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Quantum Computing:
A New Resource for HPC
Colin P. Williams
D-Wave Systems Inc.
What I’ll Talk About
•
•
•
•

D-Wave Systems Inc.
What are quantum computers?
D-Wave’s approach & rationale for it
Our cur...
D-Wave Systems Inc.
• Privately owned based in Vancouver, Palo Alto & Washington D.C.
– Investors: DFJ, Goldman Sachs, In-...
Ranked 4th in Patent Power for Computer Systems

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

4
Working with Leaders
Defense

Universities

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

Intelligence

Web

Finance

5
...
What are Quantum
Computers?

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

6
What are Quantum Computers?

• Computers that harness quantum physical
phenomena not available to conventional
computers, ...
Why are they Interesting?
• Pragmatically
– Allows us to solve problems in new ways to beat the best
we can do classically...
“Quantum computation … will be the first
technology that allows useful tasks to be
performed in collaboration between
para...
Significance to HPC
of harnessing quantum mechanics
Metric

High Performance Computer

Quantum Computer
One 512-qubit core...
Will QCs Make HPCs Obsolete?
• Probably not . . .

• They’re suited to different tasks
– HPCs: Computational fluid dynamic...
D-Wave’s Approach
Quantum Annealing
inspired by Adiabatic Quantum Computing

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserve...
How Quantum Annealing Works
• Space of solutions
defines and energy
landscape & best
solution is lowest valley
• Classical...
Our Product

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

14
D-Wave TwoTM Quantum Computer

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

15
15
Cooling
• Closed cycle dilution
refrigerator (“fridge”)
• Fridge + servers
consume 15.5kW
• Power demand will
remain const...
Processor Environment
• 192 lines from room
temperature to chip
• 10kg cooled to 0.02K
• 150x colder than
interstellar spa...
Product Roadmap
2,048-qubits
Q4 2015

D-Wave One

D-Wave Two

Talk of “the” D-Wave chip is a misnomer – the architecture e...
512-Qubit Vesuvius Processor

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

19
19
Processor Architecture
Physical Layout

Physical Unit Cell

Wiring layout
• 8 8 array of 8-qubit unit cells
• Within each ...
Programming Languages
• User does not need to know anything
about quantum physics
– Just pass a matrix of hi’s and Jij’s t...
Integrating QC into HPC

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

22
A Strategy for Integrating QC with HPC
• HPCs excel at large scale numerical simulations
• QCs excel at discrete combinato...
Division of Labor
• HPC’s job
– Map bit string to design; simulate design; score the result; send score to QC

• QC’s job
...
Quantum-Accelerated HPC
• Using the QC + HPC together allows faster convergence on
optimal design than is attainable by us...
Why Does it Work?
• Imagine you’ve reached an intermediate point in design space
and want to pick the next bit string to t...
Example
Radiotherapy Optimization

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

27
Another Example: Radiotherapy Optimization
PROBLEM:

Deliver lethal dose to tumor whilst
minimizing damage to healthy
tiss...
Conclusions
• We see quantum computing as a new
resource for HPC
• Technology scaling faster than Moore’s Law
• 1,024-qubi...
Thank you!
Email: cpwilliams@dwavesys.com

© 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved

30
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D-Wave Systems Podcast

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In this slidecast, Colin Williams from D-Wave Systems presents: Quantum Computing - A New Resource for HPC.

"D-Wave was founded in 1999 with the goal of making practical quantum computing a reality. For 5 years the company worked to gather IP and ideas on all different aspects of this area. D-Wave has the support of a blue-chip investor base including Draper Fisher Jurvetson, Goldman Sachs, Harris & Harris, GrowthWorks, the Business Development Bank of Canada, and International Investment Underwriters. The company currently owns over 90 granted US patents and has over 100 pending patent applications worldwide relating to quantum computing and superconducting electronics."

Learn more: http://www.dwavesys.com
Watch the video presentation: http://insidehpc.com/2013/12/09/slidecast-quantum-computing-new-resource-hpc/

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Transcript of "D-Wave Systems Podcast"

  1. 1. Quantum Computing: A New Resource for HPC Colin P. Williams D-Wave Systems Inc.
  2. 2. What I’ll Talk About • • • • D-Wave Systems Inc. What are quantum computers? D-Wave’s approach & rationale for it Our current product: The D-Wave TwoTM Quantum Computer • Integrating QC into HPC © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 2
  3. 3. D-Wave Systems Inc. • Privately owned based in Vancouver, Palo Alto & Washington D.C. – Investors: DFJ, Goldman Sachs, In-Q-Tel, Jeff Bezos, et al • Offering quantum computing systems – Built from superconducting processors • ~100 employees (27Ph.D., 18 B.Eng. 11 M.Sc.) • 100+ patents / 60+ peer reviewed papers • Unique infrastructure (design, fab, test, systems, software) © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 3
  4. 4. Ranked 4th in Patent Power for Computer Systems © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 4
  5. 5. Working with Leaders Defense Universities © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved Intelligence Web Finance 5 National Labs Energy
  6. 6. What are Quantum Computers? © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 6
  7. 7. What are Quantum Computers? • Computers that harness quantum physical phenomena not available to conventional computers, e.g., – Superposition – Entanglement – Co-tunneling – Non-determinism © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 7
  8. 8. Why are they Interesting? • Pragmatically – Allows us to solve problems in new ways to beat the best we can do classically in many cases – Exponential speedups • Factoring • Simulating quantum systems • Quantum chemistry – Polynomial speedups • Unstructured search • Structured search (NP-complete & NP-hard problems) • Philosophically – As Prof. David Deutsch of Oxford University says … © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 8
  9. 9. “Quantum computation … will be the first technology that allows useful tasks to be performed in collaboration between parallel universes” Prof. David Deutsch – The Fabric of Reality © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved PAGE 9
  10. 10. Significance to HPC of harnessing quantum mechanics Metric High Performance Computer Quantum Computer One 512-qubit core has ~10154 “virtual threads” in superposition, but quantum mechanics limits our ability to read them Concurrency 108 cores & 1010 threads Robustness Reduced operating voltages & channel Naturally probabilistic programming. widths, will make devices less reliable. Quantum annealing degrades gracefully to Need new programming style that is errors intrinsically probabilistic and tolerant to errors Power Expect 25-100MW systems. Few locations can support this demand. Fewer data centers can afford it. Power demand dominated by data movement 15kW for cooling & ~0kW for computation. Cooling power will stay constant up to thousands of qubits! Almost no energy to compute. No data movement needed Storage Needs to be 100PB capacity but will be constrained by physical & economic limits (density, power, cost) Memory exploits parallel universes. Create & process superposition of all 2N configurations at once. N > 300 qubits provide more storage than there are particles in the known Universe Speed 1018 FLOPS Potential to be fast but runs at 0 FLOPS © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 10
  11. 11. Will QCs Make HPCs Obsolete? • Probably not . . . • They’re suited to different tasks – HPCs: Computational fluid dynamics, molecular simulation, weather forecasting, nuclear weapons modeling, etc. – QCs: discrete combinatorial optimization, artificial intelligence, machine learning, sampling • But together they can enhance each other © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 11
  12. 12. D-Wave’s Approach Quantum Annealing inspired by Adiabatic Quantum Computing © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 12
  13. 13. How Quantum Annealing Works • Space of solutions defines and energy landscape & best solution is lowest valley • Classical algorithms can only walk over this landscape • Quantum annealing can tunnel through the landscape © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 13 13
  14. 14. Our Product © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 14
  15. 15. D-Wave TwoTM Quantum Computer © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 15 15
  16. 16. Cooling • Closed cycle dilution refrigerator (“fridge”) • Fridge + servers consume 15.5kW • Power demand will remain constant as we scale up to thousands of qubits © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 16
  17. 17. Processor Environment • 192 lines from room temperature to chip • 10kg cooled to 0.02K • 150x colder than interstellar space • Shielded room excludes external RF • Magnetic field < 10−9 Tesla across chip • 50,000x weaker than Earth’s field • Isolated from vibrations © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 17
  18. 18. Product Roadmap 2,048-qubits Q4 2015 D-Wave One D-Wave Two Talk of “the” D-Wave chip is a misnomer – the architecture evolves 6-8 times per year © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 18
  19. 19. 512-Qubit Vesuvius Processor © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 19 19
  20. 20. Processor Architecture Physical Layout Physical Unit Cell Wiring layout • 8 8 array of 8-qubit unit cells • Within each unit cell each vertical qubit is coupled to each horizontal qubit • Vertical (horizontal) qubit coupled to corresponding qubit in vertical (horizontal) neighboring cells Logical Layout Logical Unit Cell q1 q2 q5 q6 q3 q7 q4 q8 Topology of interconnect network © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 20 20 • Non-planarity of interconnect network makes the problem of finding the lowest energy state of the qubits NP-hard • NP-Hardness guarantees you can map many practical problems to the architecture
  21. 21. Programming Languages • User does not need to know anything about quantum physics – Just pass a matrix of hi’s and Jij’s to the machine • Currently have interfaces for: – Python – Matlab – C/C++ © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 21
  22. 22. Integrating QC into HPC © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 22
  23. 23. A Strategy for Integrating QC with HPC • HPCs excel at large scale numerical simulations • QCs excel at discrete combinatorial optimization • Can we use a HPC + QC for engineering design optimization? • Problem setup … – Suppose engineering design is specified by a bit string – Various designs can be “scored” by running some HPC simulation – Goal is to find the bit string whose score meets design criteria © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 23
  24. 24. Division of Labor • HPC’s job – Map bit string to design; simulate design; score the result; send score to QC • QC’s job – use sequence of bit string/score pairs to tweak the h’s and J’s in the QMI so that it will yield samples that correctly mimic the ordering of energies of solutions in the neighborhood of the highest scoring bit string – Yields a new QMI – Run new QMI many times to yield new candidates (~104 solutions/sec) – HPC scores the candidate solutions and returns scores to QC – Iterate until design meets desired criteria © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 24
  25. 25. Quantum-Accelerated HPC • Using the QC + HPC together allows faster convergence on optimal design than is attainable by using HPC alone • Avoids unnecessary HPC cycles & power consumption – Increases availability of HPC for running other computations – Works best when cost of running the HPC simulator is high • Supercomputer + quantum computer Better “guesses” “Scores” for the guesses Quantum-Accelerated HPC © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 25
  26. 26. Why Does it Work? • Imagine you’ve reached an intermediate point in design space and want to pick the next bit string to try • Classical methods only sense the local neighborhood • Quantum methods have potential for greater horizon • Make a better next move possibly leading in different direction Quantum Discrepancy Discrepancy Classical Design Parameter © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved Design Parameter 26
  27. 27. Example Radiotherapy Optimization © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 27
  28. 28. Another Example: Radiotherapy Optimization PROBLEM: Deliver lethal dose to tumor whilst minimizing damage to healthy tissues APPROACH: Hybrid: QC + Conventional Computer • Design = bit string • Quality = result of running extensive radiation transport simulation • D-Wave system learns from simulations to predict better designs IMPACT: • Hybrid quantum-classical design found a radiation therapy treatment that minimized the objective function to 70.7 c.f. 120.0 for tabu, and ran in 1/3 the time making fewer calls to radiation transport © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 28 simulation
  29. 29. Conclusions • We see quantum computing as a new resource for HPC • Technology scaling faster than Moore’s Law • 1,024-qubit quantum computer by mid-2014 • Performance is encouraging • Many potential uses in combinatorial optimization, engineering design optimization, A.I., machine learning & sampling • Seeking early adopters to explore QC-HPC synergy Email: cpwilliams@dwavesys.com © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 29
  30. 30. Thank you! Email: cpwilliams@dwavesys.com © 2013 D-Wave Systems Inc. All Rights Reserved 30
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