Adaptability Of Cashpoints La Caixa Bd


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Adaptability Of Cashpoints La Caixa Bd

  1. 1. Adaptability of cashpoints for the disabled Normalisation proposal RESEARCH DEPARTMENT JULY 2006
  2. 2. Adaptability of cashpoints for the disabled Normalisation proposal RESEARCH DEPARTMENT - JULY 2006
  3. 3. FUNDACIÓ BARCELONA DIGITAL Research Department Coordination: Circe Serra Vallmitjana (FBD) Work team: Lucía Arévalo Luna (FBD) Arturo Ortega Mansilla (FBD) Eduard Pauné i Xuriguera (FBD) Ramiro Sánchez-Crespo Dalmau With the cooperation of: Department of Welfare and Family, Centre SIRIUS Centre for personal autonomy, Municipal Institute of Disabled People and the ONCE organisation.
  4. 4. ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED 1. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 2. Objectives of the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4.1 Analysis of the disabled population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4.1.1 Disabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4.1.2 Numerical data of the disabled population and typology . . . . .9 4.2 International benchmarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 4.2.1 USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 4.2.2 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 4.2.3 The United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4.2.4 Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 4.2.5 Comparative of international regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 4.3 Physical accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 4.3.1 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 4.3.2 Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 4.3.3 Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 4.3.4 Clear floor space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 4.3.5 Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 4.3.6 Privacy and security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 3 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  5. 5. 4.4 Interface accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 4.4.1 Scope of the interactive elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 4.4.2 Entering and withdrawing devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 4.4.3 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 4.4.4 Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 4.5 Analysis of the disabilities feasible for adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 4.6 Definition of an adapted cashpoint machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 4.7 Regulatory proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 4.7.1 Norms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 4.7.2 Compendium of the adapted cashpoint machine . . . . . . . . . . .44 4.7.3 Lines of action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 5. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 6. Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 4 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  6. 6. 1. BACKGROUND Our society has a group of people with different levels of disability who may encounter serious problems when using the banks’ automatic cashpoint machines. These obstacles are often related to accessibility to the spaces but they are also often due to the interface between the user and the cashpoint. The difficulties in access cause discrimination against these people compared to the regular use of these services by the able-bodied public. The cashpoint manufacturers have taken on board the regulations referring to full accessibility to cashpoint machines, for example in countries such as the United States. In terms of the community and national situation, the reality is that the lack of regulations providing guidelines of these characteristics means that the adaptability of cashpoint machines for the disabled population is not guaranteed, and the situation and accessibility of the automatic cashpoint machines depends on the goodwill of the banking sector, which at the same time finds itself in a field where it has no references to act accordingly. 5 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  7. 7. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study are formed by two considerations: On the one hand, this study arises out of the non-existence of specific legislation regarding the adaptability of automatic cashpoint machines for the disabled. The second consideration is that the object of the study is to present a proposal open to everyone, and which must facilitate the beginning of work to ensure the normative takes shape, through a process of dialogue and consensus with all those affected and interested. Taking these considerations into account, therefore, the objectives set are: • To detect the different disabilities susceptible to being adapted in the use of the banks’ automatic cashpoint machines. To study how the disabled interact with the cashpoint machines and evaluate the difficulties of accessibility. • To define the design parameters that must be complied with so that they act as a guideline for adapting the cashpoint machines, in terms of both their physical and operational access, for the different types of disability. • To establish the rules of a standardisation project regarding accessibility of cashpoint machines. • To promote the creation of a stamp or mark of certification with institutional and/or official support that certifies the cashpoint machines and their installation in bank branches. 6 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  8. 8. 3. INTRODUCTION This study contains a proposal for the regulation of automatic cashpoint machines so that they are both physically an operatively accessible to disabled people. To prepare this the regulations have been analysed of other countries such as the USA, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom, and the recommendations that they specify have been evaluated, so that all the elements can be integrated and at the same time adapted to the local social and cultural characteristics. It has also had the opinion of organisations working around disabilities in order to ratify the proposal. Interviews have been held with the Department of Welfare and Family, the Municipal Institute of Disabled People, the COCARMI association (Catalan Committee of Disabled People ), the ONCE organisation, the Assessment Council for the Elderly and the SIRIUS Centre for personal autonomy (Service of the Department of Welfare and Family), among others. 7 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  9. 9. 4. STUDY 4.1 Analysis of the disabled population 4.1.1 Disabilities This section examines the main disabilities and deals with the people affected in the use of cashpoint machines. They can be grouped according to their type: • Physical: Coordination: manual dexterity reduction in functioning of arms and hands that may affect pressing or movement) and mobility (total or partial reduction in legs, or muscular disorders or those of posture and movement. Non-coordination: includes people with chronic illnesses such as heart disease, kidney problems, etc. It is a group classified as physically disabled because they have special needs: they tire more quickly than usual, etc. • Sensory: the study focuses mainly on the visual disabilities, even though there are aspects that effect people with hearing disabilities that have also been dealt with. • Psychological: Intellectually disabled: mentally handicapped, Down’s syndrome, etc. The study looks into the limit to which some of these people may not have the legal capacity to undertake banking operations. Mentally ill: comprise all types of mental illness such as depressions, psychosis, schizophrenia. In principle these people do not require any special need in order to use automatic cashpoint machines. The elderly • The elderly: this group includes different types of the abovementioned experience disabilities: vision loss (loss of sharpness of vision, focusing, sensitivity to different types of contrasts, decrease in making out colours, loss of peripheral vision), disabilities: decrease in hearing, cognitive limitations: dementia, loss of memory, physical, sensory perceptive (for speaking, responding, listening), resolving problems, and psychological. language. 8 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  10. 10. 4.1.2 Numerical data of the disabled population and typology Below there is an analysis of the disabled population so that we can make a global and specific evaluation of the problem, as well as the tendencies (ageing of the population, disabilities on the increase –for example vision–,etc). The study therefore focuses on the characteristics of our population. Demographically speaking, it is estimated that the industrialised countries have between 8 and 12% of people with disabilities, a proportion that increases due to the ageing of the population and the greater level of recovery that modern medicine allows people who have suffered illnesses or accidents. In Spain there are about 5 million disabled people, representing 9% of the In Spain there are population. about 4 million disabled people. By Autonomous Communities, the rates vary slightly in some of them, the majority being in Ceuta, Melilla, Andalusia and Murcia, where the rate increases approximately 25% compared to the state-wide percentages. In terms of numbers of people, the communities with the higher number of disabled are those Andalusia, Catalonia, Madrid, Valencia and Castilla y León. The figures for Spain are similar to the figures at a European level, where it is estimated that 10-15% of the population is disabled, although there are divergences of data in terms of the degree of disability considered in the different countries (moderate or severe). Moreover, today the population aged over 70 is beginning to be included in the disabled group. It has already been mentioned that these people have similar problems regarding sight, mobility, etc. This group will cause the number of people in the disabled sector to rise greatly. We are experiencing a process of demographic ageing in all the European cities, which in cities such as Barcelona is evident in a very strong way (16% of the population is aged over 70). From this we could state that in Barcelona around 25% of the population has difficulties in using automatic cashpoint machines due to their disabilities. The evaluation of types of disability and their level is undertaken through the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and the tables produced by the American Medical Association for evaluating daily activities. The team carrying out the evaluation is a multidisciplinary team (doctors, psychologists, etc.) that evaluates different aspects (both physical and social). The degrees of disability are the following: 9 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  11. 11. 1. The first group corresponds to a disability level of between 33% and 64%, which includes people with disability with a level of personal autonomy that enables them to be integrated at a social and occupational level (even though in a protected form). 2. The second group is between 65% and 74%. 3. Finally, the third group includes people with disability levels of 75% or above. In Catalonia the total registered disabled population is 356,530 people, which is the equivalent of approximately 5% of the population, that is to say, of the estimated disabled population of Catalonia (a total of 9%), only 5% are registered and with the determining factors of a disabled person. Added to these figures for the registered population we should also include the slightly disabled who for various reasons have not been registered (for example those within the elderly group, due to lack of awareness, etc.), or who are on the limit but who on the other hand would also benefit from the standardisation of automatic cashpoint machines. It is also worth noting that people who are temporarily less mobile (pregnant women, people with their limbs in plaster, with crutches, etc.) are also not counted. From the figures registered at the Department of Welfare we can see what the rate of incidence is according to the type of disability1 (Figure 4.1): Physical coordination Physical non-coordination Sensory visual Sensory hearing Psychological Mentally ill Not registered 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 Figure 4.1: People with disability by type. Total figures 2005. (Source: Department of Welfare and Family. General Secretariat. Produced from the database of disabled people). 1 The tables include the “not registered” section, which includes the situations erroneously coded and those codifications that cannot be included in any of the large groups. 10 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  12. 12. Grouped according to the most general classification: physical, sensory and psychological (Figure 4.2): More than 210,000 people in Physical Catalonia have a physical disability. Sensory Psychological Not registered 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Figure 4.2: People with disability by type: physical, sensory and psychological. Total figures. 2005. (Source: Department of Welfare and Family. General Secretariat. Produced from the database of disabled people). From the group of visually-impaired disabled, according to information from the ONCE we obtain the following proportion among the disabled with minimum sight and blindness (Figure 4.3): Blindness: absence of sight or only the perception of light. Visual Blindness Visual impairment: impairment 22% maintenance of a visual 78% state that is functional for daily life (moving around, domestic chores, reading, etc.). Figure 4.3: Proportion of visually disabled. (Source: ONCE) The discrimination that ONCE carries out to determine a person with a sight disability is that stipulated for both eyes in one of the two following visual states (for more information see appendix 6.6): Visual sharpness the same as or inferior to 0.1 (1/10 of the Wecker scale). Visual sharpness is understood as the degree of the eye’s ability to perceive special details. 11 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  13. 13. These are perceived by the angle below which they see (the less the angle, the greater the visual sharpness). Visual field reduced to 10 degrees or less. The visual field is the area of space that the eye perceives. These figures are more restrictive than those produced by the administration. Appendix 6.7 of the document shows the statistical information of the members of the ONCE. If we analyse the group according to the age of the person (Figure 4.4): From 0 to 6 From 6 to 16 From 16 to 19 From 20 to 34 From 35 to 44 From 45 to 54 From 55 to 64 From 65 to 74 From 75 and above Figure 4.4: Disabled people by age group. Total figures. 2005. (Source: Department of Welfare and Family. General Secretariat. Produced from the database of disabled people). Nearly 70% of We can see that more than 70% correspond to people aged over 45 and over disabled people 40% are more than 65. In terms of the study, minors aged 16 and under are are aged over 45. not affected, although on the other hand they represent a percentage of less than 4%. 12 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  14. 14. If we look into the evolution for 2001 (Figure 4.5) we see a notable increase in all the types of disability, caused mainly by the ageing population. Mental illness amongst young people has rocketed. Physical coordination Physical non-coordination Sensory visual Sensory hearing Psychological Mentally ill Not registered 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 Figure 4.5 Evolution of disabled (2001-2005) 13 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  15. 15. 4.2 International benchmarking This section looks into the legislation and regulations that are already in force or are in the process of being implemented in other countries. The most advanced in terms of this type of measure have been chosen such as the USA, United Kingdom, Canada and Australia. 4.2.1 USA It has the American with Disabilities Act, a legal instrument that aims to ensure equal opportunities for the disabled. Even in 1992 a series of regulations were introduced relating to automatic cashpoint machines, which at the time ensured physical accessibility to the machine and the operative elements. It contained a section devoted to the visually disabled, but it was ambiguous since it only stated that the information had to be interpretable by this group. A workgroup was set up in 2002 to update the legislation in questions of operative accessibility and other aspects that could be improved due to technological changes.2 The new regulation is currently the defined regulation.3 Regarding the adaptation of the automatic cashpoint machines the In the USA there regulation states that wherever there are automatic cashpoint machines must always be a there must always be one adapted according to the norm. If the banks have cashpoint machine indoor and outdoor cashpoint machines then they are considered two adapted for the distinct spaces. There must the guarantee that all the functions provided to disabled which clients who use adapted cashpoint machines: it is unacceptable that they are complies with the only inside the bank since they cannot offer a 24/7 service, or that these regulation. cashpoint machines can only be used for taking out money while the others can also be used for selling cinema tickets. Alongside the regulation, at the end of the 1990s in the USA, they began to develop speech output systems for using automatic cashpoint machines, promoted by groups for the defence of the visually disabled. The first automatic cashpoint machine was placed inside the San Francisco City Hall in 1999. The banks have begun to deploy automatic cashpoint machines with In Canada there is services such as speech output throughout the country. a Human Rights 4.2.2 Canada Commission that draws up policy and guidelines In 1982 the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom was pushed forward.4 referring to human For the first time at an institutional level it dealt with prohibiting rights. discrimination for reasons of physical, sensory or mental disability. 2 United States Access Board <> 3 Available online at <> 4 More information at <> 14 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  16. 16. Section 15 of the Charter makes it illegal for the Canadian authorities to discriminate against the disabled in their laws and programmes. In Canada there are three organisms that ensure the Charter is fulfilled. Firstly there is the Canadian Human Rights Act, the aim of which is to protect individuals from discrimination. The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal applies these principles to cases that have been forwarded by the Canadian Human Rights Commission). The Tribunal is similar to a court of law and acts in an independent and impartial way. It is less formal and only deals with cases of discrimination. The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal deals with cases that have been taken up by the public. The Human Rights Commission draws up policies or guidelines concerning human rights. The first automatic In 1994 the Canadian Human Rights Commission undertook a study about cashpoint machine adapting the cashpoint machines for the disabled. As a result of this, with speech different initiatives arose such as the Canadian Bankers Association’s Report output was placed or that of Betty Dion Enterprises Limited (BDEL) which each presented in Ontario in studies about automatic cashpoint machines. October 1997. The Canadian Bankers Association’s Report proposed a series of recommendations that made the maximum use of automatic cashpoint machines. One of the most important recommendations was the cashpoint machines with speech output for blind or visually impaired people. The result of the report was to develop an automatic cashpoint machine with an interactive speaking system, and it was placed in Ontario in October 1997. This day marks the date of the first automatic cashpoint machine of its kind in the world (picture of the cashpoint machine in Figure 4.6). Moreover, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) develops standards addressed to real needs. It has issued a standard related to accessibility of the disabled to automatic cashpoint machines. The standard drawn up by the CSA was used as a reference in the abovementioned studies. This standard has been used as a way of recommending a series of minimum levels. It has no legal standing. Nevertheless, the fact of having a standard that proposes alternatives gives more weight when complaining to the Tribunal. Figure 4.6: Picture of the first cashpoint machine in the world with speech output (Source: Financial Group). 15 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  17. 17. 4.2.3 The United Kingdom In 1995 the Disability Discrimination Act was introduced (DDA), which protects the legal rights of the disabled. These cover occupation, access to services, education, transport and housing.5 Part III of the act is based on the principle that disabled people must not be discriminated against by those providing public services. In the specific area of banks the following aspects are taken into account: - Banks provide the service of withdrawing money at the counter during office hours and from automatic cashpoint 24 hours a day. While this service is in operation when the counter service is closed, the bank must provide an additional service subject to that stipulated in the DDA. - Banks provide a cashpoint machine in a commercial area or another kind of public place (supermarket, airport, trade fair, etc...). The bank is responsible for ensuring the service is not discriminatory, while the organisation responsible for the site where the cashpoint machine is placed must ensure that a disabled person has physical access to it (free of obstacles, etc.). According to Section 21 of the Act, providers of services have the legal obligation to make reasonable adjustments so that physical barriers can be surpassed, but there is no regulation that standardises accessibility, the In the United definition of “reasonable” not being determined by the law. Kingdom there is the Disability The Disability Rights Commission is an independent body founded in 2000 by Rights Parliament in order to stop discrimination and encourage equal opportunities Commission, an for disabled people. The Commission provides advice to these people, offers independent body them legal aid to defend their rights, and organises activities in order to founded in 2000 change policies, practices and awareness, among other aspects. by Parliament to stop In terms of standards there is the British Standard BS 8300:2001 “Design of discrimination and Buildings and their approach to meet the needs of disabled people” which encourage equal covers the more physical aspect of accessibility. The Centre for Accessible opportunities for Environments has produced a report with recommendations and proposals, in the disabled. the form of a standard, to adapt automatic cashpoint machines. 5 More information at <> 16 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  18. 18. 4.2.4 Australia Since 1986 in Australia the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission has been working. It is an independent national regulatory governmental body. It was established by a Federal Parliamentary Act, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Act. Regarding the legislation concerning the disabled, in 1992 the Australian Disability Discrimination Act was passed, in order to protect the disabled and ensure that they have the same rights.6 Section 24 refers to Goods, Services and Facilities, stating that it is unlawful for anyone providing this type of service to discriminate against disabled people on the condition that it does not impose unjustifiable hardship on the person who provides the goods, services or makes the facilities available. In terms of standards, in 1990 Australia drew up a standard referring to access and use of automatic cashpoint machines. It studied the main difficulties that the disabled encounter, and made a series of recommendations. In 2000 the Commission produced a report to detect accessibility problems In 2000 the Human regarding e-commerce, which included automatic cashpoint machines, Rights and Equal telephone banking, internet banking and PST (Point of Sale Terminals). It Opportunity showed quite clearly that there were serious problems with all of them. Commission of Australia produced As a result the Accessible E-Commerce Forum was held, attended by a report for representatives of the government, banks, manufacturers and many entities detecting connected to the question. The aim was to make people aware of the accessibility situations and look for ways of improving it. problems in e- commerce, which The Australian Bankers Association confirmed its involvement and included established a working team and a plan of action to develop standards automatic relating to e-commerce. The work concluded in April 2002.7 cashpoint machines, From this initiative the standards have been taken on board by the majority telephone of the larger banks in Australia and the automatic cashpoint machines are banking, internet gradually being replaced. banking and PST (Points of Sale Terminals). 6 More information at <> 7 Available online at <> 17 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  19. 19. 4.2.5 Comparative of international regulations Below is a table comparing the proposals and regulations (in the case of North America it is legislation). USA Canada United Kingdom Australia Location Suitable Suitable Suitable indications indications indications (with (touch-wise) (lighting, sound, touch-wise signposting) -pavement) Access Complies with its Complies with its Complies with its Space free of regulations regulations regulations obstacles Automatically- Wide doors Wide doors: opening doors 0.8-0.85 m 0.8-0.9 m Insertion of control Maximum force Maximum force cards: 0.75-0.9 m required 20 N required 19.5 N height, correctly Insertion of control Insertion of indicated PHYSICAL ACCESSIBILITY cards: 0.75-1 m control cards: height 0.9-1.10 m height. Better placed on the left Placement Considers aspects Considers aspects of security, envi- of design, security, ronmental protec- sound, illumina- tion, sound... tion... Clear floor space 0.76 m x 1.22 m 1.5 m x 1.5 m 1.5 m x 1.5 m 1.5 m x 1.5 m (without including 2% slope 2.08% slope 2.5% slope the door movement) Illumination 100-300 Lux 100 Lux in the 200-300 Lux 200-300 Lux (uniform) setting Avoids reflections Avoids reflections 200 Lux min. Fluorescent sound Avoids shadows and reflections Fluorescent sound 18 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  20. 20. USA Canada United Kingdom Australia Privacy and Respects the clear Respects the clear Respects the clear Visual and sound security floor space floor space floor space mechanisms in order not to Option of blocking Ledge: maximum Ledge: minimum forget the card or the screen depth of 0.25 m height of 0.7 m money (using the speech and 0.86 m output) for data maximum height Ledge: depth protection 0.15-0.25 m and 0.75-0.9 m height Levels of Possibility of Possibility of Possibility of Possibility of NTERFACE ACCESSIBILITY reach of the closeness from closeness from closeness from frontal closeness. interactive front or side. front or side. front and side 0.75-1.100 m elements Edges dependent O.68 m height and (there are different height (possibility on whether there 0.36 m depth free possibilities of 1.2 m through are lower regarding the for placing the secondary obstacles. width and height knees. options). of the edges). In general the No object can stick 0.2 m depth area covered is 0.75 height-0.185 m out more than (possibility of 0.3 0.38-1.22 m depth, extendible 0.04 m. through secondary height, 0.5 m to 0.23 m. options). With Receptacles in the depth (if there is 0.35 m of depth area of reach. an obstacle the for the knees maximum height Waste bins cannot (pictures in is 1.17 m) obstruct the way. appendix 6.4.2). (pictures in Bar for holding on Keyboard angle appendix 6.4.1) to. (15° or 75°) Bar for holding on to 19 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  21. 21. USA Canada United Kingdom Australia Entrance Usable with one Components Components Components devices hand, without the indicated (visually, indicated (visually: indicated (visually, need to pull or with lighting, by flashing light, touch-wise, with twist the wrist. touch). touch-wise, symbols) symbols through Keyboard with 5 Usable with one Usable with one graphics). Usable indicated. hand. hand with one hand. Telephone / Identification of Possibility of Indication on the computer card and entering through card regarding numbering. orientation. voice orientation. The keys must identification of Keyboard with 5 Keyboard with 5 contrast with the card and indicated indicated. surface. orientation telephone Telephone numbering. numbering Keyboard with 5 indicated 15 mm x 15 mm 15 mm x 15 mm minimum. minimum Telephone NTERFACE ACCESSIBILITY numbering Concave and Concave and non-slip. non-slip 15 mm x 15 mm minimum Minimum height Minimum height of 1 mm. of 1 mm Concave and non-slip Separation Separation between numerical between numerical Minimum height keys 3.2 mm. keys 3.2 mm of 1 mm Function keys to Separation Separation the right of the between numerical between number numbers: and function keys keys 3.2 mm correction/ cancel 9.6 mm Function keys to X red, delete I Function keys to the right of the yellow, confirm 0 the right of the numbers: green numbers: correction / Forms an angle Correction / cancel cancel (by touch: with respect to the X red. Delete I X, colour: red); horizontal 10-45°. yellow, confirm 0 delete (by touch I, colour yellow); green confirm (0, green) Effort required to activate keys, maximum of 7 N 20 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  22. 22. USA Canada United Kingdom Australia Exit Sans serif font. Minimum 25 mm Minimum Minimum devices Characters must projection projection 25 mm. projection of 25 be 4.8 mm tall. Maximum effort to Free area in radius mm They must of 40 mm remove 22 N Maximum effort contrast with the Maximum effort to to remove 22 N Characters must background contrast with the remove 22.2 N Screen: Braille background. Sans Screen: the bigger the information instructions serif font the better must contras by Possibility of Width-height ratio Colours contrasted 30% with the speech output: background of character Character sans serif Obligation to 0.1-0.2 font. Mixture upper Character sans carry out all the serif font. Mixture Space between case and lower instructions of upper and letters 0.1 or 0.2 case. If it is (contemplating lower case times the height of adapted to the exceptions), the character measure it should Possibility of earpiece cables Mixture upper case be 16p adapting the maximum length Touch screen, cells screen for easy with lower case of 0.735 m reading and letters 22 x 22 mm Sound and visual controlled via NTERFACE ACCESSIBILITY Possibility of Sound signals of signs of the the keyboard speech output process and visual process Possibility of Printed text: sans signals (icons on speech output the screen) serif font, 14p, Sound signals of upper and lower Possibility of process and visual case. speech output signals Contrast Printed text: sans serif font, 12p, upper and lower case. Contrasting Operative Possibility of Personalisation of Defining preferred extending the time screen change time operation of the transaction and operation Possibility of Graphic or symbol Simple language extending the time instructions of the transaction Saving of text in Without movement publicity during the operations Saving of text in movement Identification Systems control biometrics Table 4.1: International proposals. 21 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  23. 23. Current Current international standards are similar and support a series of measures international that aim to make physical accessibility easier and to incorporate the capacity standards are for speech output in order to reach the blind. similar and support a series of There are small differences in the measures: measurements, efforts, distances measures that aim (some more restrictive than others) and also in specific aspects where one to make physical standard appears more detailed than another. accessibility easier and to include the The standard in the USA is the least restrictive regarding measurements capacity for (surface area of free space, extent of reach, etc.) and also in terms of speech output to requisites (less recommendations, more flexibility, etc.). This is due to the reach the blind. fact that it is not a proposal but a regulation that must be complied with. On the other hand, however, it is the one that goes into more detail about speech output, specifying what must be complied with, what exceptions there may be, etc. precisely for this legislative reason. The other three standards encompass practically the same aspects. In the United Kingdom there are many proposals about the measurements of the cashpoint machines, giving many options for cashpoint machines in order to be able to design a model that works for people without disability and people in wheelchairs. It also looks into two scope levels, the first which would include the most important interactive elements (keyboard, screen, card entrance space, cash withdrawal space), and a second level of less-used There is no elements that could be placed at the limit of the accessible space. The standard that Canadian standard lays more emphasis on the aspects of presentation: size focuses on the of the characters (interior, exterior ratio, etc.), form, interlineal space, psychologically configuration of the columns, etc. The Australian standard is the most disabled, with complete and includes a basic screen with the most frequent options for the possibility of elderly or those with light psychological disabilities. pictograms, proposals for The standards do not deal with the operative aspect all that much, or where adapting the they do it is only for blind people, without focusing on the elderly or those operative aspect, with other disabilities. There are no standards that focus on the etc. and, therefore, psychologically disabled, with the possibility of pictograms, proposals for providing a adapting the operative aspect, etc. and, therefore, providing a solution that solution that meets their needs. meets their needs. 22 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  24. 24. 4.3 Physical accessibility This section proposes a series of recommendations to solve the main physical difficulties of disabled people when physically approaching a cashpoint machine, encompassing aspects such as the positioning of them as well as the arrangement of establishment: lighting, space, etc. Today the code of accessibility regarding buildings and fixtures and fittings in public buildings is much more developed.8 There are no detailed analyses regarding sizes, but other factors are proposed that should be taken into account in order to provide solutions for the disabled. 4.3.1 Location Location of the bank There are many For blind people and other visually-impaired people, the first difficulty is that design options for of finding the bank and obtaining relevant information such as whether they making the will accept their card, if it is operative or if it carries out certain operations. establishment stand out to make There are many design options for making the establishment stand out: it easier to find the bank and • large and visible poster or sign, terminal for visually-impaired • contrasting colours (yellow or white characters on black backgrounds), people. • larger letters (they should not, however, contradict the local urban landscape regulations). 8 Everything referring to the access to the establishment, margins of manoeuvring, etc., it is recommended consulting for more detail the regulation dealing with building aspects of the Codi d’Accessibilitat de Catalunya (Accessibility Code of Catalonia) (Decree 135/1995 of the 24 March). 23 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  25. 25. Combinations recommended regarding colour and contrast (Table 4.2): Details Large surfaces White Dark blue Black Yellow Green White Red White Blue White Black White Yellow Black White Red White Dark Green White Black For visually impaired people with an approximate sight of ten percent. The minimum sizes of the signs will depend on the distance at which they can be read.9 (Table 4.3) Size Distance Minimum Recommended ≥5m 7.0 cm 14 cm 4m 5.6 cm 11 cm 3m 4.2 cm 8.4 cm 2m 2.8 cm 5.6 cm 1m 1.4 cm 2.8 cm 50 cm 0.7 cm 1.4 cm Table 4.3: Sign size. (Source: ONCE) The information relating to the bank and the operations in the terminals must be correctly shown and placed. A comprehendible symbol system that serves for both the elderly and people with slight intellectual disabilities can be recommended. 9 Taking into account the height of the letter measured in the ‘e’ of the Snellen optotype. 24 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  26. 26. Location of the terminal There could be a Finding the terminal also brings with it many problems for visually impaired device that people (for example when it is placed in a commercial centre or in a very big activates a sound branch). This is why sign regulations are recommended: large letters, signal to standing out with the use of more visible colours (that contrast with the determine where background) and which are properly illuminated. They would have to be the terminal is (the placed in the upper part, close to eye level (following the recommendations service could be mentioned in the previous section). used for other applications, such There should also be an audible device that is activated with a device that as traffic lights). the visually impaired person carries with them. This card will turn on a sound system that determines its location (the service could be used for other applications, such as traffic lights). Another highly recommendable option is of placing a touch and sight-based edge-guide that guides the person from the door of the entity to the terminal. In public premises (such as commercial centres) or to cashpoint machines that are on the outside, they can be found by means of a pavement differentiator of some 1.20 x 1.20 m2 in front of the cashpoint machine (Fig. 4.7). 4.3.2 Access The route leading to the automatic cashpoint machine must be free of physical obstacles such as kerbs, pebbles, Figure 4.7: Pavement differentiator. changes of level, projecting signs and even trees and (Source: ONCE) bushes that may darken the surrounding area and cause a sensation of fear and insecurity.10 When the entrance of the bank has a vestibule, this must have a large space for people in wheelchairs to be able to move around freely. If a device is required to enter the bank, for example by inserting a card, this must be well indicated and at a height of between 0.7 -1.20 m. It must also be capable of being used with one upper limb only. The entrance to The entrance to the premises should preferably have automatic doors. Regular the premises doors may cause problems for people with physical disabilities, not only those should preferably in wheelchairs, but also people with coordination difficulties for whom have automatic opening and closing the door is a real effort. The width of the doors is a doors. minimum of 0.8 m and should not require more than 20 N of effort to open it. 10 See the adapted route from the Codi d’Accessibilitat de Catalunya (Accessibility Code of Catalonia) (Decree 135/1995 of the 24 March). 25 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  27. 27. In some cases queuing up to use the cashpoint machines may cause obstructions. A queue control method should be designed such as a variation in the colour of the ground that maintains the privacy and security of the user. 4.3.3 Position The automatic cashpoint machine must be placed taking into account the structure and location of the building (if it is in a building). It must be placed in an area that presents no risk for disabled people, for example a corner. Direct sunlight A key factor in deciding where to place an automatic cashpoint machine is may diminish the the fact that direct sunlight may diminish the contrast on the screen and contrast of the cause reflections. On these the lines the positioning must ensure the screen and cause prevention of direct light or reflected sunlight or other source of light. reflections. Aspects of environmental sound must also be taken into consideration. 4.3.4 Clear floor space The area around the automatic cashpoint machine must be spacious, free of obstacles with specific measurements that enable a person in a wheelchair to move freely. This area measures 1.5 m x 1.5 m centred in front of the terminal, without any waste bins or other furnishing that make passing difficult: nor should there be the need to open any doors to reach it. In this way the disabled person can reach the terminal directly or in parallel. The surface must be levelled out and in no case should there be a slope of more than 2% gradient. The surface must not be slippery, and the pavement must be firm and relatively smooth. Also to be taken into consideration if there is more than one cashpoint machine, placed alongside each other for example, the abovementioned restrictions of the area must be maintained. 4.3.5 Illumination The lighting in the whole area must be designed to facilitate the use of the automatic cashpoint machine. It must be arranged so as to ensure safe movement, providing the area with good visibility. 26 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  28. 28. At ground level the minimum recommended light level is 50 lux in order to be able to find an object that has been dropped on the floor. The lighting of the interface of the cashpoint terminal must be 200 lux. This must not cause reflections or directly dazzle. Shadows on the screen must be avoided. The automatic cashpoint machine must not be situated in places where poor lighting impedes reading (dark areas or those with a lot of reflections). It must be well lit at any time of day or night. It is important to note that the noise that fluorescent lights sometimes make can cause problems of interference to people with hearing aids. They should be regularly checked. 4.3.6 Privacy and security Automatic Privacy is a very important premise when using an automatic cashpoint cashpoint machine. Automatic cashpoint machines must provide the same level of machines must privacy when information is being entered or received for all the users. This provide the same aspect does not only affect people with sensory problems, those who must level of privacy use wheelchairs cannot cover the screen with their bodies, and therefore when information may prefer the voice option with the screen blocked. is being entered or received for all It is recommended that there is an area of use measuring 1.5 m x 1.5 m so users. that the user has sufficient space to protect their details. It is important for there to be a visible mark that determines the area and at the same time indicates to other users where to form a queue. In the case where the automatic cashpoint machine has the use of voice it must be possible to block the screen in order to protect the data. On the other hand there must be an audible and visible mechanism that advises in the case of forgetting the car or the money. A ledge can be placed in front of or beside the interface where objects can be left such as bags, purses, sticks, etc. so that the user’s hands are free. This ledge must be visible (contrasting with the background) and must have bevelled edges. Nevertheless, accessibility to the interactive elements must not impede access for disabled people in wheelchairs (section 4.4.1). 27 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  29. 29. 4.4 Interface accessibility This section analyses the problems of using cashpoint machines for operations, having resolved physical accessibility, and with recommendations for overcoming them. The problems can be classified in access to interactive elements, use of the enter and withdrawal devices in all the operations (instructions, responses, etc.). It also deals in a special way with identification and verification in order to undertake operations. 4.4.1 Scope of the interactive elements The elements that make up the interface must comply with a series of design The elements that requisites so that they are accessible, especially for the physically disabled. make up the interface must There are different height and depth margins of the interface according to comply with a the characteristics of the cashpoint machine, the viewing angle of the panel series of design and to the types of positioning of the disabled user with wheelchair.11 requisites so that they are The idea behind the recommendations explained below is that they possess accessible, measurements that enable them to be used by the able-bodied as well. particularly for the physically In all cases they must comply with the following: disabled. 1. The interactive elements must be within the area of reach. 2. The panel (where the screen and the keyboard are) must be viewable from a minimum angle of 45°.12 If, as well as the interactive elements, there are waste bins or recipients for leaving or collecting envelopes or for other purposes, these must also comply with the recommended margins of reach as laid down below. 11 Information supplied by SIRIUS. 12 The viewing angle is the angle formed by the plane of the panel and the central axis of vision of an observer. 28 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  30. 30. The first thing to consider are the anthropometric parameters that will be used when recommending the measurements of automatic cashpoint machine with different options for inclination of the panel in accordance with the requirements for the viewing angles (Figure 4.8). Interface Interface Figure 4.8: Anthropometric parameters. (Source: SIRIUS) 29 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  31. 31. There are four options proposed that enable frontal approach by people in wheelchairs according to the form of the cashpoint machine. (Figure 4.9) Depth of reach Depth of reach Option 1 Option 2 Maximum height Maximum height of reach of reach Interface Interface Minimum height Minimum height of reach of reach Contour limit Contour limit Depth of reach Depth of reach Option 3 Option 4 Maximum height Maximum height of reach of reach Minimum height Minimum height of reach of reach Contour limit Figure 4.9: Design parameters for access to the interactive elements of automatic cashpoint machines. (Source: SIRIUS) The cases specified are determined by whether it is possible to place the knees or part of the legs below the work surface (corresponding to the upper figures), if they enable feet to be placed there (maximum 10 cm) or not if there is space (lower figures): • Option 1: Enables perfect front approach to the automatic cashpoint machines, which have a scope of 0.7 m height and 0.35 m depth. • Option 2: The scope is of 0.7 m height and 0.25 m depth. • Option 3: The most restrictive in terms of the depth of the margin, since there is no possibility of placing the legs. In this option, which enables the feet to be accommodated, the scope is 1 m height and 0.1 m depth. • Option 4: The elements of the automatic cashpoint machine must be placed at the front in a margin of 1 m height. It is the most restrictive case of all. 30 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  32. 32. 4.4.2 Entering and withdrawing devices All the elements The operative controls and mechanisms must be usable with one hand and must be correctly should not have to be held tight, require a lot of pressure or the twisting of the indicated and they wrist. The effort required to activate the controls, to remove or insert elements, must be easily must not be more than 22.2 N. distinguishable from each other. All the elements must be correctly indicated and they must be easily They must be distinguishable from each other. They must be distinguishable visually, by distinguishable touch and also by symbols. visually and by touch. The interactive elements must be placed in a practical way. For example, as the most common action of all is withdrawing money, the entrance section for the card of bank book should be near so the user does not have to look for it. The elements must be easily locatable visually and by touch. The interactive elements must be We propose following the recommendations of the section (4.3.1 / 4.3.2) placed in a regarding colours, contrast with the surface and lettering. There must be practical way. lettering in Braille. Entrance section It is recommended that these sections have one side in high relief or illuminated that makes them easy to find, and that their form is funnelled, helping in terms of insertion. See figure 4.10: Card Figure 4.10: Design of the card The card must be easily identifiable, must be entrance sections. (Source: ONCE) discernible from other cards: call cards for example. For this reason we propose it has a distinctive letter in high relief in a contrasting colour. In order to be able to insert the card correctly, it must have a directional indicator such as a notch of around 2 mm depth (Figure 4.11): Figure 4.11: Orientation of cards. (Source: ONCE) 31 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  33. 33. Bank book It is important to insert the bank book with the last printed page open. On these lines the recommendation is for a perforation system in order to be able to detect the page by touch. For inserting we recommend the same system as with the cards with the notches. Keyboard The keyboard must The keyboard must be easily locatable and recognisable. It must be be standardised in standardised in terms of its arrangement, size and colours. The simplest terms of its method would be the use of the standard telephone model, with a marked arrangement, size number 5 as the directional point. The keys must be concave and non-slip. and colours. The recommended height of the keys must be ≥ 2 mm, and the separation between them a minimum of 3 mm. The minimum size of the keys must be 10 x 10 mm and the numbering over them 5 mm. The number and the function keys must be different. The colours of the keys and the lettering must be contrasting to help in finding them (in respect to the surface and the characters in respect to the panel surface and the keyboard), and must have a surface that minimises any shining reflection: • Number keyboard: dark keys over a clear background, with the numbering in white. It is recommendable to have the number in high relief for touch recognition. • The function keys must be separated from the number keyboard at a minimum distance of 9 mm. They must be marked for touch recognition and with a colour code (Table 4.4): Key Touch symbol Colour Confirm/continue O Green Delete/correct | Yellow Cancel X Red Table 4.4: Function keys. (Source: ONCE) 32 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  34. 34. The model proposed is the following (Figure 4.12): Once the keys have been pressed there must a sound confirmation that the key has been activated. In this way each selection will be recognised visually (with the usual screen system), audibly and by touch. Alarm button The alarm button is used to communicate to someone in the bank in case of a breakdown or any other incident. It must be visible and easy to Figure 4.12: Keyboard. (Source: ONCE) reach. It is recommended to be a colour that contrasts with the background. We recommend an alternative communication system when there is an incident, for example, the button for speaking with the person responsible for emergencies (when the machine swallows the card, the money doesn’t come out, etc.) for people with hearing problems, since they cannot communicate in this way. A possible communication system could be by screen (with the option of emergencies and sub-sections –with the most frequent cases–). Screen The screen must be visible from a point situated 1.015 m over the centre of the free space specified in section 4.3.4 (1.5 m x 1.5 m) in front of the machine. The touch screen presents many difficulties for people with problems of sight The touch screen and manual dexterity. A code could be devised to adapt it so that it shows presents many the characters and at the same time avoids functioning by touch while the difficulties for operations and instructions function by the keyboard. In this way the people with adapted screen will have to be activated by means of an identifier included problems of sight in the user’s card information or manually on the keyboard. and manual dexterity. The screen adapted to all those with sight problems must have characters with a colour that contrast with the background. The b/w with negative (black background and white letters) is the option for solving the majority of problems (otherwise see Table 4.2 and 4.3 for recommended contrasts). A dark background colour increases the contrast and reduces the effects of glare and reflections. 33 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  35. 35. As well as being standardised, it is recommended that they are in sans serif font. The size proposed is 4.8 mm minimum height, based on the capital setter “I”. It is recommended that the upper and lower case characters are combined. For people with coordination problems with cerebral paralysis, a possibility could be another type of adapted screen. This group has problems pressing an option or instruction in a small area, like those usually encountered. In this case the touch screen must be able to continue working but with much bigger icons (and perhaps reducing the number of options) to make selecting them easier. Speech output So that blind In order for blind people to be able to make any kind of operation in people can do any cashpoint machines an audible instructions system is recommended, whether kind of operation by using a telephone, mobile phone or headphones (the use of headphones is in cashpoint preferable because it frees both hands). machines an audible instruction The system must be capable of producing by sound: system is recommended, • The menu or instructions available in each operation (ensuring that a whether by the whole list of options does not appear after selecting one). use of a telephone, a mobile phone or • Confirmation of the selection, enabling the user to change or cancel it. headphones (the use of headphones • Error messages. is preferable because it frees • The receipt for the operation that is normally issued as a printout. It both hands). does not need to include some details such as: location of cashpoint, identification of cashpoint, day and time of the operation and account number of the client. If the printed receipt duplicates the information on the screen it is also not necessary to reproduce it. Finally it is not required that printed copies of statements and cheques are audible. Basically the system has to transmit all the information that a cashpoint machine provides visually. If the cashpoint machine has other functions such as pre-payment for mobiles, ticket sales, etc., all these options must be adapted to the speech output option. The exceptions are: • Confidential information that is not visualised on the screen such as the personal numbers (there would be indicative sound signals of the process). 34 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  36. 36. • The advertisements or other information does not need to be interpreted, at least while it is not key to undertaking an operation. • Dynamic information that has not been recorded and cannot be reproduced immediately, such as the user’s name, etc. The sound instructions must be presented with good quality audio sound and must be clear and with suitable rhythm. The user must be able to control the volume. The sound must be synchronised with the written instructions on the screen, though there must also be the option of annulling the visualisation of the screen. The method to start the speech output mode must be intuitive (i.e. connecting a headphone or picking up a telephone). The first instructions must also be available in Braille. Furthermore, one should consider a parallel assistance system for people using the system for the first time. This model may also be useful for people suffering from dyslexia or people with general reading problems. Response from the cashpoint machine All the operations must be accompanied by sound signals that report on the progress. These sounds may be: welcome, error, operation in progress and waiting. Naturally this option must not overlap with the voice so as not to have the opposite effect due to too many sound messages. In some cases, for example if the automatic cashpoint machine is in a very noisy place, it may not be audible, and so a simultaneous system of visual signals is recommended, with an icon on the screen or a light. It will also be useful for the deaf or those hard of hearing. In the case of alarm signals they will also have to be accompanied by visual signals for those with hearing problems. Withdrawal sections The action of withdrawing money, statements, receipts, envelopes or other The action of things must be made easy to pick up, read and understand. We should take withdrawing into account the fact that for people with little mobility the time allowed for money, withdrawing items must be longer than usual, above all when different statements, sequential actions are required (withdrawing the card, withdrawal of money, receipts, envelopes etc.). A key could be activated that authorises a time extension (or for the or other things screen to inform the user that the time can be extended by pressing a must be made specific number or control key). easy to pick up, read and understand. 35 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED
  37. 37. It has already been mentioned that the action should not require an effort higher than 22.2 N. Finally, to make the items easy to pick up they must project out a minimum of 25 mm. It is recommended for there to be a space free of obstacles around it in a radius of 40 mm. Regarding the printed matter issued it must be in sans serif font, minimum 12p, combining upper and lower case letters and contrasting with the background. The correct maintenance of the printing machines in the automatic cashpoint machines is very important in order to always provide an acceptable quality. It is preferable to avoid formats in italics or shaded. 4.4.3 Operation The purpose of the operation is to provide the appropriate information to be able to use the automatic cashpoint machines properly. It must indicate correctly what to do, and how, where and when to do it. The operation must be adapted, just like the screen, to the requirements of The operation disabled people. The design must improve the current functions in terms of must be adapted, simplicity and accessibility. just like the screen, to the The texts of the instructions must be short and simple (without losing on requirements of content, however). The messages provided by automatic cashpoint machines disabled people. may cause difficulties for people with cognitive or reading disabilities which are why the procedures to undertake an operation must be consistent, logical and focused on the operation. There must be no distractions (such as additional advertisements, text in movement, etc.) or unexpected questions. The number of instructions per screen could be limited. It may be a good idea to have In some cases it may also be a good idea to have alternatives to text such as alternatives to pictograms or flow diagrams which may be more comprehensible for some text such as groups (the elderly, people with difficulty reading, etc.). If this option is pictograms or flow chosen there will have to be a mechanism to identify this type of user. diagrams which may be more The operation must include the same instructions as the non-adapted comprehensible cashpoint machine, but can change the presentation in order to simplify its for some groups use (for example with an initial screen with few options –the most common– (the elderly, for the elderly) and an option that takes in the other operations. They must people with also include intermediate screens that confirm the selection, or always add reading the option of going to the previous menu. In the specific case of receiving the difficulties, etc.). receipt it has been proved that the best thing is for the user to have this 36 ADAPTABILITY OF CASHPOINTS FOR THE DISABLED