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Romanesque to Eclecticism

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HWA PRESENTATION BY JIAM ROSARIO …

HWA PRESENTATION BY JIAM ROSARIO
1ID-4 CFAD/UST

Published in: Education, Spiritual

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  • 1. JIAM ROSARIO 1ID-4
  • 2. TH • 11 th 12 and Century • Western Europe • Contains elements of Early Medieval, Carolingian and Byzantine Art. • Derived from Roman Art.
  • 3. 1. The Round Arch a. semi-circular – round arch whose intrados is a full semicircle GREAT BRITAIN, DURHAM, CATHEDRAL
  • 4. • 1. The Round Arc b. segmental – shallow arc; arc that is less than a semicircle PERSIMMON HOMES
  • 5. • The Round Arch c. stilted –arc begins above the impost line ALHAMBRA, GRANADA, SPAIN
  • 6. • The Round Arch d. horseshoe arch- also called moorish arc and keyhole arc The Reales Alcazares of Sevilla
  • 7. • Mouldings and Ornamentations a. chevron – zigzag WORMS CATHEDRAL
  • 8. • Mouldings and Ornamentations b. nailheads- series of small contiguous projecting pyramids Ross, St. Mary's Church, New County Wexford - Piscina
  • 9. • Mouldings and Ornamentations c. billet – formed by series of circular, cylinders, disposed alternately with notches STRAGGLETHORPE
  • 10. • Mouldings and Ornamentations d. lozenges – tongue-like prostrusions - diamond shape ROCHESTER
  • 11. • Mouldings and Ornamentations e. cable – imitation of rope or cord BECKFORD
  • 12. • Mouldings and Ornamentations f. star- also called chip-carved star, motive star flower, or saltire cross ALHAMBRA
  • 13. • Capitals a. Cushion- modeled like a bowl -also called block cushion or cubic capital MICHAELSKIRCHE, HILDESHEIM
  • 14. • Capitals a. Scalloped – each lunette is developed into several truncated cones. ST. PETER’S CHURCH
  • 15. • Roofs -over hung the walls for drainage purposes -supported by a cornice at the top of the wall (gutters) -stood upon corbels *corbel table – cornice & corbels
  • 16. • Roof *Corbels *Parapet *Corbel Table
  • 17. • Ribbed Vault – vault in which the surface is divided into webs by a framework of diagonal arched ribs *vault – an arched brick or stone ceiling or roof
  • 18. • Doorways - inner arch was filled by a stone slab called a TYMPANUM which acted as the focal point of the ornament ST. GERMANUS CHURCH CHURCH OF THE BLESSED KILPECK
  • 19. FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE • Cathedrals - cruciform plan * Latin cross plan – nave is longer *Greek Cross Plan – four equal arms
  • 20. FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE • Cathedrals - three horizontal stages a. Ground floor arcade b. Triforium arcade
  • 21. FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE • Cathedrals -clerestory arcade – comprises a row of windows -towers and steeples were simple, wide, low, richly ornamented on all four faces with arcading
  • 22. FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE • Monasteries -arrange around a quadrangle -sited just outside the city gates a. church b. cloister c. dormitory d. library e. almonry f. infirmary g. abbot’s lodging
  • 23. FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE • Monasteries *Monastery of Saint-Martin-duConigou France, 1001-26
  • 24. FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE • Castles - first called as keep -stood on hills -started as defense structure
  • 25. FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE • Castles Neuschwanstein Castle, Germany Cardiffe Castle, England
  • 26. FORMS OF ARCHITECTURE • Fortress - buildings or structures designed for the defense of territories
  • 27. • 12TH – 15TH Century • OPUS FRANGENICUM (French Work) • dating from after the Norman period but before the renaissance.
  • 28. • Early English or Lancet -made use of plain quadripartite ribbed vault, slender tower with spires and butresses CATHEDRAL OF MILAN
  • 29. • Early English or Lancet - windows were lancets - developed TRACERY *trefoil *quatrefoil *cinque foil CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL
  • 30. • Decorated - two types of tracery a. geometric-motifs based upon the circle and its components parts b. curvilinear-complicated patterns
  • 31. • Decorated - bar tracery -stone vaulting 1. intervening ribs 2. lierne ribs SAINT SEVERIN, PARIS
  • 32. • Perpendicular -horizontal panel decoration (WAINSCOTING) -windows are vertically divided by MULLIONS -windows are horizontally divided by TRANSOMS -the head may be enclosed by obtuse arch or FOUR CENTERED ARCH
  • 33. • Perpendicular -fan vaulting -timber roof -rose windows
  • 34. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 1. Pointed arch- flexible than the round arch 2. Ribbed vaulting to fan vaulting 3. Thin pointed vaults supported by slender columns 4. Flying buttress- provide support at strategic positions
  • 35. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 5. Pinnacles- a small turret-like termination on top of buttresses, parapets or elsewhere, bunches of foilage called CROCKET 6. Spire- the tapering termination of a tower 7. Gables- Triangular position of wall 8. Piers -clustered pillars were used instead of column 9. Lierne ribs- flame like ribs branching from a main rib
  • 36. • French word meaning “rebirth” • Considered to be a cultural movement • Rebirth of the art of classic antiquity that occurred in Italy in the 14th C • Successfully adapted in France • Humanism was recognized
  • 37. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Dante -Dante Alighieri -Philospher, Scholar, Poet - The Divine Comedy
  • 38. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Petrarch -Francisco Petrarca -Philospher, Poet - Father of Humanism - Father of the Renaissance
  • 39. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Boccaccio -Giovanni Boccaccio -Poet, Storyteller - Decameron
  • 40. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Renaissance Architecture -largely inspired by the rediscovery of classical form s and principles Examples: a. Dome of the Cathedral of Florence • Filippo Brunelleschi - Bruneslleschi studied classical architecture in Rome - Architect, Engineer - Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore
  • 41. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Renaissance Architecture Examples: a. Dome of the Cathedral of Florence • Filippo Brunelleschi - Considered the founder of the Renaissance style - Devised a double shell structure - Gothic principle of construction - Corinthian orders - Pilasters and entablature
  • 42. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Renaissance Architecture Examples: b. Ospedale Degli Innocenti (Foundling Hospital) - Brunelleschi - Built by Giovanni Medici for the poor, forgotten and homeless - italian banker - founder of Medici Bank - Symmetry of designs
  • 43. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Renaissance Architecture Examples: c. Palazzo Medici-Ricardi (1444) - Architect Michelozzo under the instruction of Cosimo de Medici -Michelozzo an italian architect & sculptor -Cosimo de Medici known as “Cosimo the Elder” & “Cosimo Pater Patriae” - (16th C.) Michaelangelo added pedimented windows - (17th C.) bought by Ricadi Family
  • 44. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Renaissance Architecture Examples: d. Palazzo Pitti (AD 1435) - Erected by Luca Pitti, a friend of Cosimo de Medici, is the largest palace in Italy excepting Vatican - Luca Pitti was a florentine banker - Symmetrical plan - Ashlar masonry
  • 45. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. Florentine • Renaissance Architecture Examples: e. Palazzo Rucellai • Leon Battista Alberti - author, artist, poet, linguist, philosopher, cryptographerr -Renaissance humanist polymath • Superimposed pilasters • Use of 3 different orders: 1. TUSCAN – ground 2. COMPOSITE – second 3. CORINTHIAN – third • Alberti adapted the articulation of the Colisseum
  • 46. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. High Renaissance – Rome - Less concerned with rational order than the visual effectiveness - Popes -Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael Examples: a. Tempiettto - Donato Bramante (1441-1514) - italian architect - St. Peter’s Basilica - Small temple marked the spot of St. Peter’s crucifixion - More sculptural than architectural in the manner of Greek temples - 15ft in diameter
  • 47. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. High Renaissance – Rome Examples: b. Capitoline Hill • Campidoglio Rome 1564, Michelangelo - Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni -Sculptural and humanistic -The Place of Senate, Conservatory, Capitoline Museum (overlooking the plazza; in the center stands the statue of Marcus Aurelius) • Political center of Rome in Ancient times
  • 48. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. High Renaissance – Rome Examples: b. Capitoline Hill • Plazza is an abstraction of the human figure -long ramp=legs -capitoline museum=arms -senator’s palace=head -oval=body -conservatory=arms -statue=navel
  • 49. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1. High Renaissance – Rome Examples: c. Villa Capra or Rotonda • Andrea Palladio, Venice -influenced by Roman & Greek Architecture -influenced by Vitruvius • Influenced by Thomas Jefferson’s plan of the White House • Villa Almerico Capra CHARACTERISTIC OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 1. Walls – Ashlar Masonry in rusticated finish 2. Skylines – horizontal cornices and balustrades PALAZZO MEDICIRICADI
  • 50. A. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 3. Doors and Windows – molded architrave of the classic type or pediment in triangular or segmental style 4. Roofs – vaulted ceiling without ribs, dome raised 5. Columns – classic orders 6. Boldness and simplicity in style 7. Fronting narrrow street
  • 51. B. FRENCH RENAISSANCE - Reigns of Francis I, Francis II, Charles IV, Henry III, Louis XIII Examples: 1. Chateau de Chambord • Domenico da Cortona • landscape, Loire • Elliptical barrel vaulting • Multi-spired chateau
  • 52. B. FRENCH RENAISSANCE Examples: 2. Palais de Fontainbleu (1528) • Favorite residence of Francis I • Originally a convent • Largest palace of 16th century • Exterior had no unified design
  • 53. B. FRENCH RENAISSANCE Examples: 3. Palais de Louvre • Paris(1548-1878) • Built on the site of the old gothic chateau • Patterned after an italian palazzo • French character of each sun • Began in reign of Francis I in 1546 to Napoleon III in the 19th century
  • 54. B. FRENCH RENAISSANCE CHARACTERISTIC OF FRENCH RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 1. Transitional Period – Gothic & Renaissance features to form a picturesque ensemble 2. In Italy – classical horizontality 3. High roofs (MANSART ROOFS) 4. Combinations of classic & medieval mouldings
  • 55. C. ENGLISH RENAISSANCE - Early Modern Period - William Shakespeare, John Milton, Jon Donne, Katherine Philips 1. Tudor-Elizabethan Period -Tudor (1485-1603) -Elizabethan (1558-1603) Queen Elizabeth I’s reign • Half-Timber Construction - domestic architecture -vertical posts • Ceiling – low exposed beams • Great Hall – medieval castles • Horizontally rather than vertically • Rectangular panelling of the wainscoat • Bay windows • Pargetwork – stucco ceiling treatment • Oriel • Tudor arch
  • 56. • C. ENGLISH RENAISSANCE 2. Jacobean Style (1603-1649) • Second phase of Renaissance Architecture in England • Named after King James I of England • -pilasters, entablatures, columns were combined with small wood panels panels • -Dada and pedestral motiff
  • 57. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MANNERIST MOVEMENT 1. Last phase of renaissance 2. 17th century 3. Play with space & volume 4. Exemplified by exaggeration 5. CHIAROSCURO – light & dark surfaces are given importance - invented by Roger de Piles 6. Designs such as: a. cartouche –shield b. bosses – round prostitutions c. lozenges – oval prostitutions d. grosteques – mythological 7. Revolt against classcism -clarity, visibility, stability
  • 58. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MANNERIST MOVEMENT 1. Last phase of renaissance 2. 17th century 3. Play with space & volume 4. Exemplified by exaggeration 5. CHIAROSCURO – light & dark surfaces are given importance 6. Designs such as: a. cartouche –shield b. bosses – round prostitutions c. lozenges – oval prostitutions d. grosteques – mythological 7. Revolt against classcism -clarity, visibility, stability
  • 59. • Portuguese word “BAROCO” meaning odd shape, imperfect pearl • Developed in Later Renaissance • Revolt against Classical art • Grandeur • Sensuous richness • Drama • Vitality • Movement • Emotional exuberance
  • 60. CHARACTERISTICS OF BAROQUE ARCHIETECTURE 1. curves, double curves & diagonal lines 2. Strong contrast of light & shadow 3. Decoration became so abundant *Chiapas, San Cristobal De Las Casa Cathedral 4. Freedom of planning, designing and ornamentation 5. Spirit of artistic impedance 6. Columns w/ twisted shafts (SOLOMONIC COLUMNS) 7. Pediments in scrolled form 8. Carved ornament emphasized by gilding 9. Contorted curves 10. Ostentatious, extravagant *Iglesia de Nostra Senyora de Betlem
  • 61. A. ITALIAN BAROQUE - Baroque was art born in Rome Examples: a. Saint Peter’s Basillica • façade – Carlo Maderno -swiss-italian architect • plazza – Bernini - Grand entrance Plazza provides sense of unity and order - 234 columns in Tuscan style • Originally Greek cross plan • Exterior – giant order of Corinthian pilaster
  • 62. A. ITALIAN BAROQUE - Baroque was art born in Rome Examples: a. Saint Peter’s Basillica • Dome of St. Peter – Michelangelo - 3 horizontal zones - Greatest creation of Renaissance lantern, dome, drum, balustrades and statues piled above the gigantic pilasters are awe-inspiring in their massive grandeur. • Baldocchino - Bernini
  • 63. A. ITALIAN BAROQUE - Baroque was art born in Rome Examples: b. The Fountain of Trevi • Largest & most famous • Designed by Nicola Salvi • 1760 • Planned by Bernini
  • 64. A. ITALIAN BAROQUE - Baroque was art born in Rome Examples: c. Santa Maria della Salute • Refered to as “La Salute” • Venice, on the grand canal • Octagonal in form • Corinthian columns, scrolled buttresses
  • 65. B. FRENCH BAROQUE - Baroque entered France on a grand scale at Versaille -Official architecture of the 17th to 18th century -sever, static and classicistic style of Bernini Examples: a. Chateau de Vaux le Vicomte (Vau Lu Vicomte) • For Nicolas Fouquet • Le Vau, 1657 • Steep roof • Classical cupola • Ionic pilasters
  • 66. B. FRENCH BAROQUE Examples: b. Versaille Palace • Reign of Louis XIV • Park – Andre’ Le Notre • Palace – Mansart and Charles Le Brun • Hunting Lodge (Louis XIII) • Splendid Palace (Louis XIV)
  • 67. C. ENGLISH BAROQUE - Charles III - Buildings have been characterized by dignity, practicality, consistence unique Examples: a. St. Paul’s Cathedral • London; 1675; Christopher Wren -52 churches in London • Dome is an enlarged version of Tempietto of Bramante • Lower levels were more Palladian • Mother church of the Diocese of London
  • 68. • • • • • “Rocaille” and “Cocaille” meaning rockwork and shellwork Prominence = Louis XV 18th Century Gay, elegant and refined Lightness , delicay and elaborate ornamentation
  • 69. CHARACTERISTICS OF ROCOCO ARCHITECTURE 1. Reversal of the feeling of Baroque 2. Light and airy 3. Intimate/delicate 4. Intricate pattern 5. Favorite motif = The cockleshell
  • 70. Examples: a. Petit Trianon • Made for Madame du Barry/ Marie Antoinette by Gabriel • Small chateau located on the grounds of Palace of Versailles - Used as a private refuge from the formality of courts
  • 71. Examples: b. The Wies Pilgrimage Church of the Scourged Saviour • Oval rococo church • Dominikus Zimmermann
  • 72. • Also known as classic revivals • During the reign of Louis XVI
  • 73. Examples: a. The Madeleine in Paris • Intended as Pantheon • Build by order of Napoleon • Corinthian Columns • Greek Columnal Temple stands on a Roman-style podium • 7” high podium
  • 74. Examples: b. Church of Les Invalides • Designed by Bruant & Monsart • Remodeled by Le Vau • Greek cross plan with circular chapels • Famous dome derived from St. Peters’
  • 75. Examples: c. Paris Opera House • 1874 • Charles Garnier • Reflects the taste of Nouveau Riche
  • 76. Examples: d. Jefferson Monticello, Virginia • influenced by Lord Burlington -18th century english neoclassicist • Influenced by Andrea Palladio -16th century italian architect • Classical in detail and proportion
  • 77. Examples: e. Cheswick House • Domed italianate villa • Lord Burlington built for himself • 1726
  • 78. A. Gothic Revival
  • 79. B. Victorian - middle of 19th century - IRON discovered in Mesopotamia & Egypt Examples: a. Crystal Palace • Joseph Paxton • Iron frames • Glass panels • Wooden sash bars
  • 80. B. Victorian - middle of 19th century - IRON discovered in Mesopotamia & Egypt Examples: b. The Eiffel Tower • Paris Exhibition of 1889 • 1000 ft. tall • Gustav Eiffel