services of advertising agency and development of t.v in pakistan before cable and after cableDocument Transcript
STUDENT NAME : MUHAMMAD HASSAM.DEPARTMENT : ECONOMICS.TEACHER’S NAME: MISS MAHYEDARKSHAN.SUBJECT : MASS COMMUNICATION.
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 2Getting the best out of advertising is a highly skilled job. It requires the inputs of experts inmany different fields like writers, artists, photographers, designers, television production crewsand many others. Even the biggest advertisers cannot afford to employ all these experts.Almost all advertising is therefore arranged through an advertising agency which provides thenecessary skill to turn the message into a memorable and effective advertisement. Advertisinghas not only come to reflect pop culture but has also become an important element ofeconomic growth. Today, every person connected with the Indian economy or public should befully aware what advertising really is and why effective advertising campaigns can be performedby full-service advertising agencies. Advertising agency is one of the most importantcomponents of advertising industry. It has played a significant role in the development ofmodern advertising. The advertising agency has evolved to provide the specialized knowledge,skills and experience needed to produce effective advertising campaigns. It provides a qualityrange of service greater than any single advertiser could afford or would need to employ. Anadvertising agency is a firm that specializes in the creation, design and placement ofadvertisements, and in the planning and execution of promotional campaigns for products andservices of their clients.The Association of Advertising Agencies of America (AAAA) defines Advertising agency asThe glamour, the unlimited expense accounts, and the exhilarating lifestyle -all these popularportraits of life in the big-time advertising agency are misleading. Advertising is demanding,challenging, hard work. It is also interesting and fulfilling. Advertising requires a mix of personalabilities, considerable business skills, and an ability to work under pressure to meet deadlines.Compared to larger industries, there are never many entry-level positions open in advertisingagencies (dozens rather than hundreds). And competition is stiff. The industry, however, isconstantly on the lookout for skilled, bright, articulate, creative and personable men andwomen with a well-rounded education and a good business sense.“An independent business organization composed of creative and business peoplewho develop, prepare and place advertising media for sellers seeking to findcustomers for their goods and services.”
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 3An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning andhandling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for their clients. An ad agencyis independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling theclients products or services. An agency can also handle overall marketing and brandingstrategies and sales promotions for its clients. Typical ad agency clients include businesses andcorporations, non-profit organizations and government agencies. Agencies may be hired toproduce single ads or, more commonly, on going series of related ads, called an advertisingcampaign.History of ad agency:1. Period of early growth 1841 - 1865The first advertising agency on record in the US was Olney B. Palmer. In1841, Palmer organizeda newspaper advertising and subscription agency. By 1849 he had established offices in thecities of New York, Boston, Baltimore and Philadelphia In essence, Palmer served as a salesmanof space for publishers and they in turn, gave him a commission of 25% of such sales. Thepublishers found these methods of selling more effective than trying to sell direct andadvertisers, wishing to reach more than one territory found value in such service.2. Wholesaling Period 1865 – 1880George P. Rowell, who opened an agency in 1865, supplied the new competitive tool. Rowellcontracted with 100 newspapers to sell him a column of space each week for a year.Throughout the wholesaling period, the agent continued as a seller of space for publishers. Thistook on different forms, one of which was the exclusive right to sell space in certain publishers.Thus, one agency developed a controlled list of religious papers, another “List of Thirsty”household magazine. Any advertiser wishing to buy space in the controlled publications wasforced to buy through the exclusive wholesaler for that paper3. Semi Service Period 1880 – 1917Early in the semi service period agencies offered to write the copy for the advertiser, thus givingadded weight to their claim of being servants of the advertiser .This concept of service was slowto develop; but in the early part of the 20thcentury, agencies began to emphasize strongly this“free” service. One agency in 1905 advertised that it paid $28,000 a year for a copywriter.These methods increased the agency business and forced most space sales to be made throughthem.
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 44. Service Period 1917 – PresentBy 1917 the idea of service had grown until not only was copywriting done for the advertiserbut many other things as well. The service elements has modified the position of agencies tosuch a degree that radio and television, network and magazine publishers have come to dependupon them as the primary channel through which time and space are soldAdvertising Process:When preparing your search proposal, you should take into account that the “lead-in” timeneeded to place an ad can vary anywhere from days to months depending on the publication.You should plan to have your ad approved and an estimate of the cost done at least one monthprior to the date when you want the ad to be published. The advertising process forprofessional staff and faculty positions involves five basic steps:1. Writing an Ad2. Getting Approval for the Text of the Ad3. Estimating the Cost of the Ad4. Placing Ads & Posting Announcements5. Paying for AdsTypical work flow in agency:STAGE WORK PERFORMED AT STAGEBriefing Stage •Briefing from the client•Internal briefing to the creative and media•Any research briefing if requiredCreation Stage •Ad campaign and media plan development•Internal review and finalization•Presentation to client and approvals•Any pre-testing if requiredProduction Stage •Budget and estimate approvals•Production of film, press ads, collaterals•Media Scheduling and media booking•All release approvals for creative & mediaPost Production Stage •Material dispatch to media•Media release monitoring•Any post-testing if required•Billing and collection
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 5Types of advertising agencies:Ad agencies come in all sizes, from small one- or two-person shops to large multi-national,multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group, WPP Group, Interpublic Group ofCompanies and Havas.Following are major types of advertising agencies that are currently serving the advertisingindustry.1) Full Service Agencies2) Modular agencies3) In House agencies4) The Specialists Agency5) Mega agencies6) Creative BoutiquesThe functions of an advertising agency:• To accelerate economic growth and create public awareness.• To provide a total, professional, experienced service this is very personal in its nature.• To take the advertisers message and convert it into an effective and memorableCommunication.The Benefits of Using an Advertising Agency:• Added Expertise• Media Knowledge and Unbiased Advice• Easier Administration• Media Buying• Quality Control• Information• Fending off the media• And when things go wrong• Cost Saving•Time Saving
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 6Services offered by ad agency: Total Advertising Services:Strategic planning, creative development and media services for advertising, particularlyin television, newspapers, magazines and radio; providing the best creative designed tocapture the imagination of consumers Marketing Services:Provision of a number of advertising related services, including sales promotion, marketresearch, PR and event marketing. E-Solution Services:E-solution services, including system integration services, e-business consulting andcustomer relationship management (CRM), Search Engine Marketing (SEM) and SearchEngine Optimization (SEO) and e-promotions using the Internet and mobile. Content Business:Sales of sponsorship, broadcasting and other rights, and the production and marketingof such media / content as sporting events, films, TV programs, animated content, musicand other forms of entertainment. Integrated Media Services:Bringing value to both clients and media-relatedcompanies by offering a wide range of media solutionservices Sales Promotion:Providing comprehensive sales promotion planningdesigned to complement mass media and otheractivities Event Marketing:Assisting clients by providing dynamic vehicles fortheir messages in the form of on-the-spot interactivecommunications
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 7 Integrated Branding Services:Assuring clients the highest quality of branding services for their communication needs.1. Advertising and Marketing PlanThe primary role of advertising agencies is the creation of an advertising and marketingplan specific to your business, product and brand. Ad agencies work with your businessobjectives, keep within ad budgets and develop advertising and marketing campaigns tosatisfy business needs. Ad agencies pull all this together to provide a creative andcompelling campaign intended to engage the attention of potential customers and getthem to buy your product or service.2. Graphic Design, Copywritingand PrintingFull service agencies typically employ graphicdesigners and copywriters or contract withtrusted outside firms. Since printing is aspecialized industry, agencies will handle thisfunction through a printing partner. Graphicdesign, copywriting and printing are vitalelements of the overall ad program, as poorlywritten, designed and printed advertising canhinder the effectiveness of the campaign andmay reflect poorly on the business.3. Media PurchasingMedia purchasing, such as ads placed in magazines, newspapers, television broadcastsand radio shows, is another role of a full service agency. Ad agencies have intimateknowledge of pricing, effective scheduling and results-oriented media platforms thatwould involve considerable time, research and effort for the business owner whochooses to act alone in these areas.
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 84. Web MarketingFrom professional web design, publishing, page traffic reports and web page updates,full service ad agencies can handle all the details. Website templates provided byinternet service providers and home web design programs can appear "homemade" andmay not reflect a quality business image. Professionally designed sites, such as thoseused by larger businesses, are almost always created by professionals.5. Tracking ResultsTracking and tweaking advertising is another role of full service ad agencies. If an ad isntmeeting business objectives, the agency will investigate and analyze the cause andsuggest new approaches. Ad campaign success is the agencys primary goal, so it can getrepeat business from clients.Production services:Without the production department, the ads created by the copywriter and art directorwould be nothing more than words and pictures on paper. The production department,in essence, ensures the TV commercial or print ad, etc, gets produced. They areresponsible for contracting external vendors (directors and production companies in thecase of TV commercials; photographers and design studios in the case of the printadvertising or direct mailers). Producers are involved in every aspect of a project, fromthe initial creative briefing through execution and delivery. In some agencies, seniorproducers are known as "executive producers" or "content architects".Creative Services:According to this creative service of advertising agency. If an advertising agency’s“products” are the advertisements it creates, then it’sthe creative services group that is responsible formaking these products. Advertising can take manyforms (TV commercials, radio spots, print ads, andoutdoor billboards to name a few), but collectivelythey are referred to as “the creative” or “the work.”Development of the creative is lye done in teams oftwo. A Copywriter (words) and an Art Director (visuals)work together to create rough versions of the adsincluding: TV storyboards, print layouts, and radioscripts. Creative teams can work successfully togetherfor years -- often hired, fired and promoted together.
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 9 Contextual advertising services:Contextual advertising is a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing onwebsites or other media, such as content displayed in mobile browsers. Theadvertisements themselves are selected and served by automated systems based on thecontent displayed to the user.Contextual advertising has made a major impact on earningsof many websites. Because the advertisements are more targeted, they are more likelyto be clicked, thus generating revenue for the owner of the website (and the server ofthe advertisement). A large part of Googles earnings is from its share of the contextualadvertisements served on the millions of WebPages running the Ad Sense program. Administrative services:LIKE OTHER business agencies have to manage their business affair. Agencies havepersonnel departments, accounting and billing department, sales staffs that go out andsell the agency to clients. Most important to client is the traffic department, which hasthe responsibility of monitoring projects to be sure that deadline are met. Trafficmanagers make sure the creative group and media services are coordinated so thatdeadlines for getting promotional materials to printers and media organizations aremet.References: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=4kDgTS_NSZsC&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=Integrated+Branding+Services+Advertising+agency+notes&source=bl&ots=GUajcPjhS4&sig=UiBCNps-SCP7tTt6c7VFOLBMPOg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JoCjUZ-7CKeM0AWV0YD4Cg#v=onepage&q=Integrated%20Branding%20Services%20Advertising%20agency%20notes&f=true http://www.scribd.com/doc/25014262/20/Services-offered-by-ad-agency http://www.slideshare.net/MUHAMMADHASSAM3/newsfeed?action=redirect_to_index&controller=newsfeeds http://advertising.about.com/od/advertisingglossarya/g/The-Account-Services-Department-Of-An-Advertising-Agency.html
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 10A “television” (also TV, telly or tube) is a machine with a screen. Televisions receive broadcastsignals and turn them into pictures and sound. The word "television" comes from the wordstele (Greek for far away) and vision (seeing)Television, transmission and reception of still or moving images by means of electrical signals,especially by means of electromagnetic radiation using the techniques of radio and by fiberoptic and coaxial cables. Television has become a major industry, especially in the industrializednations, and a major medium of communication and source of home entertainment. Televisionis put to varied use in industry, e.g., for surveillance in places inaccessible to or dangerous forhuman beings; in science, e.g., in tissue microscopy (see microscope); and in education.Historical Development of Television:Television is the result of technological developments of the nineteenth and earlytwentieth century’s. Television net work began in the 1930s, Rapid growth ofprogramming came about following World War-II.Having in two decades – the 1930s and 1940s – emerged from experimentalbeginnings to become a fixture in Britain and the United States, it would, in two moredecades, become a World medium. Developments came with startling speed. Industrialnations that had participated in pre-war experiments could be expected to make earlystarts in postwar television; they included Japan, Canada, Australia, and a number ofEuropean nations. Less expected was a burst of activity from other nations.In Latin America, Mexico, Cuba, and Brazil led the way, all launching. Televisionoperations in 1950. They were followed rapidly by others. By the end of that decadeeighteen Latin American nations had some form of television, with more on the verge.Asia virtually kept pace, with the Philippines starting in 1953. By the mid-1960seighteen Asian nations including Pakistan, had entered the television age; others wereplanning to follow. Africa was not far behind. Algeria began in 1965, Egypt in 1960. Bythe end of the 1960s fifteen African nations had made a start in television. Half theworld’s nations had by now joined the procession.
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 11TV IN PAKISTAN:The electronic media was well known in Pakistan after independence in 1947. Not only radiobroadcast was being made from Lahore and Peshawar but it was growing steadily.Although the world at this point of time was familiar with a black & white television broadcast,particularly in the West and the USA, TV seemed a remote possibility in the newborn country.From the early 60s there had been a talk to start television broadcast in Pakistan. Planningcontinued and various departments prepared their reports about the feasibility of a completeTV broadcasting station. Main obstacle in setting up a TV station was not the money, but nonavailability of the technical staff which must run the broadcasting house on sound footings. Theefforts continued, however, and bore fruit when on Nov 26, 1964 country’s first TV station wassetup in Lahore. By this time TV had advanced to color transmission in a number of countries,the PTV was a B/W version.The television is more common in the urban areas of Pakistan whereas in Rural areas the majormeans is still the radio. Today it is playing a vital role in creating awareness in the masses. Its abetter device than radio as it provides video features in addition to auditory ones, making itmore interesting for the public. A large number of Pakistanis has access to this modern devicethough its expensive to buy. Its more accessible in the developed areas as compared to theunderdeveloped ones due to the low living standards and the availability of the electricity.Urban Area Access:Sindh 93Punjab 90KPK 83Baluchistan 81Rural Area Access:Sindh 65Punjab 71KPK 62Baluchistan 47This miraculous device was invented by Philo Frarsworth in September 1927. In Pakistan,Television was first time introduced in an exhibition near Mazar-e- Quaid on 16 September1955. It was a short circuit television for audiences meant for entertainment purpose. Thisevent was arranged by American Embassy to let the Pakistani public see the miraculousinvention.After radio, television is the most common means of communication in Pakistan. But in Urbanareas of Pakistan, television is more in use than radio. The following chart shows the results of aresearch held to see the usage of the two mediums in the major cities of Pakistan. Thetelevision is seen by a percentage of 79, whereas radio is listened by 37% of the public, in urbanareas of Pakistan.Access to satellite has only a onetime cost to the consumer. Such a thing has let even the lowincome earners t have access to satellite as a means of their communication to the world. 49%
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 12of such earners in urban areas has access to it. But the situation in the rural areas is a bitdifferent. The level of poverty, lack of proper transmission signals and poor electricityinfrastructure, are a cause of low access in these areas.EFFECT OF T.V:Television, one of electrical devices which has been part of people’s lives, is widely used assource of entertainment, education and information. Besides of its advantageous function,there are contradictions where some people agree and disagree that television gives negativeeffects which are dangerous for family life and any sense of community. I disagree with thestatement, seeing that the positive effects that are gotten from television are more than thenegative effects.Positive Effects:1. Helps the world to act as a small global village.2. Entertain the public.3. Provide useful knowledge through news, games and other shows.4. Make us aware about various products in the market.5. Preschoolers can learn the alphabets, colors and numbers from television.6. Children learn about the world and different cultures through television.7. educational programs can teach children new things, and even help them make new friends8. Reminds us about our various rights.9. Documentaries can create a picture of the world in kids minds.10. Cultural programs can show children the world of music and art.Negative Effects :1. Misguide the viewers.2. Sometimes channels add spices to gain publicity i.e. the data is not always correct enoughto rely on.3. Creates a type of violence streak in the viewers.4. Long time watching creates physical health problems.5. Children who watch TV for more hours are more likely to be overweight. This is mainlybecause these children don’t spend their time outdoors playing games or indulge in anyphysical activity. Instead, they constantly sit for hours together, watching television.6. Children could easily get addicted to television and spend more time watching TV thanbeing with family or friends.7. Television may also affect relationships between families since it may not allow familymembers to spend quality time with each other. It may also stop people from followingother good habits like reading books and socializing.In conclusion, television gives positive and negative effects. It could be entertaining, educative,and informative to people, which are the three positive effects, as well as increase the value of
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 13family life and sense of community. The negative effects that might be given could beprevented if the audiences are guided correctly.Development of Television Network in Pakistan:On 26 November 1964, first news were broadcasted which beamed black and whitetransmission by the PTV. The television division in the Punjab Province was established with thehelp of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization(United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)). Private industries commercialswere permitted with no fee, initially all the commercials of industrial conglomerates were tax-free and there were no additional charges at that time.The PTV remained a private institution until its shares were sold to the Ministry of Informationand Broadcasting. After the first transmission in 1964 from Lahore, there were furthertransmissions from Dhaka, Rawalpindi and Islamabad in 1965 and in 1966 in Karachi.During the decades of 1970′s, 80′s and 90′s PTV teleplays were the best considered programs ofthe subcontinent and were known all around the world. Dramas like Khuda Ki Basti, Unkahi,Tanhaiyaan, AanganTerha, Fifty Fifty, Studio Dhai, Studio Ponay Teen, AndheraUjala,SonaChandi, Uncle Urfi, Taleeem e Balighan, Alif Noon, Waaris, DhoopKinare, Sunehray Din,Alpha Bravo Charlie and Ana,are to count but a few, which were the main reason of its fame.Development Of Television In Pakistan Before Cable Invasion :Authorities in Pakistan introduced television in 1964 with the aim to uplift the nation sociallyand culturally. As Pakistan was a newly-born state and under-developed, it was thought thattelevision could help in achieving progress in the country through dissemination of information,knowledge, education and awareness. Before Pakistan television started in 1964, Pakistani publicwas a little bit familiar with television through an exhibition where Philips Electrical Companyinstalled a few television sets and televised few foreign films. In October 1963, a nationalpublicity conference was held under the chairmanship of the President Ayub Khan that decidedto set up a television station in Pakistan. Hence Pakistan entered into television broadcasting agewith a small pilot television station at Lahore on November 26, 1964 from where transmissionwas beamed black and white. This station telecast some live but amateur programmers and someof foreign films. Initially, television centre was set up with the help of UNESCO, Colombo planDEVELOPMENTOF TV ISDEPEND UPONTHEDEVELOPMENTOF TV NETWOKIN PAKISTAN
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 14and Japanese government. To meet the graving cost of television broadcasting, commercialtelecast was also permitted but no license fee was charged on Television set at that time.“TECHNOLOGY OF T.V IN PAKISTANBEFORE CABLE”Before the invasion of cable network in Pakistan we have following technology of TV inPakistan.BLACK AND WHITE T.V (MONOCHROME T.V):In television, the term monochrome stand for black and white t.v. such a tv system does notprocess variation of color in a picture but processes only the intensity of brightness of eachpixel( as seen by the eye) for transmission in space . the picture is reproduced in shades of blackand white (without color) on the fluorescent screen of the monochrome picture tube in areceiver .“BLACK AND WHITE (MONOCHROME T.V)TECNOLOGY”CRT (cathode-ray tube) TV:The most common screens were direct-view CRTs for up to roughly 100 cm (40 inch) (in 4:3 ratio) and115 cm (45 inch) (in 16:9 ratio) diagonals. These are the least expensive, and are a refined technologythat can still provide the best overall picture quality value. As they do not have a fixed native resolution,they are capable of displaying sources with different resolutions at the best possible image quality. Theframe rate or refresh rate of a typical NTSC format CRT TV is 29.97 Hz, and for the PAL format, 25 Hz,both are scanned with two fields per frame in an interlaced fashion. A typical NTSC broadcast signalsvisible portion has an equivalent resolution of about 640x480 pixels. It actually could be slightly higherthan that, but the vertical blanking interval (VBI), allows other signals to be carried along with thebroadcast. Firstly this type of TV are made by Sony, L.G, Panasonic and etc. in Pakistan.
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 15CRT (CATHODE-RAY TUBE) TECHNOLOGY“CABLE”History of Cable Television:The traditional mass media had a confined sphere in countries where it initially grew,functioning strictly in line with the values, norms, traditions and basic requirements of the localpopulaceThis communication revolution is, in fact, a succession of three overlappingtechnological stages that have taken place during the last 150 years (Zia, 2003, p.1).Encyclopedia Britannica (1986) describes cable television that generally, a system thatdistributes television signals by means of coaxial or fibre optic cables. The term also includessystems that distribute signals solely via satellite. Cable television system originated in UnitedStates in the early 1950s and was designed to improve reception of commercial networkbroadcasts in remote and hilly areas.History of Cable TV in Pakistan:The Cable TV CATV introduced in Karachi in early 80’s. This was a small scale network in basementof a building, providing only 3 to 5 channels including PTV. In 1990 many broadcast channels startedSatellite transmission which made the cable TV more attractive for the viewers. With the passage oftime cable TV spreads to many cities, but all these cable operators were not registered by thegovernment of PakistanCable TV Network:There are two types of CATV networks are providing services in Pakistan. One is analog CATVnetwork and other is Digital CATV network. Both are discussed below.a. Analog CATV network.b. Digital CATV network.c. DTH Network.
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 16Development Of Television In Pakistan After Cable Invasion :The development of tv in pakistan is depend upon the development of network as the cablenetwork were introduced in pakistan , it introduced many more development of network suchas :- dish tv , dtv etc.As the cable network of pakistan is become more and more better with thepassage of time the picture quality of this network become more sharp and as a result of itnew and more good quality of the picture developed (i.e: HDTV, HQTV, 3DTV etc) which help inthe further more advance development of tv in pakistan such as FLAT TV, PLASMA TV, LCD TV,LED TV, SMART TV, etc.“TECHNOLOGY OF T.V IN PAKISTANAFTER CABLE”After the invasion of cable network in Pakistan we have following main technology of TV inPakistan.FLAT TV (PLASMA TV):A plasma display consists of two glass plates separated by a thin gap filled with a gas such asneon. Each of these plates has several parallel electrodes running across it. A voltage appliedbetween the two electrodes one on each plate causes a small segment of gas at the twoelectrodes to glow. The glow of gas segments is maintained by a lower voltage that iscontinuously applied to all electrodes.LCD TV:An LCD Television is sometimes referred to as a "transmissive" display—light isnt created by the liquidcrystals themselves; a light source behind the panel shines light through the LCD Television display. TheLCD television display consists of two polarizing transparent panels and a liquid crystal solutionsandwiched in between. The screens front layer of glass is etched on the inside surface in a grid patternto form a template for the layer of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are rod-shaped molecules that bendlight in response to an electric current — the crystals align so that light cannot pass through them. Eachcrystal acts like a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking the light.
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 17“LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY)TECHNOLOGY”LED TV:The LED TV is a more advanced version of the LCD TV. While both types of TV rely on LCD technologyand have flat-panel designs, "LED TVs are slimmer, brighter, and more detailed than your traditional LCDTV." LED TVs function by illuminating LCD panels with LED backlighting. However, not all LED TVs utilizethe same type of LED backlighting. An LED TV illuminates its LCD panel with light-emitting diodes. LEDsconsist of small semiconductors, which glow during exposure to electric current.“LED (Light-Emitting Diode) TECNOLOGY”
DEVELOPMENT OF TV BEFORE AND AFTER INVASION OF CABLE 18References: http://repairfaq.cis.upenn.edu/sam/icets/tvset.htm http://www.slideshare.net/Neakali/cable-tv-direct-to-home-television-scope http://www.preservearticles.com/2012011821110/short-essay-on-the-impact-of-cable-tv-on-us.html http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?history_of_television_early_history_the_black_white_images_color_television_introduction_to_broadcasting&b=77&c=23 https://www.google.com.pk/search?noj=1&hl=en&tbm=isch&q=led+tv+technology+review&revid=1477429944&sa=X&ei=4OKqUZ2qEoTGPbLngYgC&ved=0CE8QgxY&biw=1024&bih=639 http://www.itinfopoint.com/post/33/light-emitting-diode-tv/ http://gadgetwise.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/06/11/whats-an-led-tv/ http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100311092726AAeqE48 http://www.answers.com/topic/flat-panel-tv-technology http://www.cablelabs.com/