Attacking the TEKS:  Atomic Structure Jane Smith Centennial High School Frisco, TX [email_address]
TEKS <ul><li>(6) Science concepts.  The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The stu...
College Readiness Standards <ul><li>B. Atomic structure  </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the development of atomic theory. Und...
The Basics <ul><li>Time Frame:  </li></ul><ul><li>6 – 90 minute periods or  </li></ul><ul><li>9 – 50 minute periods on the...
Engage <ul><li>Think – pair – share with previous knowledge of the atom </li></ul><ul><li>Use that to discuss the properti...
History of the Atom <ul><li>Alchemy – qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Balance – quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Dalton – 1 st...
Nuclide Lab <ul><li>black beans  =  protons popcorn =  electrons white beans  =  neutrons </li></ul>How are the atoms of i...
Mass Number vs Atomic Mass <ul><li>Students use atomic number, mass number and atomic mass indiscriminately </li></ul><ul>...
Working with conversion factors <ul><li>6.02 X 10 23  atoms Ag = 1 mole Ag = 107.87 g Ag </li></ul><ul><li>If I asked for ...
Mole Lab Tasks <ul><li>Task A1 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the mass of the zinc strip. </li></ul><ul><...
A Penny’s Worth of Zinc <ul><li>Calculations :  All calculations are to be shown with complete work, units and boxed answe...
Atom Review <ul><li>State two principles of Dalton’s atomic theory that have been revised, as new information has become a...
Atom Review <ul><li>  Write the symbol,  , for each of the isotopes described below: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li...
A MOLEVELOUS MAGICAL SQUARE! <ul><li>Answer Bank  - answers may be used once or not at all! </li></ul><ul><li>1 .  2.44 mo...
Atom Test <ul><li>Which principle of Dalton’s atomic theory did Thomson disprove? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different atoms ha...
Visible Light Electromagnetic Spectrum 700 nm 600 nm 500 nm 400 nm Wavelength and frequency are ________ related. v =  f  ...
Lab Experiences <ul><li>Flame Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Using the results of your flame tests, list the element symbols in o...
Learning goals with electrons <ul><li>Write orbital notation </li></ul><ul><li>Write electron configuration </li></ul><ul>...
Orbital Notation 6 examples  complete for the 1 st  31 elements Check out:  Dr .John  Gelder’s (@OSU) electron configurati...
Electron Configuration 1 st  31 elements -  revisit with Cu and Cr exceptions Discuss energy level patterns Circle valence...
Electron Horse Race <ul><li>Set #4 </li></ul><ul><li>For the following ground state electron configurations, indicate the ...
Questions 1- 5 refer to elements listed below.  The elements may be used once, more than once or not at all. <ul><ul><ul><...
Which one of the following electron configurations is  incorrect ? <ul><li>A.  Calcium [Ar]4s 2 B.  Copper [Ar]3d 10 4s 1 ...
Using principles of atomic structure, answer the following questions regarding the  sulfur-34 atom . <ul><li>  Determine t...
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Attacking The TEKS: Atomic Structure

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Attacking the TEKS: Focus on Atomic Theory presented by Jane Smith, ACT2 2010
This session will expose you to the new TEKS and College Readiness Standards. Ideas for sequencing and planning the unit will be shared along with tips for appropriate demos, labs, and assessments. The intended audience is for teachers with 3 or less years of experience or anyone who wants to delve deeper into the new standards.

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Attacking The TEKS: Atomic Structure

  1. 1. Attacking the TEKS: Atomic Structure Jane Smith Centennial High School Frisco, TX [email_address]
  2. 2. TEKS <ul><li>(6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(A) understand the experimental design and conclusions used in the development of modern atomic theory, including Dalton's Postulates, Thomson's discovery of electron properties, Rutherford's nuclear atom, and Bohr's nuclear atom; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(B) understand the electromagnetic spectrum and the mathematical relationships between energy, frequency, and wavelength of light; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(C) calculate the wavelength, frequency, and energy of light using Planck's constant and the speed of light; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(D) use isotopic composition to calculate average atomic mass of an element; and </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(E) express the arrangement of electrons in atoms through electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(2) (B) know that scientific hypotheses are tentative and testable statements that must be capable of being supported or not supported by observational evidence. Hypotheses of durable explanatory power which have been tested over a wide variety of conditions are incorporated into theories; </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(2) (C) know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed; </li></ul>
  3. 3. College Readiness Standards <ul><li>B. Atomic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the development of atomic theory. Understand that models of the atom are used to help understand the properties of elements and compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the discoveries of Dalton (atomic theory), Thomson (the electron), Rutherford (the nucleus), and Bohr (planetary model of the atom); understand how each discovery contributed to modern atomic theory. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Identify the masses, charges, and locations of the major components of the atom (protons, neutrons, and electrons); describe Rutherford’s “gold foil” experiment that led to the discovery of the atomic nucleus; and describe Millikan’s “oil drop” experiment that led to determining the charge on an electron. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Describe basic wave properties (calculate wavelength, frequency, or energy of light) and understand that electrons can be described by the physics of waves. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Explain the importance of quantized electron energy and its relationship to atomic emission spectra. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>e. Understand the electron configuration in atoms (Aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, Hund’s rule) and their connection with the periodic table </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Basics <ul><li>Time Frame: </li></ul><ul><li>6 – 90 minute periods or </li></ul><ul><li>9 – 50 minute periods on the atom ; </li></ul><ul><li>6 – 90 minute periods or </li></ul><ul><li>9 – 50 minute periods on electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons/Periodic Table on one test? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Engage <ul><li>Think – pair – share with previous knowledge of the atom </li></ul><ul><li>Use that to discuss the properties and location of the subatomic particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Representing the composition of an atom with symbols and names. </li></ul><ul><li>Isotope vs. ion </li></ul>
  6. 6. History of the Atom <ul><li>Alchemy – qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Balance – quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Dalton – 1 st theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cathode ray tube – subatomic particles </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactivity – gold foil experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Bright line spectra – Bohr model </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nuclide Lab <ul><li>black beans = protons popcorn = electrons white beans = neutrons </li></ul>How are the atoms of isotopes of an element similar? How are they different? Provide at least three examples of bags that illustrate the characteristics of isotopes.   List all of the information that the imaginary symbol indicates. 16 bags with several isotope pairs bag # protons electrons neutrons atomic # mass # symbol name 1 2 3
  8. 8. Mass Number vs Atomic Mass <ul><li>Students use atomic number, mass number and atomic mass indiscriminately </li></ul><ul><li>Quick intro activity to atomic mass: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 bags 9 p + 8 n o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 bags 9 p + 11 n o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 bags 9 p + 10 n o </li></ul></ul>18.96 amu
  9. 9. Working with conversion factors <ul><li>6.02 X 10 23 atoms Ag = 1 mole Ag = 107.87 g Ag </li></ul><ul><li>If I asked for a 0.15 mole silver ring from my husband, what would be its mass in grams? </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>equivalence statements to conversion factors 3 examples 6 problems
  10. 10. Mole Lab Tasks <ul><li>Task A1 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the mass of the zinc strip. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate: </li></ul><ul><li>Moles of zinc in the strip </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of zinc in the strip </li></ul><ul><li>How many moles of zinc would be found in 15 strips? </li></ul><ul><li>Task B1 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the mass of 15 cm 3 carbon (activated charcoal). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate: </li></ul><ul><li>Moles of carbon in the 15 cm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of carbon in the 15 cm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>How many moles of carbon would be found in 3.0 m 3 ? </li></ul>3 different tasks involving conversions between grams, moles, and atoms
  11. 11. A Penny’s Worth of Zinc <ul><li>Calculations : All calculations are to be shown with complete work, units and boxed answers. Round your answers to a total of 3 sig figs. Skip lines between calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the mass of zinc in your penny? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the percentage, by mass, of zinc in your penny? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the percentage, by mass, of copper in your penny? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate the number of moles of zinc in your penny. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate the number of moles of copper in your penny. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate the number of atoms of zinc in your penny. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate the number of atoms of copper in your penny. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis : </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what evidence you have that this was a chemical reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Post-1984 pennies are actually 97.5% zinc. Calculate your percent error and give sources of error that might account for the difference. % error = experimental – actual X 100 </li></ul><ul><li> actual </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Use conversion factors and the current metal prices (posted on the board) to determine the value of 1000 pre-1984 pennies and the value of 1000 post-1984 pennies. You may assume that all pennies have the same initial mass as yours. (1 lb = 454 g) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>2 day lab
  12. 12. Atom Review <ul><li>State two principles of Dalton’s atomic theory that have been revised, as new information has become available. What information caused the revisions to be made? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A cathode ray produced in a gas-filled tube moves away from a negative field, such as one produced by a magnet. When a paddle wheel is installed inside the tube, the wheel moves down the tube in the same direction as the cathode ray. What properties of electrons do these phenomena illustrate? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>What changes did Rutherford make to Thomson’s atomic model in order to explain the results of his gold foil experiment? Be sure you relate experimental observations to changes in the model. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Suppose you could shoot a proton beam, an electron beam and a neutron beam between two electrically charged plates. Assuming the velocities are the same, draw a diagram to show the paths of each type of subatomic particle. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The element boron has an atomic mass of 10.81 amu according to the periodic table. However, no single atom of boron has a mass of exactly 10.81 amu. How can you explain this difference? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Atom Review <ul><li>  Write the symbol, , for each of the isotopes described below: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Z = 8, number of neutrons = 9 </li></ul><ul><li>the isotope of chlorine in which A = 37 </li></ul><ul><li>number of electrons = 26, number of neutrons = 31 </li></ul><ul><li>iodine-131 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The following elements have only two naturally occurring isotopes. Use the average atomic mass on the periodic table to determine which isotope is more abundant and justify your choice. </li></ul><ul><li>iridium-191 and iridium-193 </li></ul><ul><li>silver-107 and silver-109 </li></ul>
  14. 14. A MOLEVELOUS MAGICAL SQUARE! <ul><li>Answer Bank - answers may be used once or not at all! </li></ul><ul><li>1 . 2.44 moles 5. 354 grams </li></ul><ul><li>0.20 moles 6. 55.85 amu </li></ul>A How many zinc atoms would be in 2.44 moles of zinc? B 1.20 X 10 23 helium atoms is equivalent to how many moles? G 8.76 X 10 24 atoms of magnesium weighs how much, in grams? A D G B E H C F I
  15. 15. Atom Test <ul><li>Which principle of Dalton’s atomic theory did Thomson disprove? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different atoms have different masses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All atoms of the same element have the same mass. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds always have the same percentage composition by mass. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms are indivisible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms can be combined to make compounds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following statements are true of uranium-238? </li></ul><ul><li>I. Its chemical properties will be exactly like those of uranium-235. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Its mass will be slightly different from that of an atom of uranium-235. </li></ul><ul><li>III. It will contain a different number of protons than an atom of uranium-235. </li></ul><ul><li>IV. It is more plentiful in nature than uranium-235. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. III, IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. I, II, III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. I, II, IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. II, III, IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. all of these </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Visible Light Electromagnetic Spectrum 700 nm 600 nm 500 nm 400 nm Wavelength and frequency are ________ related. v = f  c =  Energy and frequency are ________ related. E = h  Low Frequency High Frequency Long Wavelength Short Wavelength Radiowaves Microwaves Infrared Ultraviolet X rays Gamma rays Low Energy High Energy
  17. 17. Lab Experiences <ul><li>Flame Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Using the results of your flame tests, list the element symbols in order of increasing energy they emit.________ In order of increasing wavelength -____________. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do the chemicals have to be heated in the flame first before the colored light is emitted? </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous and bright line spectra </li></ul><ul><li>bright line spectrum - ______________ tube </li></ul><ul><li>violet red </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  18. 18. Learning goals with electrons <ul><li>Write orbital notation </li></ul><ul><li>Write electron configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Write noble gas notation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify location on periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Identify valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a Lewis dot symbol </li></ul>
  19. 19. Orbital Notation 6 examples complete for the 1 st 31 elements Check out: Dr .John Gelder’s (@OSU) electron configuration (Aufbau) simulation Element Atomic Number 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p H 1                                     He 2                                     Li 3                                     Be 4                                     B 5                                    
  20. 20. Electron Configuration 1 st 31 elements - revisit with Cu and Cr exceptions Discuss energy level patterns Circle valence electrons on configurations Draw dot diagrams Transfer patterns to periodic table Element Atomic Number Electrons in Energy Levels Electron Configuration H 1 He 2 Li 3 Be 4 B 5
  21. 21. Electron Horse Race <ul><li>Set #4 </li></ul><ul><li>For the following ground state electron configurations, indicate the part that is wrong and explain what is wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>(a) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 10 3s 2 </li></ul><ul><li>(b) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 2d 3 </li></ul><ul><li>(c) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3d 7 4s 2 </li></ul><ul><li>(d) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 3s 2 3p 5 </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Set #6 </li></ul><ul><li>  Given the configuration </li></ul><ul><li>1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 2 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>group #? </li></ul><ul><li>period #? </li></ul><ul><li>metal or nonmetal? </li></ul><ul><li>block of the periodic table? </li></ul><ul><li>  # of valence electrons? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Questions 1- 5 refer to elements listed below. The elements may be used once, more than once or not at all. <ul><ul><ul><li>manganese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>magnesium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>potassium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phosphorus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>argon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  Is an alkali metal. </li></ul><ul><li>Is a transition metal </li></ul><ul><li>Is an alkaline earth metal </li></ul><ul><li>Is a noble gas </li></ul><ul><li>Is found in the d-block </li></ul>
  23. 23. Which one of the following electron configurations is incorrect ? <ul><li>A. Calcium [Ar]4s 2 B. Copper [Ar]3d 10 4s 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Manganese [Ar] 4d 5 4s 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Tin [Kr] 4d 10 5s 2 5p 2 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Using principles of atomic structure, answer the following questions regarding the sulfur-34 atom . <ul><li>  Determine the number of protons and neutrons in a sulfur-34 atom. </li></ul><ul><li>  Write the complete electron configuration for sulfur-34. </li></ul><ul><li>  Write the orbital notation (label it!) for the valence electrons in a sulfur-34 atom. </li></ul><ul><li>  Draw the Lewis dot diagram for sulfur. </li></ul><ul><li>  Is a sulfur-34 atom diamagnetic or paramagnetic? Explain. </li></ul>
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