Classification of Matter


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Presented by Sharon Williams in the ACT2 strand at CAST 2010, Houston, Texas.

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  • ^*#{}#*^ SHOW Robby, Robby.acs, 50,50 PLAY DontRecognize MOVE 50,50 SAYNOCAP Matter that is uniform and has definite composition is called a substance. Substances contain only one type of matter. SLIDE 5= SAYNOCAP Lets look at examples of physical properties
  • Classification of Matter

    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Define matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the gas, liquid, and solid states of matter in terms of particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between the physical properties and chemical properties of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Classify Changes of matter as physical or chemical. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the chemical symbols of elements, and name elements, given their symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify important families of elements on the periodic table. </li></ul><ul><li>TEKS: 2A,2D,2E,3B,3C,3D,3E,4A,4B,4C,4D,5A,11A,11B </li></ul>
    3. 3. Definition of Matter <ul><li>The two properties of matter are: </li></ul><ul><li>Mass – amount of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Volume – amount of space occupied </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore… matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. </li></ul>
    4. 4. States of Matter <ul><li>Solid – definite shape and volume </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid – definite volume, and takes the shape of the container </li></ul><ul><li>Gas – takes the shape and volume of the container </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma – a collection of high energy ions and electrons. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Physical Changes <ul><li>Physical change alters the substance without changing its composition or chemical identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Boil, melt, cut, break, split, grind, crush, bend, condense, freeze, dissolve and crack are examples of physical changes. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Physical Properties <ul><li>A physical property is a condition that can be measured or observed without changing the identity of the substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of physical properties include color, solubility, odor, hardness, density, melting point and boiling point, etc. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Chemical Properties <ul><li>The ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction to form a new substance is called a chemical property . Chemical properties are observed when a substance undergoes a chemical change. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Chemical Change <ul><li>A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a chemical change or chemical reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>C + O 2 CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li> (reactants) (product) </li></ul>
    9. 9. Look for terms such as . . . <ul><li>burn </li></ul><ul><li>rot </li></ul><ul><li>rust </li></ul><ul><li>decompose </li></ul><ul><li>ferment </li></ul><ul><li>explode </li></ul><ul><li>oxidize </li></ul><ul><li>corrode </li></ul><ul><li>grow </li></ul><ul><li>precipitate </li></ul><ul><li>gas formation </li></ul><ul><li>digest </li></ul>
    10. 10. Classifying Properties <ul><li>Both physical and chemical properties can be classified as being either extensive or intensive properties. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Extensive vs. Intensive <ul><li>Extensive Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on the amount of matter present </li></ul><ul><li>Mass, volume, length, height, amount of energy, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Do not depend on the amount of matter present </li></ul><ul><li>Density, boiling point, melting point, color, ability to conduct electricity, etc. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Classifying Matter <ul><li>Matter is classified by the number of phases it contains. </li></ul><ul><li>Any part of a system with uniform composition and properties is called a phase . </li></ul><ul><li>Matter can be classified as either Homogeneous or Heterogeneous. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Homo = same Hetero = different <ul><li>Homogeneous materials exist in only one phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous materials contain more than one phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes solutions, compound & elements </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous materials are all mixtures </li></ul>
    14. 14. Mixtures <ul><li>Mixtures are a physical blend of 2 or more kinds of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Mixtures can be either homogeneous (solutions) or heterogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of mixtures is done by physical means such as magnets, distillation, chromatography and filtration. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Pure Substances <ul><li>A pure substance has a fixed composition . Elements and compounds are pure substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike mixtures, every sample of a pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties and composition. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Elements and Compounds <ul><li>An element is a collection of the same type of atom. They are the simplest form of matter that can exist under normal lab conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds consist of two or more elements that are chemically combined. They can be separated only by a chemical change. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Classification of Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Heterogeneous Mixtures Solutions Compounds Elements Homogeneous Matter Matter