1. Collaborative E-Governance:
Contours of Epistemology
David C. Prosperi
Henry D. Epstein Professor of Urban/Regional Planning
Florida Atlantic University
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301
I NPUT 2 010
PO TEN Z A , B A S I L I C A TA , I TA L Y
2. INTUITION PUMP: Conference Statement
Do profound weak thought, is
changes in more profound
application of knowledge
IT only help us possible that
to what we would enable a
already do more effective
or decision making
3. QUICK ANSWER =>
Scientific IT Professional
Deep Good Deep Good
Knowledge Decisions Knowledge Decisions
5. The Mindset of the Planning Theorist
Deep Network Good
Knowledge Power Decisions
6. Conceptual Issues
Statement Evidence / Empirical Issues
Trends & Popular GIS
Complexity Numbers Writers NGOs
7. 1. The Conference Question
Do What We Do Better Change the System
• GIS -> ArcGIS • Better Linkages to Decision
• Social Networking -> Makers -> DSS or PSS?
Mobile Communications • Develop Network
8. Deep v. Doing Better
Deep The Better Q’s
Academics, at least, value Deep
Knowledge and Deep Democracy What the Planning Theory
(process) People Tell Us
Consistent with rationality,
scientific method, the value of
science to improve lives E-Government
(medicine, food , and tools)
Consistent with the notion of a
―class‖ of individuals who have
value in society as civic leaders More Complex Models
(Plato, but also ―public
Is it still valid? (or am I a Understanding Power
10. Alternative Models of Planning
Best known physical
Architectural planners were
probably not Hausmann
Basis ―democratic‖ and
See Flvybjerg criticism
(but also see Wachs in
Basis the late 1980s)
Political Citizen Participation
Systems Regime Theory (e-Citizen
DONE BY AGENCIES FAR AWAY FROM DAILY LIFE OF CITIZENS
11. An Attempt to Summarize …
a belief that collaborative planning processes
supported by scientific research tends to be
a powerful internal network that moves
12. Participation is not Collaboration
Collaborative Planning Emphasis on …
From Alternative Dispute
Resolution OUTPUTS are the
plans, projects, and
other tangible items
produced directly by
Focus on Process the effort
Assessing the performance OUTCOMES are the
of collaborative planning effects of the process
and its outputs on
changing social and
Difference between outputs environmental
13. Outcomes And the Role of Science?
Ozawa, among others, have
demonstrated that in
Social capital science-intensive
deliberations – when
capacity capital scientific information is
(e.g., joint-fact finding,
Institutional Intellectual expert panel) – it can lead to
change capital such social outcomes as
stakeholder learning and
mutual understanding of
14. Process: Networks and Networking Rules
A Plan is not a Concept in
one‘s head; rather, it is a
dialogue that occurs within Corollary: projects must
a social network structure have a purpose other than
in one‘s own head as a just in the mind of the
concept. developer. For example, to
develop an ontology for
Ostrom‘s (Nobel Economic oneself is useful for basic
Laureate, 2009) science, but is only useful
Institutional Analysis to the scientist acting alone
and Design methodology – it has no immediate USE
focuses on ―what difference
it makes‖ if things are done
one way or another
15. Errata (on this topic)
The crucial role of Mega-Governments
For example, the EU and its ―funding‖, resource (and policy)
The crucial role of NGO‘s
Each have a specific planning methodology
Lots of GIS work at this scale
Other word phrases: horizontal planning,
participatory design, collaborative planning software
(including all those models from the 1990s), project
16. 3. Promise of E-Government
About how Internet
would change the
Best described as
About how E-
change the world
Creates a comfortable, information
transparent, and cheap governance
interaction between: technology
government relationship process re-
and business between engineering
enterprises governments (BPR)
18. Governance (+ E-Governance?)
Entire Entry on
'eGovernance' is a network
Government of organizations to include
entities; in eGovernance
there are no distinct
A ―theory of governance‖
[e or not-e]????
19. What is Going on at the Local Level?
Ho, 2002 +
Ho: Classified websites as Used multiple criteria
―informational‖, grouped into -
―administrative‖ and PRESENCE,
―user‖ for 55 large US INTERACTION,
cities; SES correlates -> TRANSACTION, and
poorer cities more DEMOCRACY - to
informational evaluate websites
Franzel/Richardson: 67 Some SES correlates ->
metro areas; regression -> poorer cities more
structure+, time ―government‖ than
invested+, income+ ―governance‖
20. Practice: Local Charettes
Geddes v. Neuman
Regions G: regions cannot be designed;
N: of course they can, we are having a
Be charette and regional design emerged
Designed as operative framework for the plan-
21. Practice: Research in a Lab
Playful of Games
Ici Planning Public
Lanza Best Concepts of
22. 4. More Complex Models
Drivers and Stressors v. Place-Making or
People v. Place
23. Complexity in the ‗Everyday‘ Environment
… the environment as subject
to processes of continuous
change, being either
progressive or destructive,
evolving non-linearly and
alternating between stable
and dynamic periods.
… if the environment that is
subject to change is adaptive,
self-organizing, robust and
flexible in relation to this
change, a process of
evolution and co-evolution can
• From the Ashgate
24. Complexity as a Planning Model
Thinking Differently for an
Age of Complexity
How Can Theory Improve
Stories From the Field
The Praxis of Collaboration
Knowledge into Action: The
Role of Dialogue
Using Local Knowledge for
Justice and Resilience
Democratic Governance for
a Resilient Society
25. 5. Power
Good Power v. Bad
Social Capital as an
Alternative Form of
??? Does Social Media
Create Social Capital???
26. Good↑ v. Bad↓ Power
• Communicative action theorists
• How ―science when integrated into the DM
process can depoliticize communications
and result in public learning, mutual
understanding, empowerment of
stakeholders and often consensus about
• Habermas, Innes, Forester, Ozawa, etc.
• Power expressed as coercion and
subordination of one set of thoughts to
• Power distorting the outcomes of …
―science‖ and/or … representative
• Power as domination over the decision-
27. Power (after Allen)
Power – formal Power - informal
Power – formal Power - informal
28. Power in Informal Associational Networks
Mandarano (under review, JPER)
Both types of Power are Necessary to Study an Issue.
How it is possible to provoke more democratic outcomes,
positive-sum solutions that address multiple interests.
A Case Study to highlight how the relatively weak Habitat
Workgroup – having limited formal authority supporting its
agenda – effectively produced power in and through its
informal and formal networks altering the decision-making
process in the formal network.
The paper demonstrates how disempowered groups generate
associational power through mobilization of resources
available in informal networks and how such power is
transferrable to the formal decision-making process
29. The Key Idea Framework
(Creating Social Capital Digitally)
• Non- Decisions
30. The Tools We Have
Blogs/Micro Blogs (Twitter)
31. Conceptual Issues
Statement Evidence / Empirical Issues
Trends & Popular GIS
Complexity Numbers Writers NGOs
32. 1. Space
Hidden spatial structures
The “scale” of the analysis must match the
“scale” of the problem
33. The Image of the Region?
―Mega-city regions are … new large-scale urban phenomenon
… being discussed from both an analytical-functional and a
political-normative perspective … elements and driving forces
of mega-city regions are increasingly coming to light …
feeding the comprehension of the mega-city regions‘ decisive
role in economic, social and cultural development …
The relevant and responsible stakeholders and players are
being challenged – large-scale metropolitan governance is
called for …
A problem of transmission arises … seems to be little
awareness … to politicians, citizens, and administrators,
mega-city regions remain invisible in many respects: They
are rarely mapped, lack a name, image and attendant
concept, and hardly offer any direct sensual perception in
• From the Preface, Thierstein and Forster, 2009
34. Context: Preparing
a Strategic Plan for
Locals Don‘t Know
How The Milano
about Metropolitan Making Milano “Apparent”: A
Regions as Product Conversation with Alessandro
or Process Balducci
35. Making Apparent SoFlo
Theoretical Structures A Map
Economic Base / Ecology
Tourism and Branding
36. Growth of
The TOP Chart
The BOTTOM Chart
growth in built
space for each of the
37. 1945, 1965, 1985
38. Built Environment, 2005
The State of Florida‘s
Department of Revenue Tax
Florida‘s Department of
Revenue, Division of Ad-
Valorem Tax, Chapter 12D-8
specifies both the formal
state mandate and the
format of these records,
In 2008, there are 76 fields
in the tax collector database
(or more abstractly, each
property is recorded as a
39. Thus, the debate goes
on; it might be out of
both academic and
political comfort zones.
Models Focus on
Process Rather Than
Change Should Occur
Within Processes Not
Space and Complexity
40. 2. Levels of Participation
Theoretically, this should vary by stage in the
planning process. There are appropriate
tools for different stages of the analysis.
Rationality (a desired state for linear-
thinking – and object oriented planners).
But also ―irrational‖ (Kartez)
But also ―rational ignorance‖ (Krek)
But also ―predictably irrational‖ (Howe)
41. Peng Table
Planning Communication Interactive Map Scenario
Process / Web Browsing Static Map Channels for Based Search, Building
Images Discussion Query and Online Editing
42. Wikinomics: How
(2006) explores how some
companies in the early 21st
century have used mass
collaboration (also called
peer production) and open-
source technology, such as
wikis, to be successful.
MacroWikinomics out soon
43. Some Wikinomics Terms
New Models of Mass
• Collaborating Investing
• Linking experts with
Peering unsolved R&D problems.
• Second Life as being
―Created‖ by its customers
Acting New • the internet as shared
Globally Alexandrians knowledge
44. Crowdsourcing is
the act of outsourcing
performed by an
contractor, to a large
group of people or
community or a
45. Examples of Crowdsourcing
Community-Based Design (or distributed participatory design):
The public may be invited to develop a new technology, carry out a
Human-Based Computation: The public may be asked to carry
out the steps of an algorithm
Citizen Science: The public may be asked to capture, systematize
or analyze large amounts of data (but could also refer to mere ―data
Better if used with Web 2.0 technologies.
46. 3. Trends and Some Numbers
47. The Story in 2000 (from Stanford)
E-mail is by far the most common Internet activity.
A little over a third of all Internet users report using the web to engage in
entertainment such as computer games
Consumer to Business transactional activity are engaged in by much smaller
fractions of Internet users.
The average Internet user reports engaging in 7.2 different types of activities.
Myth and Reality of the 'Digital Divide':
There are some demographic differences in Internet access.
There are few demographic differences in Internet use.
The more time people spend on the internet
The more they lose contact with their social environment
The more they turn their back on the traditional media
The more time they spend working at home; but not telecommuting
The less they spend shopping in stores and commuting in traffic
48. Alexa, a ranking and analysis website
Facebook users are well-educated, younger, it is the #1 site in
Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Norway, #2 in US,
Italy, and most of Europe (except Netherlands and Poland), but
only 13th in Russia, 15th in Brazil, and 27th in Japan, and is over-
utilized from school.
Globally: Google, Facebook, YouTube, Yahoo!, WindowsLive,
Baidu, Wikipedia, Blogger, Twitter, MSN, QQ, Taobao, Amazon,
Sina,WordPress, e-Bay, Microsoft, Bing, Yandex.ru, LinkedIn, 163,
Myspace, Craigslist, FC2, Conduit, Mail.ru, Flickr, Vkontakte,
IMBD, Sohu, APPLE, LiveJasmin, Soso, BBC, Go, AOL,
RapidShare, Youku, PayPal, Double Click, ASK, Xvideos, CNN,
After Google, Yahoo and Social Networking, Porn Trumps News
49. Google Trends ….
GIS (B), Climate Change (R), Sustainability (O), Urban Development (G)
51. 2009 Pew Study
Some 40% of adult internet users have obtained raw data
about government spending and activities.
look online to see how federal stimulus money is being spent (23% of internet users
have done this);
read or download the text of legislation (22%);
visit a site such as data.gov that provides access to government data (16%); or
look online to see who is contributing to the campaigns of their elected officials
Some 31% of online adults have used social tools such as blogs,
social networking sites, and online video as well as email and text
alerts to keep informed about government activities.
Minority Americans, Latinos and African Americans are just as likely as whites to
use these tools to keep up with government, and
Minority Americans, Latinos, and African-Americans are much more likely to agree
that government outreach using these channels makes government more accessible
and helps people be more informed about what government agencies are doing.
52. 4. Popular Writers
Nicholas Clay Johathan Dan Jeff
Carr Shirky Lehrer Ariely Howe
53. Two Competing Metaphors
54. Major Points of ―The Shallows‖
New technology: dumbing down v. democratization of
Every intellectual technology embodies a work ethic and
every medium develops some cognitive skills at the
expense of others.
Brain is ―plastic‖ -- parts can grow and/or contract – but
at the expense of other functions -- hippocampus
―Ecosystem of Interruptions‖ or ―Distraction from
Distraction by Distraction‖
Retention – loss of long-term memory (and ―working
memory‖ v. ―long-term memory‖)
Shallow reading, shallow decisions?
• Shared (Shallow)
• Little Retention • Democracy
• Self-Knowledge (personal)
56. Major Points of Cognitive Surplus
For decades, technology encouraged people to squander their time and
intellect as passive consumers. Suburbanization and education has yielded a
surfeit of intellect, energy, and time– the cognitive surplus.
But this abundance had little impact on the common good because television
consumed the lion's share of it-and we consume TV passively, in isolation.
New media that allow us to pool our efforts at vanishingly low cost. This
includes mind expanding-reference tools like Wikipedia-to lifesaving-such as
Ushahidi.com, which allows Kenyans to sidestep government censorship and
report on acts of violence in real time.
Society and our daily lives will be improved dramatically as we learn to
exploit our goodwill and free time … by returning our society to forms of
collaboration that were natural through the early 20th century.
We are entering an era of lower creative quality on average but greater
innovation, an increase in transparency in all areas of society, and
a dramatic rise in productivity that will transform our civilization.
(means testimony in Swahili)
58. Neuroscience Findings are Available
How unexpected discoveries of
neuroscience help us make the
Philosophers have described the
decision-making process as either
rational or emotional: we carefully
deliberate or we go with our gut.
Neuroscientists are discovering
that decisions are a finely tuned
blend of both feeling and reason
and the precise mix depends on the
situation. The key is how and when
we use the different parts of the
brain, and to do this, we need to
think harder (and smarter) about
how we think.
How does the human mind make
decisions? And how can we make
those decisions better?
59. It is More Than Rational Ignorance …
We (might by) Predictably Irrational
We consistently overpay,
underestimate, and procrastinate.
This book refutes the assumption
that we behave in rational ways.
Yet these behaviors are neither
random nor senseless. They're
systematic and predictable—
making us predictably irrational.
60. Evidence Pro and Con
(there is NO correct answer)
SMARTER DUMBER SMARTER DUMBER
61. 5. Institutions
INSPIRE (EU Scale
Organization) + Its They are too Far
From the Public
EUROGI – AM/FM types
AGILE – the academic Meta-Narratives
62. Tomlinson et al. (3/2010)
Outline of Article in
Approach and Methodology
Google Searches are Not Labels and Integrated Policy Packages
Random, but are Ownership
Labels and the Creation of Integrated Policy
Googling Urban Policy
Text Analysis and Page Rank
Major Narratives are
Links in Practice
Created and Maintained by City Development Strategy
Municipal Capacity Building in Developing
In this Case: World Bank
Municipal Finance in Developing Countries
and UN Habitat PPP and Alternative Perspectives on
63. Conceptual Issues
Statement Evidence / Empirical Issues
Trends & Popular GIS
Complexity Numbers Writers NGOs
64. An Epistemology of E-Governance?
Based on a Process Model
For Different Levels of Government
Incorporating More Than Land
Focused on People
65. Need for a Theory of Governance
Governance (and eGovernance) is Messy!!!
Need to Better Explore Notions and Likelihood of
The Process Thinkers
But also others [Ostrom (IDA), Pat Wilson (Deep
Case Studies are Nice, but …
All set in the context of “digital natives”
Digital analogies for e-governance theory
66. What Does Performance Mean?
Income Equity Through Fiscal
Productivity Re-Distributional Equity
and Income Employment
Conformance to General
67. It is the
Polycentric Good Politics,
68. For Different Levels of Government
We need to pay more careful attention to what our
digital analogies are really trying to do
Much of the GIS Work is Done at the National Level,
Far Removed from the Day to Day Activities of
We need to articulate aspects of the digital milieu at scales that
Problems ―occur‖ at different scales
Analysis should also ―occur‖ at appropriate scales
69. More Than Land
Space may be a third order concern (after food, shelter, and
perhaps even happiness)
Economic Development, Health, Basic Infrastructure
What is the purpose of a ―method‖?
NEEDS TO BUILD ON KNOWLEDGE FROM EACH
CASE STUDY – the need for a “scientific method” to
70. For People
Planning remains a ―place‖ discipline or activity
Planning should focus on people
Their motivations and aspirations
Their role in self-determination
Their role as citizens
72. Indicative of E-Publishing
(A Work in Progress)
Allen, J. 2003. Lost Geographies of Power. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Alexa.Com, retrieved 09/08/2010.
Ariely, D. 200x. Rationally Irrational. Place: Publisher.
Carr, N. 2010. The Shallows (What the Internet is Doing to Our Brains). NY: W.W. Norton.
De Roo, G. & E. Silva. 2010. A Planner’s Encounter with Complexity. Place: Ashgate.
Flyvbjerg, B. 2002. Bringing Power to Planning Research. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21: 353-366.
Franzel, X. & X. Richardson, 2003. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Proceedings, International Conference on Politics and Information Systems (PISTA), xxx-xxx.
Healey, P. 1997. Collaborative Planning. London: Macmillan.
Hillier, J. 200x. Title. Place: Publisher.
Ho, A.T. 2002. Reinventing Local Governments and the E-Government Initiative. Public Administration Review, 62(4): 434-444.
Howe, J. 2009. Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd is Driving the Future of Business. New York: Three Rivers Press.
Lanza, V. & D. Prosperi. 2009. Collaborative E-Governance: Describing and Pre-Calibrating the Digital Milieux in Urban and Regional Planning. In A.Krek et al. Urban Data
Management UDMS Annual 2009. Netherlands: AA Balkema .
Lee, D. 1973. Requiem for Large Scale Models. JAPA, V(I): xxxxxx
Lehrer, J. 2009. How We Decide. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Innes, J. & D. Booher. 200x. Planning with Complexity. Place: Publisher.
Innes, J. Late 1990s. Social Indicators Stuff
Mandarano, L. Date. Title. Journal of Planning Education and Research, V(I): xx-xx
Ozawa, C.P. 2005. Putting Science in Its Place. In J.T. Scholz & B. Stiftel (eds.) Adaptive Governance and Water Conflict. Washington DC: Resources for the Future.
Peng, Y.-R. 200x.
Pew Research Center (Internet and American Life Project), 2010. retrieved 09/06/2010. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Future-of-Millennials.aspx
Prosperi, D.C. 2008. Making Apparent the Multi-Scalar Economic Spatial Structure in South Florida. In V. Coors, M. Rumor, E.M. Fendel, & S. Zlatanova, eds., Urban and Regional
Data Management. UDMS Annual 2007. Netherlands: A.A. Balkema (Taylor and Francis), 307-317.
Prosperi, D. 2006. City E-Government: Who is Doing What in the US? UDMS Proceedings, Aalborg, Denmark.
Shirky, C. 2010. Cognitive Surplus (Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Era). Place: Penguin Press.
Stanford Study, retrieved 09/01/2010. http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/Press_Release/press_release.html
Tapscott, D. & A.D. Williams. 2006. Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. Place: Publisher.
Thierstein, A. and X. Forster. 200x. The Image of A Region. Place: Publisher.
Tomlinson, R. et al. 2010. The Influence of Google on Urban Policy in Developing Countries. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34(1): 174-189.
Various WebSites (INSPIRE, JRC, Plan4ALL,AGILE,EROGI,CORP,UDMS,INPUT)
Voltaire. Nd. For Advice.
Wulf, L., C. Kaylor & D. Prosperi. 2004. Local E-Government: Concept and Correlates. Proceedings, International Conference on Politics and Information Systems (PISTA), 200-206.
73. THANK YOU!
Closing the Gap
(Governmental GIS &
The Life of Citizens)
‽ The Power of Informal
Need to Develop More
Scalar Sensitive Digital