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Defining Abnormality
 

Defining Abnormality

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Lecture slides for PSYC 3553 Psychopathology (UNB Saint John), Fall 2009. Discusses defining normal vs. abnormal behaviour, stereotype and stigma, and history of perspectives on abnormality.

Lecture slides for PSYC 3553 Psychopathology (UNB Saint John), Fall 2009. Discusses defining normal vs. abnormal behaviour, stereotype and stigma, and history of perspectives on abnormality.

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    Defining Abnormality Defining Abnormality Document Transcript

    • 9/14/09 PSYC 3553 – Psychopathology Week 2: Defining Abnormality • September 15, 2009 1 What is normal? •  What is normal behaviour and what is abnormal behaviour? •  Why do we classify people into normal vs. abnormal? 2 Normal vs. Abnormal Behaviour •  Outside of societal norm •  Mental weaknesses •  Variable in each culture •  Confusing – few fit the normal standard…? •  Can include severe harm or violence •  May not be a bad thing – simply different •  Difficulty in abiding by social situations •  Not capable of surviving in society •  Intentional? •  Relative categorization 3 1
    • 9/14/09 Elements of abnormality •  Deviant •  Distressful to self and/or others •  Dysfunctional or maladaptive •  Dangerous to self and/or others 4 Elements of abnormality •  Unpredictable /irrational •  Violates social norms or is incomprehensible •  Inappropriate to developmental stage 5 Classification of abnormal behaviour •  Can get worse if not •  To help others and treated as soon as improve understanding possible •  Better coping •  Don’t abide by normal rules – live by other set •  Simplify the very subjective •  Otherwise chaos •  No longer a danger •  Improve functioning •  Dispel fears of the •  Take away pain unknown 6 2
    • 9/14/09 Your Interests… •  Use of non-drug treatments, and role of drug companies in prescribing medications •  Specific disorders: mood, anxiety, dissociative, sleep, cognitive •  Specific populations: troubled youth, school psychology, First Nations •  Legal determination of insanity •  Gender differences in bipolar disorder 7 Your Interests… •  Murder/suicides among family members •  Differentiate between disorders (i.e., bipolar disorder and schizophrenia) •  Why some disorders without physiological explanation? Why are some seemingly “incurable”? •  How people are born with them – or how they develop disorders? 8 Attitudes Toward Abnormality •  Stereotypes – automatic beliefs •  Stigma – shame & disgrace •  Examples: • Canadian Medical Assoc. Report • Globe & Mail Breakdown Series •  Video: Mental Health Commission of Canada: Stigma Symposium 9 3
    • 9/14/09 Attitudes Toward Abnormality •  The Rosenhan studies •  Original study •  Slater’s update: has anything changed? •  Why? Will it change? 10 Cultural Aspects •  “…different cultures have different perspectives” •  Display rules for expression of some disorders appear (e.g., depression) •  Lack of other disorders (e.g., amok) 11 Cultural Aspects 12 4
    • 9/14/09 Statistics Talk •  Epidemiology: study of disease statistics •  Prevalence: # active cases in time period •  Incidence: # new cases in given time period •  Co-morbidity: co-occurring disorders 13 Statistics Talk •  Lifetime prevalence: 20% of Canadians •  Point prevalence: 300,000 Canadians •  Often in adolescence/young adulthood •  $$ = at least $7.9 billion (1998) 14 The Mental Health Professions •  Clinical psychologist •  Psychiatrist •  Psychoanalyst •  Social worker •  Counseling psychologist •  Psychiatric nurse 15 5
    • 9/14/09 Different Viewpoints •  Abnormality is…against social / cultural norms •  Abnormality is…a social construction •  Abnormality is…a diseased brain 16 History of Abnormality •  Demonology – spirits control us & cause abnormal behaviour •  Methods of eviction: • Exorcism • Trepanning 17 18 6
    • 9/14/09 History of Abnormality •  Somatogenesis vs. psychogenesis •  Hippocrates: brain is central organ • Mania, melancholia, phrenitis • Personality: the “humours” •  Galen: more scientific approach 19 History of Abnormality •  Middle Ages: • Tarantism: uncontrollable dancing • Lycanthropy: wolf possession • Witchcraft: smart gals angry with society •  Treatment: exorcisms, priest spitting… 20 History of Abnormality •  1500’s: asylums •  Bethlehem (Bedlam) • Deplorable conditions, “patient shows” •  Benjamin Rush: transition •  Moral treatment: Philippe Pinel 21 7
    • 9/14/09 22 History of Abnormality •  Mental hygiene movement: Dorothy Dix •  20th century: still cycled with preference •  Deinstitutionalization: meant to be good… 23 Contemporary Thought •  Early system of classification • Emil Kraepelin: syndromes •  Empirical evidence of mental illness • General paresis and syphilis • Pasteur’s germ theory 24 8
    • 9/14/09 Contemporary Thought •  Mesmer: magnetism •  Charcot: hysteria •  Breuer: catharsis • Anna O. • Freud: psychoanalysis 25 Mental Hospitals in Canada •  Medicare •  Provincial psychiatric hospitals •  Milieu therapy •  Community treatment orders (CTOs) 26 Lessons of History •  Cycles of persecution, neglect and humanitarianism •  Future generations may regard some of our practices as cruel and inhumane •  Recent reforms may easily be reversed during adverse conditions 27 9