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Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter



Presented by Sharon Williams in the ACT2 strand at CAST 2010, Houston, Texas.

Presented by Sharon Williams in the ACT2 strand at CAST 2010, Houston, Texas.



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  • ^*#{}#*^ SHOW Robby, Robby.acs, 50,50 PLAY DontRecognize MOVE 50,50 SAYNOCAP Matter that is uniform and has definite composition is called a substance. Substances contain only one type of matter. SLIDE 5= SAYNOCAP Lets look at examples of physical properties

Classification of Matter Classification of Matter Presentation Transcript

  • Objectives
    • Define matter.
    • Explain the gas, liquid, and solid states of matter in terms of particles.
    • Distinguish between the physical properties and chemical properties of matter.
    • Classify Changes of matter as physical or chemical.
    • Distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance.
    • Identify the chemical symbols of elements, and name elements, given their symbols.
    • Identify important families of elements on the periodic table.
    • TEKS: 2A,2D,2E,3B,3C,3D,3E,4A,4B,4C,4D,5A,11A,11B
  • Definition of Matter
    • The two properties of matter are:
    • Mass – amount of matter
    • Volume – amount of space occupied
    • Therefore… matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
  • States of Matter
    • Solid – definite shape and volume
    • Liquid – definite volume, and takes the shape of the container
    • Gas – takes the shape and volume of the container
    • Plasma – a collection of high energy ions and electrons.
  • Physical Changes
    • Physical change alters the substance without changing its composition or chemical identity.
    • Boil, melt, cut, break, split, grind, crush, bend, condense, freeze, dissolve and crack are examples of physical changes.
  • Physical Properties
    • A physical property is a condition that can be measured or observed without changing the identity of the substance.
    • Examples of physical properties include color, solubility, odor, hardness, density, melting point and boiling point, etc.
  • Chemical Properties
    • The ability of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction to form a new substance is called a chemical property . Chemical properties are observed when a substance undergoes a chemical change.
  • Chemical Change
    • A change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances is called a chemical change or chemical reaction.
    • C + O 2 CO 2
    • (reactants) (product)
  • Look for terms such as . . .
    • burn
    • rot
    • rust
    • decompose
    • ferment
    • explode
    • oxidize
    • corrode
    • grow
    • precipitate
    • gas formation
    • digest
  • Classifying Properties
    • Both physical and chemical properties can be classified as being either extensive or intensive properties.
  • Extensive vs. Intensive
    • Extensive Properties
    • Depend on the amount of matter present
    • Mass, volume, length, height, amount of energy, etc.
    • Intensive Properties
    • Do not depend on the amount of matter present
    • Density, boiling point, melting point, color, ability to conduct electricity, etc.
  • Classifying Matter
    • Matter is classified by the number of phases it contains.
    • Any part of a system with uniform composition and properties is called a phase .
    • Matter can be classified as either Homogeneous or Heterogeneous.
  • Homogeneous & Heterogeneous Homo = same Hetero = different
    • Homogeneous materials exist in only one phase.
    • Heterogeneous materials contain more than one phase.
    • Includes solutions, compound & elements
    • Heterogeneous materials are all mixtures
  • Mixtures
    • Mixtures are a physical blend of 2 or more kinds of matter.
    • Mixtures can be either homogeneous (solutions) or heterogeneous.
    • Separation of mixtures is done by physical means such as magnets, distillation, chromatography and filtration.
  • Pure Substances
    • A pure substance has a fixed composition . Elements and compounds are pure substances.
    • Unlike mixtures, every sample of a pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties and composition.
  • Elements and Compounds
    • An element is a collection of the same type of atom. They are the simplest form of matter that can exist under normal lab conditions.
    • Compounds consist of two or more elements that are chemically combined. They can be separated only by a chemical change.
  • Classification of Matter Mixtures Pure Substances Heterogeneous Mixtures Solutions Compounds Elements Homogeneous Matter Matter