C.D. Merriman,. "Bram Stoker." Bram stoker. The literature Network, 2011. Web. 16Apr 2012. <http://www.online-literature.com/stoker/>.In text citation (C.D. Merriman)Dracula is often referred to as the definitive vampire novel, but it is possible that Stokerwas influenced by Joseph Sheridan LeFanus (1814-1873) Gothic vampire novellaCarmilla (1872). While Stoker wrote numerous novels and short stories, he is chieflyremembered today as the author of this best-selling novel. It has been translated to dozensof languages, inspired numerous other authors works, been adapted to the stage and filmincluding the first version, Nosferatu (1922), starring Max Schreck. Dracula is stillwidely read and remains in print today.He was a sickly child, spending great amounts of time bed-ridden, barely able to walk.However, having fully recovered, in 1864 he entered Trinity College, Dublin to studymathematics, and, despite his earlier years of illness became involved in athletics,winning many awards. He was also elected President of the Philosophical Society. Aftergraduating with honours in 1870 he followed in his fathers footsteps and joined the CivilService with Dublin Castle, which inspired his The Duties of Clerks of Petty Sessions inIreland (1879). From his great love of the arts Stoker also started to write theatre reviewsfor the Dublin Evening Mail.In 1878 Stoker married actress Florence Balcombe (1858-1937) with whom he had a son,Irving Noel Thornley (1879-1961). Stoker left his job in Dublin and the couple settled inLondon.In 1890 Stoker holidayed in the North-east coast fishing village of Whitby in Yorkshire,where it is said he gleaned much inspiration for his novel Dracula.Bram Stoker died in London, England on 20 April 1912. His ashes were mingled with hissons and they now rest in the Golders Green Crematorium in London, England. His wifeFlorence survived him by twenty-five years and had Draculas Guest and Other WeirdStories published in 1922. Some claim that the story "Draculas Guest" was actuallysupposed to be the first chapter for his novel Dracula. It also includes such titles as "TheGipsy Prophecy", "The Burial of the Rats", "A Dream of Red Hands", and "The Secret ofthe Growing Gold".Scarborough, Terry . "Bram Stoker: A Brief Biography." The Victorian Web. N.p., 2008.Web. 16 Apr 2012. <http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/stoker/bio.html>.In text citation (Scarborough)Bram (Abraham) Stoker is recognized as one of the most prominent Gothic authors of theVictorian fin-de-siècle. An accomplished athlete, journalist, author, biographer, theatrecritic and theatre manager, Stoker is best known for his Gothic masterpiece Dracula
(1897). Like his immortal creation Count Dracula, Stokers life is shrouded in mystery,from his rumored participation in occult circles, to his purported death from syphilis.Stokers interest in the supernatural and the occult — which would become a salient focusfor his later fiction — may have been rooted in his unidentified childhood illness, whichsupposedly kept him bed-ridden until the age of seven; this seclusion would becompounded by an interest in Irish folklore, which often concerned tales of bogeys andvampires. In fact, Stokers later interests included "Egyptology, Babylonian lore, astralprojections, and alchemy" (Bedford 211), and he was rumored to be a member of theinfamous Order of the Golden Dawn, an esoteric circle of magicians attended by W.B.Yeats and Aleister Crowley; however, today such rumors are largely viewed asapocryphal."Author Biography." Novels for Students. Vol. 18. Gale Cengage, . eNotes.com. 17 Apr,2012 http://www.enotes.com/dracula/(“Author Biography”)Stoker was the third of seven children, and he was violently ill as a child. When he wassick, Stoker read many books and listened to the horror tales his mother told him. Theseled Stoker to start writing ghost stories, even as a childAt the same time, Stoker began to publish his own works. In 1882, Stoker published hisfirst book, Under the Sunset, a book of twisted childrens stories. Eight years later, hepublished his first novel, The Snakes Pass (1890). However, it was not until the 1897publication of Dracula that Stoker received real attention from the critics, and even thenit was mixed. However, although the critics were hesitant to endorse Stokers horrornovel, it was a popular success.“Dracula.” BookRags Book Notes. BookRang Inc., 2009. Web. 16 Apr 2012.<http://www.bookrags.com/notes/dra/>.(“Dracula”)Dracula is an example of Gothic literature, a genre that began over a century earlier withHenry Walpoles The Castle of Otranto (1764). Few Gothic novels, though, have enjoyedthe long-lasting popularity of Dracula. While some doubt its value as literature, there canbe little doubt of its longevity and allure. However, Dracula was one of the last books ofthe genre. Nonetheless, its effect can be seen in modern-day writers such as Joyce CarolOates and Anne Rice.Dracula- Popular culture has made Dracula synonymous with vampire. In this, his firstappearance, however, he is much more. He is the greatest vampire, who in life had been aman of legend. Were he merely a vampire, the book would have been quite short. He is a
monster with the unique combination of supernatural powers and extraordinary humancharacteristics that makes him a threat to humans everywhere.Jonathan- His outward demeanor conceals a man of courage and action. After Draculainitiates Mina, Jonathan changes from a self-doubting, thinking man into a bloodthirstywarrior, always sharpening his knife.Mina- If Van Helsing is the brains of the team, then Mina is the soul. In the Professorswords, She has a mans brain - a brain that a man should have were he much gifted - anda womans heart. The good God fashioned her for a purpose, believe me, when he madethat so good combination. Again and again, she proves herself to be the equal or superiorof every character in the novel. Nonetheless, she is old-fashioned, and wants nothingmore than to be a good wife to her husband and a good woman in the eyes of God.Dr. John Seward- He runs the insane place. Sewards writings are featured more than anyothers in the manuscript. He is not as smart at Van Helsing, as lucky in love as Jonathanor Holmwood, or as brave as Quincey Morris. Nonetheless, he is the perfect narrator forthe story: Seward is smart and brave enough, and informed and inquisitive enough, forthe plot of the story to unfold naturally through his eyes.Arthur Holmwood- His father passes him a distinguished title and both his father andLucys mother leave him large estates, all of which he handles with an unpretentious andsensible attitude. He finances the vampire hunt and lets everyone use his title to gainaccess to information about Dracula. He also has the strength and conviction to destroythe undead Lucy, thus freeing her soul.Quincey P Morris- Quincey is a cowboy from Texas. He is an old friend of ArthurHolmwoods and John Sewards. In some ways, he is an early-American stereotype. Hecalls ladies little girl and he calls Seward Jack. He is tough, brave, and polite, thoughslightly unrefined. The others all have something great at stake; Morris, aside from hislove for Lucy, is removed from the situation. Nonetheless, he joins the fight with as muchcommitment as the rest. He becomes the teams martyr.Dr. Abraham Van Helsing- A philosopher and a metaphysician, and one of the mostadvanced scientists of his time, Van Helsing is iron-willed and the only one with theknowledge to do battle against Dracula. This is not only because he has years of variedstudy behind him and has an incredible sense of logic and the intellectual capacity tounderstand what is going on. One of Draculas main weapons is the fact that no sane manwould ever believe a blood-sucking monster really exists; but the professor never doubtsit. Also, Van Helsing has the weight of moral authority on his side. He believes that he isdoing Gods work and must do so to save all humanity. Interesting note: Bram is short forAbraham--the author and this character share the name.Branch of wild rose: When placed on a coffin, a vampire cannot escape.
Carfax: The creepy old London estate purchased by Dracula through Jonathan.Crucifix: Used to impair a vampires power. One is given to Jonathan by a peasant. VanHelsing gives some to the men as weapons.Draculas castle: The Counts home and the base of his power.Earth-boxes: Large wooden boxes filled with Transylvanian soil. Dracula must sleep inthese when abroad.Garlic: Used to impair a vampires power.Holy wafer: Used to impair a vampires power. One burns Minas forehead after she isinfected.Kukri knife: A large knife that Jonathan begins carrying after Dracula infects Mina.Mirror: A source of anger for Dracula. He has no reflection.Mist/fog: A disguise of Draculas.Piccadilly: The site of a house purchased by Dracula in Central London.Sharpened wooden stake: Used to kill a vampire. One was used to kill the vampiricLucy.Spiders/flies: Renfield eats these to harvest their souls.Suicides grave: An unfortunate favorite spot for Mina and Lucy. It is where Draculafirst attacks Lucy.Religion/Religious Duty 1: Jonathans religiousness is established early when he hesitatesto take a crucifix from a peasant woman as a lucky charm. She is trying to protect himfrom the evil that awaits him, but he is still holding onto a strong Western religious ideal.Religion/Religious Duty 2: After one night in Draculas presence, Jonathan beginspraying to God. Later in the story, the main characters devotion to God is their power.Religion/Religious Duty 3: The captain of the Demeter uses a crucifix, unsuccessfully, toprotect himself from the Count.Religion/Religious Duty 8: When Van Helsing rallies the group, he tells them that theymust do their "duty". He sees the task ahead of them as not merely a personal war, but aChristian obligation.
Religion/Religious Duty 9: All of the men are religious. Van Helsing, who still has notconvinced everyone of his purpose, believes that God must be used to fight the devil.Therefore, he uses the Host, the sacred Wafer eaten at communion, to seal Lucys tomb.The others never for a moment believe that Van Helsing is being sacrilegious. On thecontrary, Van Helsings use of such a sacred object convinces the men that there must besome validity in what he is doing.Religion/Religious Duty 10: When Van Helsing asks everyone to pledge themselves tothe cause of eradicating Dracula, he uses the terminology of a religious crusade. Heexplains that there is more than life at stake - that the fate of Christianity and the world isin their hands. He also attempts to scare them, presumably to insure that only those whoare serious will commit. To scare them, he points out that, if they do not succeed, they donot die a glorious death in Gods name, but instead become devils themselves, "an arrowin the side of Him that died for man."Religion/Religious Duty 12: We see the transformation of Mina represented not bybecoming voluptuous," like Lucy, but by becoming unclean in the eyes of God. Themark left on her forehead by the holy Wafer becomes the symbol of everyones duty, thedanger they are fighting against and the necessity of fighting against it.Religion/Religious Duty 13: Van Helsing uses the Wafer, i.e., the power of the Church,as both a way to keep the evil women out and as a way to keep Mina trapped in. Heleaves her trapped in a circle of wafer while he sanitizes the castle, figuring that it isbetter for her to be vulnerable to wolves than to vice.Religion/Religious Duty 14: Quincey, in his dying words, points out that they have wonby pointing out that Minas wound has healed; in other words she is once again in thegood graces of God.SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on Dracula.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. 2003.Web. 16 Apr. 2012.(SparkNotes Editors)it is the fault of our science that it wants to explain all, and if it explain not, then it saysthere is nothing to explain. ButStoker, Bram (1995-10-01). Dracula (p. 168). Public Domain Books. Kindle Edition.http://www.shmoop.com/dracula/technology-modernization-theme.htmlhttp://www.shmoop.com/dracula/foreignness-the-other-theme.htmlhttp://www.shmoop.com/dracula/good-vs-evil-theme.htmlhttp://www.shmoop.com/dracula/literary-devices.html