maiden Sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Ear from Mexico </li></ul>
    13. 13. Maize Anatomical Structures <ul><li>Maize Seed Arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>American Maize </li></ul>
    14. 14. Maize Ears Sculpture and Hand Mudra Somnathpur Temple, India
    15. 15. Yaksha Sculpture with Maize <ul><li>8th Century </li></ul><ul><li>From 5000 Years of Art in India </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican Maize Ear </li></ul>
    16. 16. Maize <ul><li>Somnathpur Four Row, Unpollinated and Husk </li></ul><ul><li>Maize Ear at end of Pollinating Season </li></ul>
    17. 17. Maize God, Mexico Note Curls on Headdress of Maize
    18. 18. Spiral Kernel Seeds Kedareshvara, Halebid, India
    19. 19. Sharp Kernelled Maize Ears, “Dog-Toothed”
    20. 20. Sculpture of Chihuahua with Maize Ear,Colima, Mexico
    21. 21. Tessellated Base Kernels Somnathpur
    22. 22. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF MAIZE SHOWN IN INDIAN 20 TEMPLE SCULPTURES Traits Sculpture Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 2a X X X X X X X X X X X X X 2b X X X X X X 3a X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 3b X 3c X X X 4 X X X X X X X X 5 X X X X X X X X X X X X 6 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 7 X 8 X 10 X 11 X X X 12 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14a X 14b X 14c X 16 X X 18a X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 18b X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 18c X X X X X X X X X X X X X 18d X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 19 X X X X 20 1.1 1.1-1.2 1.3-1.6 1.1 1.1-1.2 1.0-1.5 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.2-1.4 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.0 21a X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 21b X X X X X X X 23 X 26 X 27 X 28 X
    23. 24. Corn Maidens
    24. 25. Sunflowers Oriented Toward Sun
    25. 26. Nandi Seen From Inside Halebid Temple
    26. 27. Sunflower Sculpture Below Nandi’s Horn with sunflower as if at Dawn, Halebid Temple
    27. 28. Sunflower above Ear of Nandi (detail)
    28. 29. Sunflower under Nandi’s Tail used as a calendar, Halebid Temple
    29. 30. Nandi at Amruthteshvara with Sunflower Below Horn
    30. 31. Sunflower at Foot of Corn Maiden
    31. 32. Sunflower under Skirt of Corn Maiden (detail)
    32. 33. Long-tailed Indian Parrot on Sunflower, Pattadakal, India
    33. 34. Lotus Flower
    34. 35. Lotus Flowers in Rajasthan Temple, Representation of the Heart Chakra
    35. 36. Lotus Flower Seed Pods, at Center
    36. 37. Modern Primitive Peanut, Southern China
    37. 38. Annona in Hindu and Buddhist Art, (note Cashew on Stupa Art as well)
    38. 39. Annona Sculpture, Ahole, India
    39. 40. Other Evidence
    40. 41. Mexican Prickle Poppy (Medicine)
    41. 42. Datura (Medicinal)
    42. 43. Two Transferred Gourds <ul><li>Lagenaria Gourd </li></ul><ul><li>Malabar Gourd </li></ul>
    43. 44. Grain Amaranth
    44. 45. Marigold and Bixa Tree
    45. 46. Entire Corn and Chili Plants Note Ears on middle stem (top plate) and Chili Peppers (bottom plate), Java, Indonesia
    46. 47. Corn Cob Used in Mortuary Bird, Head and Tail Broken Off <ul><li>Maize Cob used as armature for ceramic bird. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for deceased royalty and broken off at the burial. </li></ul><ul><li>Dated to before 1000 C.E. </li></ul>
    47. 48. Unintentional Transfers <ul><li>Domestic Cat </li></ul><ul><li>Lesser Grain Borer </li></ul>
    48. 49. Unintentional Transfers Rat and its Fleas
    49. 50. Conclusion
    50. 51. Educational Opportunities <ul><li>This is only the beginning of the research. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Traits and other plants are all areas of research for your students and yourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Our book offers many suggestions for further research. </li></ul><ul><li>It is my hope that you have gained a new perspective and will assist with insights for further explorations </li></ul>
    51. 53. The End
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