A methodology for an aggregate analysis of evacuation of buildings, di Massimo Di Gangi, Corrado Rindone
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A methodology for an aggregate analysis of evacuation of buildings, di Massimo Di Gangi, Corrado Rindone

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Sesta Conferenza Nazionale in Informatica e Pianificazione Urbana e Territoriale

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    A methodology for an aggregate analysis of evacuation of buildings, di Massimo Di Gangi, Corrado Rindone A methodology for an aggregate analysis of evacuation of buildings, di Massimo Di Gangi, Corrado Rindone Presentation Transcript

    • Massimo Di Gangi Università degli Studi di Messina [email_address] A METHODOLOGY FOR AN AGGREGATE ANALYSIS OF EVACUATION OF BUILDINGS Corrado Rindone Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria [email_address]
    • STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
      • INTRODUCTION
      • PROPOSED APPROACH
      • EXPERIMENTATION
      • ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
        • Simulation results
        • Comparison between simulations and on site experimentation data
        • Comments and perspectives
    • STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
      • INTRODUCTION
        • Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools
      • PROPOSED APPROACHES
      • EXPERIMENTATION
      • ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
        • Simulation results
        • Comparison between simulations and on site experimentation data
        • Comments and perspectives
      • Gwynne, S. Galea, E.R., Lawrence, P.J., Owen, M. & Filippidis, L. A review of the Methodologies used in the Computer Simulation of Evacuation from the Built Environment. Building and Environment , 34, 741-749, 1999.
      • Fire Model Survey. International Survey of Computer Models for Fire and Smoke [on line]. Updated 2007
      • http:// www.firemodelsurvey.com/EgressModels.html
      • Kuligowski, E.D. & Peacock R.D . A Review of Building Evacuation Models . Technical note n. 1471. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithesburgh, MD, 2005.
      Main references INTRODUCTION - Pedestrian evacuation tools inventory
      • perspective of model;
      • perspective of users;
      • modelling method
      • structure of supply model;
      • users’ behaviour;
      • measurable outputs and visualisation capabilities.
      Classification of the models (Kuligowski and Peacock) INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools
      • Explains how the model views the users
      • Individually : tracks the movement of individuals throughout the simulation and can give information about those individuals (e.g. their positions at points in time throughout the evacuation).
      • Globally : sees its occupants as a homogeneous group of people moving to the exits.
      Perspective of model INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools
      • explains how the users (occupants) view the building
      • Individual: the user does not know the building’s exit paths and decides his/her route based on information from the floor, personal experience, and in some models, the information from the users around him/her.
      • Global: users are familiar with the building and automatically know their best exit path.
      Perspective of users INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools
      • three labels can be individuated:
      • Movement models : move users from one point in the building to another (usually the exit or a position of safety).
      • Behavioural models : incorporate users performing actions, in addition to movement toward a specified goal (exit).
      • Partial behaviour models : primarily calculate user movement, but begin to simulate behaviours.
      Modelling method INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools
      • how users move throughout the building
      • Coarse: divides the floor plan into rooms, corridors, stair sections, etc. and the users move from one room to another;
      • Fine: divides a floor plan into a number of small grid cells that the users move to and from;
      • Continuous: applies a 2D (continuous) space to the floor plans of the structure, allowing the users to walk from one point in space to another throughout the building.
      Structure of supply model INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools
      • None (N): only the movement aspect of the evacuation is simulated.
      • Implicit (I): attempt to model behaviour implicitly by assigning certain response delays or occupant characteristics that affect movement throughout the evacuation.
      • Conditional (rule-based) (C): assign individual actions to a person or group of users that are affected by structural or environmental conditions of the evacuation;
      • Artificial Intelligence (AI): attempt to simulate human intelligence throughout the evacuation;
      • Probabilistic (P): many of the rules or conditions are stochastic, allowing for the variations in outcome by repeating certain simulations;
      Users’ behaviour INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools
    • INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools TOOL COUNTRY PERSPECTIVE OF MODEL PERSPECTIVE OF USERS ALLSAFE Norway Global Global ASERI Germany Individual Individual BuildingExodus United Kingdom Individual Individual CRISP3 United Kingdom Individual Individual EESCAPE Austria Global Global EGRESS United Kingdom Individual Individual EVACNET4 United States Global Global EXIT89 United States Individual Individual EXITT United States Individual Individual FPETool United States Global Global GridFlow United Kingdom Individual Individual Legion United Kingdom Individual Individual PathFinder United States Individual Global PedGo Germany Individual Individual PEDROUTE United Kingdom Global Global SICURO Italy Individual Global Simulex United Kingdom Individual Individual STEPS United Kingdom Individual Individual TIMTEX United States Global Individual WAYOUT Australia Global Global
    • INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools TOOL MODELLING METHOD STRUCTURE OF SUPPLY USER BEHAVIOUR ALLSAFE Partial Behaviour Coarse Implicit ASERI Behaviour Continuous Rule-Based / Conditional BuildingExodus Behaviour Fine Rule-Based / Conditional CRISP3 Behaviour Fine Rule-Based / Conditional EESCAPE Movement Coarse None EGRESS Behaviour Fine Conditional EVACNET4 Movement Coarse None EXIT89 Partial Behaviour Coarse Implicit EXITT Behaviour Coarse Rule-Based / Conditional FPETool Movement Other None GridFlow Partial Behaviour Continuous Implicit Legion Behaviour Continuous Artificial Intelligence PathFinder Movement Fine None PedGo Movement / Partial Behaviour Fine Implicit PEDROUTE Partial Behaviour Coarse Implicit SICURO Movement / Partial Behaviour Coarse None Simulex Partial Behaviour Continuous Implicit STEPS Movement / Partial Behaviour Fine None TIMTEX Movement Coarse None WAYOUT Movement Coarse None
    • INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools TOOL VISU CAP. MAIN MEASURABLE OUTPUTS ALLSAFE None
      • Time to fire detection, to react and to interpret the situation
      • Time for users to decide where to escape
      • Time to evacuate a room or corridor and the building
      ASERI 2D / 3D
      • Evacuation time
      • Detailed information on the structure and congestion situation that lead to delay
      • Mean egress time, along wish their corresponding variances and confidence intervals
      BuildingExodus 2D / 3D
      • A data analysis tool (askEXODUS) allows to extract specific data from the output files
      CRISP3 2D / 3D
      • Detailed information about each person at every time step
      • Route information, fire conditions in certain locations
      • Evacuation time
      • Pictorial output
      EESCAPE None
      • Total evacuation time
      EGRESS 2D
      • Visualisation of congestion points
      • Visualisation of bottlenecks
      • Visualisation of merging flows
      EVACNET4 None
      • Time to evacuate building, average time for evacuee to egress building, average number of evacuees per specified time period, number of successful evacuees
      • Number of evacuees that passed through a particular exit to safety
      • List of arcs and number of people travelling through each arc
      • Location of queues and time length of the queue
      • Floor and node clearing time
      • Building and destination evacuation profile
      • Number of people not evacuated by a specified time
      EXIT89 None
      • User movement table (track the time and corresponding node position of each user throughout the simulation)
      • Total evacuation time
      • Number of occupants trapped
      • Stair and floor-clearing times
      EXITT None
      • Number of users out of the building
      • Number of occupant trapped
      • Total evacuation time
      • Action of individual users at all time periods of the simulation
    • INTRODUCTION – Classification of pedestrian evacuation tools TOOL VISU CAP. MAIN MEASURABLE OUTPUTS FPETool None
      • Horizontal and stair travel time
      • Time for all users to pass through exit doors
      GridFlow 2D / 3D
      • Outputs that can be imported into spreadsheet programs.
      • Details about population in every space at every logging interval after each run.
      • Detailed aspects of the buildings and users.
      Legion 2D / 3D
      • Usage maps (space, utilisation, density and speed, etc)
      • Graphs on outflow characteristics
      • Animations
      PathFinder 2D
      • Number of people that have used an exit
      • Statistics on times for people to exit from a given room
      • Time for a stair and a floor to become empty
      • Total evacuation time
      PedGo 2D
      • Text files that can be imported into spreadsheet programs (limited documentation on this model)
      PEDROUTE 2D / 3D
      • Details of peak occupancy and average delay per passenger
      SICURO 2D / 3D
      • Time to evacuate building, average time for evacuee to egress building, average number of evacuees per specified time period
      • Flow characteristics for each arc
      • Location of queues and time period that arc had a queue
      • Travel times for each path
      • Destination evacuation profile
      • Number of people evacuated by a specified time
      Simulex 2D
      • 2D visualisation of evacuation
      • Overall evacuation time of all users reaching the exits
      • Number of people passing through each exit
      STEPS 2D / 3D
      • Total evacuation rime
      • Number of users in certain areas, planes and paths
      • Number of people that have left the different fields versus time
      TIMTEX None
      • Total evacuation rime
      • Individual floor clearing time
      WAYOUT 2D
      • Complete movement time
      • Individual time when each compartment is evacuated
    • STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
      • INTRODUCTION
      • PROPOSED APPROACH
        • Macroscopic
      • EXPERIMENTATION
      • ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
        • Simulation results
        • Comparison between simulations and on site experimentation data
        • Comments and perspectives
    • MODELS Macroscopic approach
      • DEMAND MODEL
      • described in terms of people occupying the building
      • SUPPLY MODEL
      • topological representation
        • the network is represented using fundamentals of graph theory
      • representation of outflow conditions
        • specific relationships
        • functional dependence of speed, density and characteristic flow
      MODELS Macroscopic approach
      • COMPUTATION OF EVACUATION TIME
      • Adaptation to the building of the IMO ( International Maritime Organization) guidelines on evacuation analysis for passenger ships
      • [ IMO Ref. T4/4.01 MSC.1/Circ.1238 30 October 2007 - Annex 1 ]
      MODELS Macroscopic approach
      • COMPUTATION OF EVACUATION TIME
      • Schematization of escape routes as an hydraulic network where:
        • pipes -> corridors and stairways,
        • valves -> doors and restriction in general,
        • tank -> public spaces.
      MODELS Macroscopic approach
    • MODELS COMPUTATION OF EVACUATION TIME Macroscopic approach Schematization of escape routes and data on occupants Densitiy for each element Geometrical characteristics Occupants Travel time for each escape route Occupants on each element Specific flow Speed evaluation Travel time for each element Escape routes Evacuation time Tevaq = max(T)
    • MODELS Macroscopic approach
      • WHY?
      • Simplified approach
      • Easily implementable on a worksheet
      • Uses easily available data
      • A simple tool can make DSS more attractive
      • Incentive in planning operations adopting more friendly DSS
    • STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
      • INTRODUCTION
      • PROPOSED APPROACH
      • EXPERIMENTATION
        • Operations
      • ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
        • Simulation results
        • Comparison between simulations and on site experimentation data
        • Comments and perspectives
    • Test site EXPERIMENTATION Building type # Buildings Population Residenziali 23 89 Public School 1 155 Town hall 1 82 Court 1 7 Other 3 21 Mixed 28 262
    • Test site – location of the primary school EXPERIMENTATION
    • Graph of the pedestrian network – first floor EXPERIMENTATION
    • 120 Call First gathering place Second gathering place 121 122 Graph of the pedestrian network – ground floor EXPERIMENTATION
    • Demand - Primary school EXPERIMENTATION People to be evacuated: 142 Location Floor # centroid Functional type N. ground 15 Secretary’s office 2 16 Secretary’s office 3 17 Headmistress office 1 first 1 Classroom 1 a C 20 2 Classroom 1 a A 20 3 Classroom 2 a A 25 4 Classroom 2 a B 24 6 Classroom 2 a D 26 8 Classroom 2 a C 21
    • 1. Evacuation of the building 3. Transfer to the second gathering place Evacuation phases EXPERIMENTATION 2. Call of the pupils Evacuation
    • Surveys First gathering place Second gathering place Positions of cameras EXPERIMENTATION
    • Recorded times EXPERIMENTATION EVENT Clock time Event notification 10:14:21 The Mayor reaches the operative center 10:23:48 The Mayor alerts the headmistress of the primary school 10:27:09 Alarm signal is activated at the town hall 10:37:31 Alarm signal is activated at primary school 10:39:26 All the pupils of primary the school reach the first assembly point 10:43:40 All the pupils of primary the school reach the second assembly point 10:48:45 Pupils begin to board 10:51:00 Bus starts from the assembly point 10:52:10
    • STRUCTURE OF THE PRESENTATION
      • INTRODUCTION
      • PROPOSED APPROACH
      • EXPERIMENTATION
      • ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
        • Simulation results
        • Comparison between simulations and on site experimentation data
        • Comments and perspectives
    • Simulated phases:
      • Evacuation of the building reaching first assembly point
      • Call of the pupils at first assembly point
      • Transfer to second assembly point
      EXPERIMENTATION
    • EXPERIMENTATION
      • All occupants will begin evacuation at the same time and will not hinder each other;
      • Occupants will evacuate via the defined escape route ;
      • Initial walking speed depends on the density of persons;
      • Evacuation is only in the direction of the escape route, and that there is no overtaking;
      • Full availability of escape arrangements is considered;
      Hypotheses - Macroscopic approach
    • ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Phase Description Measur. time Macro simul. Sicuro (meso) 1 Evacuation of the building reaching first assembly point 4’14’’ 4’23” 5’47’’ 2 Roll-call of pupils at first assembly point 3’05’’ 3’00” 2’58’’ 3 Transfer to second assembly point 2’00’’ 4’00” 1’43’’ Total time 9’19’’ 11’23” 10’28”
      • Mesoscopic approach (Sicuro)
          • main advantage possibility to explicitly simulate queues and spill backs;
          • drawback necessity to use a specific software.
      • Macroscopic approach
          • main advantage possibility to be easily implemented on a spreadsheet
          • drawback aggregate representation of flow conditions does not allow a detailed analysis
      SOME CONSIDERATIONS
    • PERSPECTIVES WEB Portal
      • Actions
      • Registration
      • Input data file on building
      • On line evacuation time computation
      • Return file with results
      • Potential users
      • Public administration
      • Schools
    • Massimo Di Gangi Università degli Studi di Messina [email_address] A METHODOLOGY FOR AN AGGREGATE ANALYSIS OF EVACUATION OF BUILDINGS Corrado Rindone Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria [email_address]