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Classification of Matter


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Presented by Sharon Williams in the ACT2 strand at CAST 2010, Houston, Texas.

Presented by Sharon Williams in the ACT2 strand at CAST 2010, Houston, Texas.

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  • ^*#{}#*^ SHOW Robby, Robby.acs, 50,50 PLAY DontRecognize MOVE 50,50 SAYNOCAP Matter that is uniform and has definite composition is called a substance. Substances contain only one type of matter. SLIDE 5= SAYNOCAP Lets look at examples of physical properties
  • Transcript

    • 2. Objectives
      • Define matter.
      • Explain the gas, liquid, and solid states of matter in terms of particles.
      • Distinguish between the physical properties and chemical properties of matter.
      • Classify Changes of matter as physical or chemical.
      • Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance.
      • Identify the chemical symbols of elements, and name elements, given their symbols.
      • Identify important families of elements on the periodic table.
      • TEKS: 2A,2D,2E,3B,3C,3D,3E,4A,4B,4C,4D,5A,11A,11B
    • 3. Definition of Matter
      • The two properties of matter are:
      • Mass – amount of matter
      • Volume – amount of space occupied
      • Therefore… matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
    • 4. States of Matter
      • Solid – definite shape and volume
      • Liquid – definite volume, and takes the shape of the container
      • Gas – takes the shape and volume of the container
      • Plasma – a collection of high energy ions and electrons.
    • 5. Physical Changes
      • Physical change alters the substance without changing its composition or chemical identity.
      • Boil, melt, cut, break, split, grind, crush, bend, condense, freeze, dissolve and crack are examples of physical changes.
    • 6. Physical Properties
      • A physical property is a condition that can be measured or observed without changing the identity of the substance.
      • Examples of physical properties include color, solubility, odor, hardness, density, melting point and boiling point, etc.
    • 7. Chemical Properties
      • The ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction to form a new substance is called a chemical property . Chemical properties are observed when a substance undergoes a chemical change.
    • 8. Chemical Change
      • A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a chemical change or chemical reaction.
      • C + O 2 CO 2
      • (reactants) (product)
    • 9. Look for terms such as . . .
      • burn
      • rot
      • rust
      • decompose
      • ferment
      • explode
      • oxidize
      • corrode
      • grow
      • precipitate
      • gas formation
      • digest
    • 10. Classifying Properties
      • Both physical and chemical properties can be classified as being either extensive or intensive properties.
    • 11. Extensive vs. Intensive
      • Extensive Properties
      • Depend on the amount of matter present
      • Mass, volume, length, height, amount of energy, etc.
      • Intensive Properties
      • Do not depend on the amount of matter present
      • Density, boiling point, melting point, color, ability to conduct electricity, etc.
    • 12. Classifying Matter
      • Matter is classified by the number of phases it contains.
      • Any part of a system with uniform composition and properties is called a phase .
      • Matter can be classified as either Homogeneous or Heterogeneous.
    • 13. Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Homo = same Hetero = different
      • Homogeneous materials exist in only one phase.
      • Heterogeneous materials contain more than one phase.
      • Includes solutions, compound & elements
      • Heterogeneous materials are all mixtures
    • 14. Mixtures
      • Mixtures are a physical blend of 2 or more kinds of matter.
      • Mixtures can be either homogeneous (solutions) or heterogeneous.
      • Separation of mixtures is done by physical means such as magnets, distillation, chromatography and filtration.
    • 15. Pure Substances
      • A pure substance has a fixed composition . Elements and compounds are pure substances.
      • Unlike mixtures, every sample of a pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties and composition.
    • 16. Elements and Compounds
      • An element is a collection of the same type of atom. They are the simplest form of matter that can exist under normal lab conditions.
      • Compounds consist of two or more elements that are chemically combined. They can be separated only by a chemical change.
    • 17. Classification of Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Heterogeneous Mixtures Solutions Compounds Elements Homogeneous Matter Matter