Dr.-Ing. Peter Birkner, Executive Member of the Board, Mainova AGFrankfurt am Main, Germany, October 23, 2012The Power to ...
Curriculum VitaePeter BirknerStudy of electrical power engineering and doctoral thesisat Technische Universität München (D...
Mainova AG, a German player–Generation, sales and grid                             Generation area       Sales area house-...
Agenda: The power to change –The contribution of municipal companies 1   Physical consequences of the German „Energiewende...
1The German „Energiewende“ is ambitious andis based on renewables, tough savings and imports                           *) ...
1 A rate of 35 % of renewable Energy means to double the installed generation capacity                                    ...
1Increasing the installed capacity of renewableswithout reversible storage results in a saturation  Demand of             ...
1The presented scenario is modified throughsupporting and hindering factorsSupporting factors (less renewable capacity, le...
1From a technology point of view the German„Energiewende“ will be implemented in three steps                              ...
2 Existing devices can be used in order to increase the flexibility of the systemTechnologies for increasing              ...
2  Chemical and thermal energies are indispensable  in order to create enough storage capacitiesDensity of                ...
3The coupling of energies is thetechnical key competence of „Energiewende“RES                                             ...
2The urban power plantbecomes the energy hub of the future                                                                ...
2A mix from different storage conceptswill be used in the future                 Storage concepts and their application   ...
2The current „energy-only-market“neither awards flexible power plants nor storages            Flexible CCGT power plants a...
2  Today the data hub model  is used in most of the European countries  Data Hub Model – Used in most of the European Coun...
2  In Germany a new gateway model  is being designed at moment  Gateway Model – The future German (BSI) model         Offe...
3Electrical grids play a central role in the future andtherefore they have to be developed into „Smart Grids“Generation   ...
3Renewable Energies have to beintegrated into the grid                                                Solar               ...
2Transmission grids have to integrate new powerfuland remotely positioned renewable energy sources      Challenges can be ...
3Distribution Grids have to be adjustedsubstantially and in a smart way to their new tasksLoad monitoring and load control...
3Integration of renewables is supportedby „Smart Grids“ – The pilot project iNES                                          ...
3Prinziples of grid automation within the project iNES –Grid interventions first – Customer impacts last                  ...
3iNES – The „Smart Grid“ project of Mainova –Field tests in Frankfurt  Implementation   Two characteristic test sites in t...
3The investment climat for European DSOsleaves space for improvement       “The financial situation of European DSOs” – A ...
4 Smart markets and smart grids – Basic functionalities and interactionSmart market:       Influencing the customer by pri...
5Investment program and R&D of Mainova AGare reflecting the principles discussed                Optimization and increase ...
5Rural and urban areas complete themselvesby constructing the „smart system“ of the future                                ...
6Summary and conclusions –Organic solar cells have a huge potential for urban use                            Installation ...
6Summary and conclusions –Batteries are opening new options for stabilisation       Energy autonomous households  Volatili...
6Summary and conclusions –The environment is changing                              Important changes with impact on       ...
6 Summary and conclusions – The technical challenges of the EnergiewendeFundamental task:                                 ...
Dr.-Ing. Peter Birkner, Executive Member of the Board, Mainova AGFrankfurt am Main, October 23, 2012Analyses – Conclusion ...
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The power to change Peter Birkner

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The power to change Peter Birkner

  1. 1. Dr.-Ing. Peter Birkner, Executive Member of the Board, Mainova AGFrankfurt am Main, Germany, October 23, 2012The Power to Change –The Contribution of Municipal CompaniesTransforming the Energy Sector – Looking beyond National Borders
  2. 2. Curriculum VitaePeter BirknerStudy of electrical power engineering and doctoral thesisat Technische Universität München (Dipl.-Ing., Dr.-Ing.)Positions within RWE GroupLechwerke AG, Augsburg, GER (11/1987 – 12/2004; Vice President, Business Unit Grid)Wendelsteinbahn GmbH, Brannenburg, GER (1/2004 – 12/2008; Managing Director)Vychodoslovenska energetika a.s., Kosice, SK (1/2005 – 8/2008; Member of the Board)RWE Rhein-Ruhr Netzservice GmbH, Siegen, GER (9/2008 – 6/2011; Managing Director) Mainova AG, Frankfurt, GER (7/2011 to today; Chief Technical Officer and Member of the Board) Chairman Networks Committee, Eurelectric, Brussels (6/2008 to today) Visiting Professor (Electrical Power Engineering) Technicka Universita v Kosiciach, (6/2005 to today) Lecturer (Electrical Power Engineering) at Universität Bonn (1/2009 to today) and Universität Wuppertal (6/2010 to today) Numerous publications and lectures on power engineering and economics
  3. 3. Mainova AG, a German player–Generation, sales and grid Generation area Sales area house- Grid area hold customers Sales area big customers Sales volumes: Complete supply, partly heat • Electricity : 8,609 Mio. kWh Complete supply except electricity, partly heat • Gas: 14,077 Mio. kWh Service area natural gas Service area of Mainova affiliated companies • Heat: 1,973 Mio. kWh • Water: 42,318 Tsd. m3 Service area of local and regional gas companies supplied by Mainova
  4. 4. Agenda: The power to change –The contribution of municipal companies 1 Physical consequences of the German „Energiewende“ 2 Providing electricity at the right time – smart market 3 Providing electricty at the right place – smart grid 4 Interaction of smart grids and smart markets 5 Technical strategy of Mainova 6 New technologies and new challenges 4
  5. 5. 1The German „Energiewende“ is ambitious andis based on renewables, tough savings and imports *) GER EU ? ? Limited import and export capacities All European countries are increasing the installed capacity of renewables Renewable energy sources show a synchonous generation pattern Are the electricity savings realistic?*) Assuming substantial efficiency increase and energy savings but also signigicant We have to do some homework! electricity imports! 5
  6. 6. 1 A rate of 35 % of renewable Energy means to double the installed generation capacity Percentage of power generation Pumped hydro storage Maximum consumption Import / Export (conventional) Power Available power plants 5% 18 % 35 % 80 %122 %100 %50 % + Note: The national energy concept assumes 2000 2010 2020 2050 substantial efficiency increase and energy savings but also0% signigicant electricity Installed capacity of renewables imports!
  7. 7. 1Increasing the installed capacity of renewableswithout reversible storage results in a saturation Demand of Installed Generation power / energy renewable Power consumption (100%) power Renewable generation curves (today and tomorrow) Conventional energies Absorption 35% Renewable Storage + energies Conventional load curve Installed capacity In the case that there are more than 35 % of renewables within the total Storage -energy mix, the installed capacity has Supplement to be higher than the sum of maxi-mum consumption, storage and export Time Energy absorption Energy storage Additional loads (electrolysis, thermal storage, export) Reversible storage, shifting loads and generation (P2G, batteries, pumped hydro storage) Energy supplement Import / export 7 Additional generation (gas turbine, import)
  8. 8. 1The presented scenario is modified throughsupporting and hindering factorsSupporting factors (less renewable capacity, less storage capacity) Import and export of energy Creating an European overlay grid (DC) Coordination of demand and generation on a national level (reduction of synchronism) Available power Available power Synchronism Diversity (T↓) (T↑) Total Total Region Region Region Region 1 2 1 2 Time TimeHindering factors (more renewable capacity, more storage capacity) Grid congestions on a national level Congestions on cross border lines Installation of renewable energy sources in neighboring countries
  9. 9. 1From a technology point of view the German„Energiewende“ will be implemented in three steps by 2020 by 2030 by 2050 Penetration of renewable energy 35 % - Connection to the network 45 % - Extension and increase of flexibilty Energy supply of the network and supplement 80 % - Optimization and increase of flexibility of thermal power plants - Load shifts (DSM) - Increase of conventional electricity storage Energy - New efficient applications for electrical absorption energy (e.g. heat pumps, electric vehicles) - Reversible storage of electricity - New types of power sources (OPV) New reversible - Alternative use of CO2 (alga) storages - Dynamic stability of the system Mainova has the know-how and the ability to make „Energiewende“ a reality
  10. 10. 2 Existing devices can be used in order to increase the flexibility of the systemTechnologies for increasing 1 2flexibility in the electrical system CCGT power plants 1 (Irsching, block 4, η = 60%) Flexible CHPs 2 (Frankfurt, thermal connection of steam and gas turbines as well 3 as boilers decouples electicity generation from heat production) 4 Virtual power plants 3 (Frankfurt) Controlled electrolytic processes 4 (Frankfurt, 70 MW, production 5 of Cl2) Controlled cold-storage depots 5 (Frankfurt) (Concept) (Concept)
  11. 11. 2 Chemical and thermal energies are indispensable in order to create enough storage capacitiesDensity of H 2O Elec- Elec- tricity tricity Compressor (Frankfurt) Mechanical energy (1 m³ water, 4 000 m high) Heat Thermal energy O2 (1 m³ water, 10 K warmer) Electrolytic Chemical energy reactor Sto- Sto- (1 m³ gas, 0.8 kg) (Frankfurt) H2 rage+ rage- Batteries (100 kg Li-Ion batteries)Hydrogen should be able to fix –to–gas–grid“ „Power–to–gas (H2) –to–gas–tank“ „Power–to–gas (H2) –to–others (industry)“ „Power–to–gas (H2)the storage challenge. Extendedproduction of CH4 (energy con- (Concept)tent three times higer) might be Electrical cooling devicenot necessary (compression) with storage* All numbers mentioned are corresponding with „Power–to–thermal–storage /an energy volume of about 40 MJ (ca. 11 kWh) –to–thermal–grid“
  12. 12. 3The coupling of energies is thetechnical key competence of „Energiewende“RES Electrical power - Organic - Elektrolytic Rancine reactor H2 cycle - Sabatier reactor CH4 - „Invertierted“ Heat power plant - Electrical heating - Heat pumpRES G2P G2P G2H G2P H2P P2H P2G Natural gas G2H G2H CHP CHP CCGT Gas steam turbine gas turbine boiler
  13. 13. 2The urban power plantbecomes the energy hub of the future Thermal storage with Electrical grid electrical heating Heat District exchanger heating H2 storage Temperature control H 2O ~ Elektrolyse zur H2 Erzeugung Gas grid Control unit Closed gas turbine cycle 13
  14. 14. 2A mix from different storage conceptswill be used in the future Storage concepts and their application Middle till long time periods Short time period (days, weeks, months) (minutes, hours) x 100 MW, high voltage x 1 MW, middle and low voltage Import and export Import and export Pumped hydro storage Domestic thermal inertia Air pressure storage Domestic demand (DSM, DR) Power to gas (electrolysis, Batteries (immobile, mobile) sabatier) Thermal storages Compensation of days without Compensation of cloud fields or night- wind or cloudy days time All storage concepts can contribute to stabilize the grid! 14
  15. 15. 2The current „energy-only-market“neither awards flexible power plants nor storages Flexible CCGT power plants are under price and volume pressure Former price Bisheriger Preisverlauf Former volume Bisheriger Mengenverlauf ? Similar prices for peak and base put storages under pressure ?
  16. 16. 2 Today the data hub model is used in most of the European countries Data Hub Model – Used in most of the European Countries Wholesaler Data transfer Request for and data Retailer communication management TSO Hub (Data service provider) DSO Smart meter Meter One combined role as an option:operator DSO as a data hub and market facilitator (Eurelectric) In Germany there is a seperate role called Meter operator / Data service provider (MSB / MDL) 16
  17. 17. 2 In Germany a new gateway model is being designed at moment Gateway Model – The future German (BSI) model Offer of data Wholesaler Data transfer Retailer Communication management TSO Remark: the DSO „data service provider“ (MDL) Smart Gate- role most meter way probabely will Meter Gate- disappearoperator way Gateway administrator operator One combined role as an option 17
  18. 18. 3Electrical grids play a central role in the future andtherefore they have to be developed into „Smart Grids“Generation Central Dispersed Solar park Solar cells Wind park μ-CHP CCGT Biomass CHP … … Remote Close to Load GridLoad Central Dispersed Cities Houses Airports, skyscrapers Farms Cold-storage depots … …
  19. 19. 3Renewable Energies have to beintegrated into the grid Solar Power generation Wind 380 kV 110 kV 20 kV 0,4 kV 220 kV 10 kV Grid integration Voltage Overload / congestions Challenges Conventional DSM *** DSM *** DSM *** generation * Conventional Batteries Batteries Storage options Pumped generation * Power 2 Gas EV hydro power Power 2 Gas (H2, CH4) Compressed (H2, CH4) Biogas air Compressed based air generation ** * Generation using gas produced by power to gas devices ** Biogas is stored in a tank and used when wind No support for and sun are not available distribution grid *** DSM is using thermal inertia as a storage
  20. 20. 2Transmission grids have to integrate new powerfuland remotely positioned renewable energy sources Challenges can be solved with conventional / available technologies ++ ++ 2012 – 2022
  21. 21. 3Distribution Grids have to be adjustedsubstantially and in a smart way to their new tasksLoad monitoring and load control allow the maximum use of assets Feed-in Voltage Today‘s Low load + 110 % UN high feed-in grid feed-in capacity Voltage Low loard + Load basic feed-in 100 % UN Time Partial load + no feed-in Today‘s 90 % UN grid take-off High load + capacity no feed-in Voltage Load Length Take-off To control means to take grid-related measures (load flow, reactive power) or to influence loads, generation or decentralized storage (active power)
  22. 22. 3Integration of renewables is supportedby „Smart Grids“ – The pilot project iNES 22
  23. 23. 3Prinziples of grid automation within the project iNES –Grid interventions first – Customer impacts last Active element Operating principle (customer) + - The active grid elements (1) are 2 adressed first and the active ele- ments on the customer side (2) last iNES Sensor Sensor Active Sensor element 1 - voltage control transformer 2 - reactive power control grid (grid) 3 - active power control customer side 1 Active element (grid) The sensor is independent of any Smart Meter systemQuality and network extension The intervention frequency of the active element on the customer side is registered. This parameter can be used as an indicator for the necessary grid reinforcement or extension The more interventions on the customer side the DSO is allowed to execute within one year, the smaller and later the network reinforcement or externsion will be. However, a higher amount of renewable energy will be “deleted“ through these interventions 23
  24. 24. 3iNES – The „Smart Grid“ project of Mainova –Field tests in Frankfurt Implementation Two characteristic test sites in the Frankfurt area with a high density of PV have been choosen: Rural radial LV-grid Bergen- Enkheim Relocated farms with large PV systems, 1 MV/LV transformer station Urban interconnected LV-grid Bornheim Properties from the ABG between Dortelweiler Straße and Preun- gesheimer Straße with large PV systems, 3 MV/LV transformer stations The smart grid project is carried out in two characteristic areas. As a consequence the results are meaningful
  25. 25. 3The investment climat for European DSOsleaves space for improvement “The financial situation of European DSOs” – A Study of EurelectricIn many European countries the regulatory return on invest (ROI) does not meet theexpectations of the capital marketValue creation andvalue destruction of The switch from efficiencyEuropean DSOs regulation to incentivising smart grids is necessary1 – DSOs who are not investing are creating values3 – DSOs who are in- vesting are destroying values Increasing number of companies
  26. 26. 4 Smart markets and smart grids – Basic functionalities and interactionSmart market: Influencing the customer by price signals Power balanceSmart grid: Influencing the customer by phsical signals Maximum use of network Supplier Market Price Price Monitoring Intervention Grid 1 DSO of DSO Reaction Intervention Maximum Impact 2 Load Customer Time Intervention of DSO means: priority over market, however, minimum impact on customer 26
  27. 27. 5Investment program and R&D of Mainova AGare reflecting the principles discussed Optimization and increase of flexibility of Business the Frankfurt CHP system Establishment of wind generation within a radius of 100 km around Frankfurt Using opportunities with respect to hydro power plants (including pumped hydro storages) Analysis and observation of solar energy (silicon and organic PV) Analysis of storage technologies R&D Power plants close to consumers reduce the necessary grid extension Regional energy clusters make sense. However, energy autarky should be avoided Solar energy has the potential to become an important urban energy source
  28. 28. 5Rural and urban areas complete themselvesby constructing the „smart system“ of the future Rural area (smart country): Dominance of electric energy Renewable power generation (wind, solar, biomass) Solar Wind Village Urban area (smart city): Media power, heat, gas (multi utility) Frankfurt Coupling of the media for energy storage and power buffering Energy generation on the basis of CHP Coupling of the media (smart system): Heat storage Central or decentralized Fernwärme CHP Gas storage Small CHP Solar District heating
  29. 29. 6Summary and conclusions –Organic solar cells have a huge potential for urban use Installation of organic solar cells at the premises of Mainova AG, Frankfurt Mainova is Europes first energy company with an organic photovoltaic system connected to the public grid The 70 centimeters wide and two meters long plastic solar cells have been installed within one day Opposite to conventional solar cells, organic photovoltaic systems do not use any silicon, but they are based on an organic semiconductor consisting of hydrocarbon compounds (polymers) Organic photovoltaic systems are able to produce power, even in partial shade and in diffuse radiation 29
  30. 30. 6Summary and conclusions –Batteries are opening new options for stabilisation Energy autonomous households Volatility reduction of loadflow Privat consumption (GER): 4 000 kWh/a, 11 kWh/day Photovoltaic system: 4 000 kWh/a, (0,1 kW/m², 40 m²) Battery storage system: 11 kWh/day Battery capacity: 100 Wh/piece Number of laptop batteries: 110 pieces (possibly used cells from the automotive industry) x 110 30
  31. 31. 6Summary and conclusions –The environment is changing Important changes with impact on energy business Migration within Germany (from East to West; urbanization) Changes in the population structure (demographic change) Automation of private houses Use of new powerful technologies like e-mobility or heat pumps Expansion of data centers and internet nods Increasing use of information and communication technology Electricity tariffs and future develop- ment of energy intensive industries Source :Handelsblatt 31
  32. 32. 6 Summary and conclusions – The technical challenges of the EnergiewendeFundamental task: Integration of efficientRegional and temporal and volatilecompensation of the generation anddifferences between consumption partsgeneration andconsumption with an Work on problemadequate capacity solutions ~ Dynamic balance Virtually stationary between load and compensation of load generation and generation fluctuations fluctuations RES Problem identification begins Problem recognized Appropriate Market Design Needed
  33. 33. Dr.-Ing. Peter Birkner, Executive Member of the Board, Mainova AGFrankfurt am Main, October 23, 2012Analyses – Conclusion – ActionThank you for your attention!

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