Agile-To Infinity and Beyond andSo Much More Than Just AgileSoftware    Agile is a tool that is most often associated with...
Agile-To Infinity andBeyond and SoMuch More ThanJust Agile Software   David Smith   CEO HBMGInc.   dsmith@HBMGINC.com   li...
Outline1.   Review Agile2.   What we have learned3.   Transformation4.   So What
Delivering business value is hard…“Of the work executed: “Many  (possibly most) organizations lose  as much as 45% of thei...
Why?Technological innovation is now the most important  driver for competitive success   – Many firms earn over one-third ...
Business, Knowledge, and Innovation Landscape• Typically 80% of the key knowledge (and value) is heldby 20% of the people ...
DefinitionsThe term agile can be defined as   1) marked by ready ability to move with quick easy grace, or   2) having a q...
Brief History of Development       Methodologies                                                                          ...
The Agile Manifesto (2001)• Not an “ideal” way - this comes from real experience  We are uncovering better ways of develop...
The Agile Manifesto–a statement of values Agile Practice favors:Individuals and                   over    Process and tool...
What is Agile Software Development?• Easily moved, light, nimble, active software  processes• Fitting the process to the p...
Agile MethodsSeveral methods that are often cited to be agile, e.g.,   –   Extreme Programming   –   Crystal Family   –   ...
Characteristics of an Agile Process•   Empirical (relies on observation and experience)•   Lightweight•   Adaptive•   Fast...
The Big Paradigm Shift          We’re used to                           Agile Wants            Time Lines                 ...
Agile Project ManagementCan wrap around most existing practices   – But most effective when the practices are also AgileSu...
The Scrum Framework
Agile EngineeringEssential Practices   – Regular refactoring (many times daily)       • This produces well-componentized d...
Agile - XP The Values Communication Simplicity Feedback Courage Respect
Agile TestingEarly involvement   – An Agile project begins when testers convert high-level     requirements into testable ...
Customer  Customer          requirements                                        Project                                   ...
The Agile Customer“Customer’ is a role, not a person   – Also known as Product Manager, Product Owner   – Proxy for the en...
40 years of process* development                                  * Process, Method, Methodology,Late ’60s                ...
Adoption Detractors• Inconsistent and diverse definitions• Lack of theoretical grounding• Different way of thinking  – Rol...
Outline1. Review Agile2. What we have learned3. Transformation4. So What
What have we learn? They’re hard tolearn…  You can get knowledge from books . . .          ….or from a web-site.
Agile vs. Plan Driven Processes1. Small products and      1. Large products and   teams; scalability         teams; hard t...
Eras of evolution
There are 100’s of so-called practices… Business        Test-Driven    Scrum        Product-Line      Risk-Driven    Syste...
Practices are ’end-to-end’ aspects of      processPractices cross-cut the traditional   EssUP Practices   software enginee...
Self Adaptive ProcessChanges over timeAlters itself to the task at hand• Starts off with a  problem that can be  improved ...
1. Review Agile2. What we have learned3. Transformation4. So What
• During the 1990s, management commentators  such as Peter Senge were pursuing learning  organizations, systems thinking a...
Traditional Approach to Business Operations• Vertical structure that focuses only on own  area• Areas that carry out simil...
Problems with Traditional Approach• Over time processes tend to become overly  complex• Flexibility and mobility is diffic...
Approach to ChangeModels to introduce change into the organisation  – Incremental approach  – Step change  – Thin threadsS...
What to change – Best Practices                            Most UsefulCollaborative workingIterative projectsVisual Modell...
Agile organizations• Agile organizations are ‘hyper strategic’,  tackling challenges wrought by turbulent  external enviro...
In practice, agility features thefollowing four characteristics:• Short term frontline responsiveness• Strategic adaptatio...
AGILITY CYCLE    future                                                    emerging    environments                       ...
1. Review Agile2. What we have learned3. Transformation4. So What
How the World Has Changed• Most businesses are global at launch• Businesses are increasingly real time• Convergence has be...
Imagine…each time we ordered a meal at our  favorite restaurant, the owners went out  shopping for the ingredients to cook.
But don’t go too far     I’ve got all this     guidance but it       doesn’t help           me
Structure – Skunk WorksLockhead Martin needed to  develop secret projects,  outside formal controlFormed in June 1943 –  B...
KELLYS 14 RULESKelly’s rules got their start on the XP-80 project in 1943, but it wasn’t until the early 1950’s that they ...
KELLYS 14 RULES•   6 There must be a monthly cost review covering not only what has been spent and    committed but also p...
KELLYS 14 RULES10. The specifications applying to the hardware must be agreed to well in advanceof contracting. The Skunk ...
The Open Economy• New business models  based on collaboration,  co-creation & sharing• Transparency as a normal  practice•...
www.ccplace.con
Forces that drive the practicesused…•   Stakeholder relationships•   Stakeholder access•   Number of requirements•   Numbe...
Evolving—Self Forming                                        A.I.           Deep Search               Intelligent      Int...
The Big Paradigm Shift – some reality   We’re used to                 Agile Wants                     What Works      Time...
Agile is a Process and Method to deliver Strategic Business Outcomes (Not Just Software!):▬ Bringing New Business Models t...
Competing in a Global Business EnvironmentTaylor’s Law                       Sarnoff’s Law                                ...
Key Points• The future of business is  relationships• A collective mentality to  problems• People are human and  digital• ...
“Planning” is everything. A Plan is NOTHING!       DWIGHT EISENHOWER
In Parting: Be Paranoid “Sooner or later, somethingfundamental in your business     world will change.”         Andrew S....
In Parting: Be Paranoid “Sooner or later, somethingfundamental in your business     world will change.”        Andrew S. ...
Lean Canvas
Agile- To Infinity and Beyond
Agile- To Infinity and Beyond
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Agile- To Infinity and Beyond

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Transcript of "Agile- To Infinity and Beyond"

  1. 1. Agile-To Infinity and Beyond andSo Much More Than Just AgileSoftware Agile is a tool that is most often associated with the software process but like Buzz Lightyear in the movie Toy Story it can be applied to so much more. This talk will review some of the foundations of the agile process and look at the transformational adaptations of the agileframework. The talk will give examples of other applications and will explore some of the latest applications.
  2. 2. Agile-To Infinity andBeyond and SoMuch More ThanJust Agile Software David Smith CEO HBMGInc. dsmith@HBMGINC.com linkedin.com/in/davidsmithaustin
  3. 3. Outline1. Review Agile2. What we have learned3. Transformation4. So What
  4. 4. Delivering business value is hard…“Of the work executed: “Many (possibly most) organizations lose as much as 45% of their total revenues due to costs associated with low quality” – Six Sigma“Some 75 percent of most large-scale J2EE projects fail by missing both time and budget projections …” – Mark Driver, Gartner“64% of features actually delivered are either rarely or never used” – Jim Johnson, Standish Group 4
  5. 5. Why?Technological innovation is now the most important driver for competitive success – Many firms earn over one-third of sales on products developed within last five yearsProduct life cycles ( time between product introduction to market and its withdrawal) – Software 4-12 months – Computer hardware 12-24 months – Large home appliances 18-36 months Copyright, 2011 © HBMG, Inc.
  6. 6. Business, Knowledge, and Innovation Landscape• Typically 80% of the key knowledge (and value) is heldby 20% of the people – we need to get it to the rightpeople• Only 20% of the knowledge in an organization istypically used (the rest being undiscovered or under-utilized)• 80-90% of the products and services today will beobsolete in 10 years – companies need to innovate &invent faster Copyright 2012@ HBMG Inc.
  7. 7. DefinitionsThe term agile can be defined as 1) marked by ready ability to move with quick easy grace, or 2) having a quick resourceful and adaptable character (Merriam-Webster 2002 3) Latin word agilis, which means “easily moved, light, nimble, active”.
  8. 8. Brief History of Development Methodologies AGILE e.g. XP (Kent Beck) Methodologies RUP (Rational) user Incremental, driven, low process RAD Object oriented, (James Martin)iterative, time-boxed, user driven Prototyping, RUP iterative, time-boxed, SPIRAL MODEL user driven RAD WATERFALL (Royce) (Barry Boehm) V-MODEL (Anon) Requirements, design Iterative Spiral Model implementation, Aligns testing to verification & Waterfall maintenance development V-Model Waterfall1960 1970 1980 85 91 98 99 8
  9. 9. The Agile Manifesto (2001)• Not an “ideal” way - this comes from real experience We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: – Individuals and interactions over processes and tools – Working software over comprehensive documentation – Customer collaboration over contract negotiation – Responding to change over following a plan http://agilemanifesto.org
  10. 10. The Agile Manifesto–a statement of values Agile Practice favors:Individuals and over Process and tools interactions ComprehensiveWorking Product over documentation Customer over Contract negotiation collaboration Responding to over Following a plan change
  11. 11. What is Agile Software Development?• Easily moved, light, nimble, active software processes• Fitting the process to the project• Avoidance of things that waste time
  12. 12. Agile MethodsSeveral methods that are often cited to be agile, e.g., – Extreme Programming – Crystal Family – Open Source – Adaptive Software Development (ASD) – SCRUM – Feature Driven Development (FDD) – Dynamic System Development Method (DSDM)In addition, e.g., Rational Unified Process (RUP) and Capability Maturity Model (CMM) can be evaluated from Agile Manifesto point of viewFurther, organisations often develop their own methods, or modify existing methods to better suit their objectives – These are called local method development or in-house methods
  13. 13. Characteristics of an Agile Process• Empirical (relies on observation and experience)• Lightweight• Adaptive• Fast – but never hurried• Exposes wastefulness• Customer-centric• Pushes decision making to lower levels• Fosters trust, honesty and courage• Encourages self-organization
  14. 14. The Big Paradigm Shift We’re used to Agile Wants Time Lines We’re done when it’s done. Project Managers Disciplined self managing teams. Fixed Budgets Assumed change means no fixed cost.Predictable, all at once deliverables Incremental deliverables driven by value and constant learning. Multiple matrixed units in multiple Co-location – one team. locations make up team Communication by Document Information Radiators. Customer is removed Customer is part of team. Certain Knowledge Action
  15. 15. Agile Project ManagementCan wrap around most existing practices – But most effective when the practices are also AgileSupports Iterative and incremental developmentUses Inspect/Adapt principles – For project planning (daily/iteration/release) – To ensure highest customer valueTracks time remaining only – Does not track • People. Accuracy of estimates. Task dependenciesExample methodologies: Scrum, Crystal
  16. 16. The Scrum Framework
  17. 17. Agile EngineeringEssential Practices – Regular refactoring (many times daily) • This produces well-componentized designs, clear APIs and clean code without duplications – Frequent check ins (many times daily) – Unit Testing • Leading to Test Driven Development (TDD) – Continuous Build and Integration • Running automated tests on each build – Just-in-time code reviews (e.g. pair programming)Example methodologies: XP, Agile Modeling
  18. 18. Agile - XP The Values Communication Simplicity Feedback Courage Respect
  19. 19. Agile TestingEarly involvement – An Agile project begins when testers convert high-level requirements into testable specifications.Work as part of the development team – The testers work with the developers to pick unit test and acceptance test frameworks, and to test the software in parallel with development. This requires a shift in thinking.Automate everything – (wherever possible)Test early, test often – Never leave the testing until the end
  20. 20. Customer Customer requirements Project IterationRequirements Management plan Management Estimated CR Project planning Estimations Communication Design Testing scenarios Test-before- code Code Coding standard Test software product
  21. 21. The Agile Customer“Customer’ is a role, not a person – Also known as Product Manager, Product Owner – Proxy for the entire customer groupResponsible for the Release PlanResponsible for managing the Product BacklogDetermines business value & priority on a regular basisProvides information to development team for estimation purposesWorks with testers to produce clear, testable user stories for each iterationInspects software regularly (e.g. runs acceptance tests) and provides feedback to the development team
  22. 22. 40 years of process* development * Process, Method, Methodology,Late ’60s whatever... Ericsson Approach‘87 –’96 CMM Objectory Process SW-CMM XP, SCRUM &‘96 –’00 The Unified “Lightweight Process Methods” XX-CMM Agile Manifesto‘01 –’06 IBM RUP CMMI Everyones Agile EssUP‘07 –> ? The Rise of Practices ?
  23. 23. Adoption Detractors• Inconsistent and diverse definitions• Lack of theoretical grounding• Different way of thinking – Role changes – Situational customization• Solid people skills required• Short iterations inhibit long-term perspective• Risks – Harder to manage feature creep and customer expectations – Difficult to quantify cost, time, quality.
  24. 24. Outline1. Review Agile2. What we have learned3. Transformation4. So What
  25. 25. What have we learn? They’re hard tolearn… You can get knowledge from books . . . ….or from a web-site.
  26. 26. Agile vs. Plan Driven Processes1. Small products and 1. Large products and teams; scalability teams; hard to scale limited down2. Untested on safety- 2. Handles highly critical critical products products; hard to scale3. Good for dynamic, but down expensive for stable 3. Good for stable, but environments. expensive for dynamic4. Require experienced environments Agile personnel 4. Require experienced throughout personnel only at start5. Personnel thrive on if stable environment freedom and chaos 5. Personnel thrive on structure and order
  27. 27. Eras of evolution
  28. 28. There are 100’s of so-called practices… Business Test-Driven Scrum Product-Line Risk-Driven Systems Modeling Development Engineering Iterative Engineering Development Aspect Robustness Retro- Business Process Use-Case PairOrientation Analysis spectives Re-Engineering Driven Programming Development PSP User Stories SOA Prince2 Use-Case Program Modeling Management …but are really all the same kind of thing?
  29. 29. Practices are ’end-to-end’ aspects of processPractices cross-cut the traditional EssUP Practices software engineering disciplines Architecture Iteration Use Case $ Component Product Process Team Modeling
  30. 30. Self Adaptive ProcessChanges over timeAlters itself to the task at hand• Starts off with a problem that can be improved as a project continues• Should adapt to the team that uses it as well as the problem
  31. 31. 1. Review Agile2. What we have learned3. Transformation4. So What
  32. 32. • During the 1990s, management commentators such as Peter Senge were pursuing learning organizations, systems thinking and dynamic business as the new orthodoxy in organizational studies (Senge, 1990)• General Motors, for example tried to become a ‘boundary less organization’, characterized by fluid boundaries between hierarchies and units, between inside and outside, and across different geographic locations.
  33. 33. Traditional Approach to Business Operations• Vertical structure that focuses only on own area• Areas that carry out similar tasks tend to have their own distinct set of procedures• Often different areas have their own terminology for what is in effect the same thing• Vital information is often stored locally and not available centrally• Communications between different areas can be patchy
  34. 34. Problems with Traditional Approach• Over time processes tend to become overly complex• Flexibility and mobility is difficult• Often there is duplication of work and information• Can lead to poor customer service and customer relationships• Plethora of IT Systems doing similar work – Growing maintenance bill – Not best use of resources
  35. 35. Approach to ChangeModels to introduce change into the organisation – Incremental approach – Step change – Thin threadsScope of change island or wholesalePrerequisites for changeBlockers & enablers - timing – Key influencers – Other changes – Disasters
  36. 36. What to change – Best Practices Most UsefulCollaborative workingIterative projectsVisual ModellingRisk based prioritisationRequirements ManagementChange ManagementConfiguration ManagementToolsTraceability Least Useful 36
  37. 37. Agile organizations• Agile organizations are ‘hyper strategic’, tackling challenges wrought by turbulent external environments, while also preparing for future changes that are not yet apparent• They move through an agility cycle, seeking out and interpreting information to inform short, medium and long term decision making and action.
  38. 38. In practice, agility features thefollowing four characteristics:• Short term frontline responsiveness• Strategic adaptation• Outcomes focus• Preventing or reducing problems before they arise.
  39. 39. AGILITY CYCLE future emerging environments trends and shape issue scan and forecast AGILITY CYCLE Sense and opportunities to respond design translate informationInnovation into actionableopportunities solutions and productsand risks
  40. 40. 1. Review Agile2. What we have learned3. Transformation4. So What
  41. 41. How the World Has Changed• Most businesses are global at launch• Businesses are increasingly real time• Convergence has become a way of life• Science, product development, and product cycles are compressing• The source of value has shifted for manufacturing• Competencies, future capabilities, and “ultra tech” are the prime driver• The traditional value chain is forever dead
  42. 42. Imagine…each time we ordered a meal at our favorite restaurant, the owners went out shopping for the ingredients to cook.
  43. 43. But don’t go too far I’ve got all this guidance but it doesn’t help me
  44. 44. Structure – Skunk WorksLockhead Martin needed to develop secret projects, outside formal controlFormed in June 1943 – Burbank CA14 rules to ensure efficiency – similar to XP principlesNow seen as technique for introducing change – but … 44
  45. 45. KELLYS 14 RULESKelly’s rules got their start on the XP-80 project in 1943, but it wasn’t until the early 1950’s that they were formalized and set in place as the Skunk Works’ rules of operation. 1. The Skunk Works manager must be delegated practically complete control of his program in all aspects. He should report to a division president or higher. 2. Strong but small project offices must be provided both by the military and industry. 3. The number of people having any connection with the project must be restricted in an almost vicious manner. Use a small number of good people (10% to 25% compared to the so-called normal systems). 4. A very simple drawing and drawing release system with great flexibility for making changes must be provided. 5. There must be a minimum number of reports required, but important work must be recorded thoroughly.
  46. 46. KELLYS 14 RULES• 6 There must be a monthly cost review covering not only what has been spent and committed but also projected costs to the conclusion of the program. Dont have the books ninety days late and dont surprise the customer with sudden overruns. 7. The contractor must be delegated and must assume more than normal responsibility to get good vendor bids for subcontract on the project. Commercial bid procedures are very often better than military ones. 8. The inspection system as currently used by the Skunk Works, which has been approved by both the Air Force and Navy, meets the intent of existing military requirements and should be used on new projects. Push more basic inspection responsibility back to subcontractors and vendors. Dont duplicate so much inspection. 9. The contractor must be delegated the authority to test his final product in flight. He can and must test it in the initial stages. If he doesnt, he rapidly loses his competency to design other vehicles.
  47. 47. KELLYS 14 RULES10. The specifications applying to the hardware must be agreed to well in advanceof contracting. The Skunk Works practice of having a specification section statingclearly which important military specification items will not knowingly be compliedwith and reasons therefore is highly recommended.11. Funding a program must be timely so that the contractor doesnt have to keeprunning to the bank to support government projects.12. There must be mutual trust between the military project organization and thecontractor with very close cooperation and liaison on a day-to-day basis. This cutsdown misunderstanding and correspondence to an absolute minimum.13. Access by outsiders to the project and its personnel must be strictly controlledby appropriate security measures.14. Because only a few people will be used in engineering and most other areas,ways must be provided to reward good performance by pay not based on thenumber of personnel supervised.
  48. 48. The Open Economy• New business models based on collaboration, co-creation & sharing• Transparency as a normal practice• Conversations (two way communication)• Open interfaces to partners, vendors, suppliers, customers• Common technology and business standards• Service and Experience Mentality
  49. 49. www.ccplace.con
  50. 50. Forces that drive the practicesused…• Stakeholder relationships• Stakeholder access• Number of requirements• Number of usage scenarios• Novelty of the system• Legal requirements• Business domain• Severity of errors (safety criticalness)• Team distribution and communicationSelect practices based on the nature of the problem not the nature of the process.
  51. 51. Evolving—Self Forming A.I. Deep Search Intelligent Intelligent Virtual Agents Marketplaces Group Worlds Weak Inference Intelligence Signals Engines Knowledge Reed’s - EnterpriseSpeed of Connectivity — Informational Networks XML Semantic Web Self Formation Minds Knowledge Massive Metaweb Multiplayer Digital World Ontologies Knowledge Games Group Life Logs Minds Knowledge Management Bases Life Market Emergent Taxonomics Casting Places Groups Search Engines Enterprise Mobile Wikis WeBlogs Portals Technologies Content Portals Auctions Websites Social SOCIAL MEDIA Networks WEB Groupware People Databases Information Email Community Conference PIMs Computer Portals Calls Conferencing P2P File File Servers Phone Calls Sharing IM Speed of Connectivity — Social Source: David Smith Copyright, 2010 © HBMG, Inc
  52. 52. The Big Paradigm Shift – some reality We’re used to Agile Wants What Works Time Lines We’re done when it’s done. Time Boxes Project Managers Disciplined self managing Collaboration between Coach teams. and P.O. Fixed Budgets Assumed change means no Cost Boxes – not more than fixed cost. x to spend.Predictable, all at once Incremental deliverables Pre-project user story deliverables driven by value and constant sessions learning. Team spread out Co-location. Core time in room or on phone Communication by Information Radiators & Information Radiators Document Conversations captured electronically and posted. Daily MeetingsCustomer is removed Customer is in room as part Core time in room and end of team. user interaction
  53. 53. Agile is a Process and Method to deliver Strategic Business Outcomes (Not Just Software!):▬ Bringing New Business Models to life faster with “Product & Process Innovation”.▬ Integrating the new Business Model with the existing one seamlessly without causing dysfunction to the current operations.▬ Generating Productivity Innovating on the existing Processes (Out of the Box).▬ Integrating the Process Innovation with the Operational Continuous Improvement practices (Reengineering).In essence, Agile is about the business being able to achieve growth and productivity; without compromising one for the other
  54. 54. Competing in a Global Business EnvironmentTaylor’s Law Sarnoff’s Law Metcalfe’s Law Reed’s Law(1910 – 1950s) (1960 - 1980) (1980 - 2000) (2000 - Future)Scientific Management “Human Side” Management Quality Management Era E-Manufacturing Value Chain Value Shop Firm Infrastructure Firm Infrastructure Human Resources Management Human Resources Management Infrastructure Technology Development Support Technology Development Procurement Procurement Problem Finding Problem & Acquisition Solving After- Inbound Operations Outbound Marketing sales Logistics Logistics & Sales Service Simon’s Problem Solving Model Choice Control/ Execution EvaluationValue Created in the Assembly Value Created by Transforming Value Created by Providing Value Created ByLine (Operations) Inputs Into Products Solutions, Not Services Self Forming Groups •Standardization Parts •Stable Relationships •Lean Manufacturing •Consumer Centric and Processes Design and Delivery •Price Conscious •Shift to Horizontal Structure •Economies of Scale •Flat Corporate •Producer Led Design •Focus on Core Structures •Producer-Centric Competency •Global Companies Design, Mfg., and •Collaborative Virtual •Reliability and Durability Delivery •Regionalism Networks •Producer Led Design •Vertical Orientation •Productivity •Mass Customization •Multinational Trade •Required inventory •Subsidiaries •Transparency buffers •Market Centric •Plant Replication by •Speed and Agility Design & Delivery •Locally Oriented Region •Global Orientation HBMG Inc. Copyright 2009
  55. 55. Key Points• The future of business is relationships• A collective mentality to problems• People are human and digital• The relationship comes first• Today requires FAST, AGILE, and COLLABORATIVE
  56. 56. “Planning” is everything. A Plan is NOTHING! DWIGHT EISENHOWER
  57. 57. In Parting: Be Paranoid “Sooner or later, somethingfundamental in your business world will change.”  Andrew S. Grove, Founder, Intel “Only the Paranoid Survive” Copyright @2008 HBMG Inc.
  58. 58. In Parting: Be Paranoid “Sooner or later, somethingfundamental in your business world will change.”  Andrew S. Grove, Founder, Intel “Only the Paranoid Survive” Copyright @2008 HBMG Inc.
  59. 59. Lean Canvas

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