Considering users' behaviours in improving the responses of an informacion base


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Babajide Afolabi and Odile Thiery
Laboratoire Lorrain de Recherche en Informatique et ses Applications (LORIA) Campus Scientifique BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.

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  • Considering users' behaviours in improving the responses of an informacion base

    1. 1. Considering users’ behaviours in improving the responses of an information base B. AFOLABI et O. THIERY Laboratoire Lorrain de Recherches en Informatique et ses Applications (LORIA),Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France . E-mail: [email_address] , Odile.Thiery@ .
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Context – Economic intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Intelligence Systems (EIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ behaviours and his information need </li></ul><ul><li>Model MORPRI 2 E </li></ul><ul><li>Application domain </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Economic intelligence? <ul><li>“ the process of collection, processing and diffusion of information that has as an objective, the reduction of uncertainty in the making of all strategic decisions” </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive intelligence (CI) </li></ul><ul><li>Business Intelligence (BI) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Information retrieval and EI <ul><li>Determination of information need </li></ul><ul><li>Collection of relevant information </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the collected information </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion or sharing of the intelligence obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>These show the importance of having the right information </li></ul><ul><li> Information Search Problem (ISP) is first translated to information need. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Information Search Problem (ISP) <ul><li>The resolution of an ISP depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the understanding of the problem to be resolved (definition of information need ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the formulation of query; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the activities leading to the relevant information; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the means available to carry out the necessary search. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Information need <ul><li>Its expression is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>It depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His experiences, functions, environment etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is the informational representation of a decisional problem </li></ul>
    7. 7. Economic Intelligence System (EIS) <ul><li>A special type of Information System (IS) called Strategic Intelligence System that is dedicated to Economic Intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>A fusion of IS domain with User Modelling Domain </li></ul>
    8. 8. Information world Information base Results Selection Value-added information Interpretation Demand Mapping ? (a,b,c) ? (b) ? (a,b,c) USER-ACTOR a: decision maker b: watcher c: client A general architecture of an Economic Intelligence System Decision Analysis
    9. 9. The stages involved in EIS <ul><li>Selection : constitution of the organisation’s IS </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping : accesses to the IS by the users </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis : adding value to the information got by the users before its eventual use </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation : using the value-added information in the decision process </li></ul>
    10. 10. The major actors of an EIS and their competences Decision maker Watcher User <ul><li>COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation des indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Associated parameters </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Domain knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of relevant sources </li></ul><ul><li>Information retrieval techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Information validation </li></ul><ul><li>Formatting of information </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of indicators </li></ul><ul><li>COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of his needs </li></ul><ul><li>Experience from previous solutions </li></ul>…
    11. 11. Users’ knowledge involved <ul><li>Knowledge of the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases with the use of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps in the appropriation of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the subject (treated) domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases with experience in the domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps in the definition of the information need </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. User’s expectations in EIS
    13. 13. … seen differently Decisional problem Information search problem Activities / Behaviours Expectations expressed in terms of determine Solution? lead to can lead to can lead to Information need can be translated to implies
    14. 14. From information need to activities <ul><li>Information need implies Information Search Problem(s) </li></ul><ul><li>ISP is the basis of user’s expectations </li></ul><ul><li>User’s Expectations determines his activities </li></ul><ul><li>Activities are the expressions of user’s behaviours </li></ul>
    15. 15. Our model for the resolution of ISP in EIS <ul><li>MORPRI = { Objective, IC, Context, Actions, Mean} </li></ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul><ul><li>Objective = purpose of the user </li></ul><ul><li>IC = Individual characteristics/profile of the user </li></ul><ul><li>Context = where the information will be used or needed </li></ul><ul><li>Actions = Activities carried out by the user to attain his objective </li></ul><ul><li>Means = determines the limits of the solution got during a search period </li></ul>
    16. 16. Advantages <ul><li>User can now explore the base without prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate his requests </li></ul><ul><li>Add annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Link his retrieval activities to an objective </li></ul><ul><li>Activities can later be reused </li></ul>
    17. 17. Application domain <ul><li>Test phase </li></ul><ul><li>Publications and documents database of LORIA </li></ul><ul><li>Documents grouped in bibliographic nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Activities stored in xml format (though becomes large with use, but we opted for it for easy compatibility and analysis) </li></ul>
    18. 18. The model for user’s activities <ul><li>M = { identity, objective, {activity} {sub-session}} </li></ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul><ul><li>Activity = {activity-type, classification, evaluation} </li></ul><ul><li>Activity-type = {exploration, request, synthesis} </li></ul><ul><li>Classification = {attributes, constraints} </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation = {system’s solution, degree of relevance} </li></ul>
    19. 19. The model for user’s activities (2) <ul><li>Identity = user’s characteristics and peculiarities </li></ul><ul><li>Objective = user goal(s) in using the system </li></ul><ul><li>Activity = actions engaged by the user in realising his objectives or solving his information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Activity-type = corresponds to the different phases of the user’s evocative habits </li></ul><ul><li>Classification = the user chooses the attributes of documents to be classified and the constraints to be met. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation = user’s judgement of the relevance of the solution(s) proposed. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Cognitive processes used in personalisation <ul><li>Observation Phase : gathering of information about the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary abstraction phase : acquiring of the vocabulary of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning and symbolisation : the use of the acquired vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity phase : the use of knowledge that were not explicitly expressed in the system. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>User’s expectations not considered earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Context of use also not seriously considered </li></ul><ul><li>Created to just show publications and authors but now being used to take certain decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Threw up certain attributes not earlier implemented that might be needed in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Working on the reintegration of these attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Working also on the implementation using a set of questions and answers sessions between the user and the system. </li></ul>