Classification of Matter
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Classification of Matter

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Presented by Sharon Williams in the ACT2 strand at CAST 2010, Houston, Texas.

Presented by Sharon Williams in the ACT2 strand at CAST 2010, Houston, Texas.

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  • ^*#{}#*^ SHOW Robby, Robby.acs, 50,50 PLAY DontRecognize MOVE 50,50 SAYNOCAP Matter that is uniform and has definite composition is called a substance. Substances contain only one type of matter. SLIDE 5= SAYNOCAP Lets look at examples of physical properties

Classification of Matter Classification of Matter Presentation Transcript

  • PROPERTIES OF MATTER
  • Objectives
    • Define matter.
    • Explain the gas, liquid, and solid states of matter in terms of particles.
    • Distinguish between the physical properties and chemical properties of matter.
    • Classify Changes of matter as physical or chemical.
    • Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance.
    • Identify the chemical symbols of elements, and name elements, given their symbols.
    • Identify important families of elements on the periodic table.
    • TEKS: 2A,2D,2E,3B,3C,3D,3E,4A,4B,4C,4D,5A,11A,11B
  • Definition of Matter
    • The two properties of matter are:
    • Mass – amount of matter
    • Volume – amount of space occupied
    • Therefore… matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
  • States of Matter
    • Solid – definite shape and volume
    • Liquid – definite volume, and takes the shape of the container
    • Gas – takes the shape and volume of the container
    • Plasma – a collection of high energy ions and electrons.
  • Physical Changes
    • Physical change alters the substance without changing its composition or chemical identity.
    • Boil, melt, cut, break, split, grind, crush, bend, condense, freeze, dissolve and crack are examples of physical changes.
  • Physical Properties
    • A physical property is a condition that can be measured or observed without changing the identity of the substance.
    • Examples of physical properties include color, solubility, odor, hardness, density, melting point and boiling point, etc.
  • Chemical Properties
    • The ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction to form a new substance is called a chemical property . Chemical properties are observed when a substance undergoes a chemical change.
  • Chemical Change
    • A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a chemical change or chemical reaction.
    • C + O 2 CO 2
    • (reactants) (product)
  • Look for terms such as . . .
    • burn
    • rot
    • rust
    • decompose
    • ferment
    • explode
    • oxidize
    • corrode
    • grow
    • precipitate
    • gas formation
    • digest
  • Classifying Properties
    • Both physical and chemical properties can be classified as being either extensive or intensive properties.
  • Extensive vs. Intensive
    • Extensive Properties
    • Depend on the amount of matter present
    • Mass, volume, length, height, amount of energy, etc.
    • Intensive Properties
    • Do not depend on the amount of matter present
    • Density, boiling point, melting point, color, ability to conduct electricity, etc.
  • Classifying Matter
    • Matter is classified by the number of phases it contains.
    • Any part of a system with uniform composition and properties is called a phase .
    • Matter can be classified as either Homogeneous or Heterogeneous.
  • Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Homo = same Hetero = different
    • Homogeneous materials exist in only one phase.
    • Heterogeneous materials contain more than one phase.
    • Includes solutions, compound & elements
    • Heterogeneous materials are all mixtures
  • Mixtures
    • Mixtures are a physical blend of 2 or more kinds of matter.
    • Mixtures can be either homogeneous (solutions) or heterogeneous.
    • Separation of mixtures is done by physical means such as magnets, distillation, chromatography and filtration.
  • Pure Substances
    • A pure substance has a fixed composition . Elements and compounds are pure substances.
    • Unlike mixtures, every sample of a pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties and composition.
  • Elements and Compounds
    • An element is a collection of the same type of atom. They are the simplest form of matter that can exist under normal lab conditions.
    • Compounds consist of two or more elements that are chemically combined. They can be separated only by a chemical change.
  • Classification of Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Heterogeneous Mixtures Solutions Compounds Elements Homogeneous Matter Matter