SOCRATES-COMENIUS PROJECT, ACTION 2.1. «THE HISTORICAL RECREATION AS A PEDAGOGICAL PROJECT – from training to action» Reference: 128770-CP-1-2006-1-PT-COMENIUS-C21 NEED ANALYSIS OF TEACHERS
Outline of the Process of Needs Analysis (1) Consult ation for the Experts for the Validity of Needs Analysis Form Constructi on of Needs Analysis Form for Turkish Teachers by Using Guide for Needs Analysis Prepar ation of Guide for Needs Analysis (1st Meeting Lagos/ Portugal)
Outline of the Process of Needs Analysis (2)
Application of the Needs Analysis to
History and Social Studies Teachers
Analysis of the collected data by using Content Analysis Method Interpreti on of the Findings Writing a Report Consult ation for the Experts for the Translation and Appropriateness of Language
Needs Analysis Form in Turkish
NEED ANALYSIS RESULTS OF TEACHERS EMPLOYED IN ANKARA (TURKEY) ON HISTORICAL RECREATION
Outline of the “Guide for Needs Analysis” was developed in the first meeting of the project held in 28 September – 02 November 2006 in Lagos/Portugal within the scope of the “Historical Recreation as a Pedagogical Project ”.
Questionnaire (Survey) form aiming to determine the needs of history and social sciences teachers employed in Turkey was adapted within the settings of the baseline determined
Questionnaire prepared was formed considering specialists opinions.
Questionnaire forms were given to 80 teachers within the settings of the research.
47 questionnaire forms were taken into consideration for analyses since 47 questionnaire forms were returned within the allocated time.
Data of the research were evaluated by content analysis method.
Frequency and percentages were computed and the statistical tables were formed.
Table 1: Type of School 61.7% (f:29) of the participants are employed in primary education and 38.3% (f:18) of them are employed in secondary education institutions. 100.0 47 Total 38.3 18 Secondary Education 61.7 29 Primary Education % f
Table 2: Age Percentages related to the ages of the participants are as follows respectively: 42.6% (f:20) between the ages of 20–30, 40.4% (f:19) between the ages of 31–40 and 17% (f:8) between the ages of 41–60. 100.0 47 Total 17.0 8 41–60 ages 40.4 19 31–40 ages 42.6 20 20–30 ages % f
Table 3: Professional Experience Professional experiences of the participants vary in the following manner respectively: 23.4% (f:11) 1-5 year(s), 40.4% (f:19) 6-10 years, 23.4% (f:11) 11-15 years and 12.8% (f:6) 16-20 years. 100.0 47 Total 12.8 6 16–20 years 23.4 11 11–15 years 40.4 19 6–10 years 23.4 11 1–5 year(s) % f
Table 4: Gender
57.4% (f:27) of the participants are female and
42.6% (f:20) of them are male.
100.0 47 Total 42.6 20 Male 57.4 27 Female % f
Table 5: Educational Status Educational statuses of the research participants are as follows: 4.3% (f:2) undergraduate, 59.6% (f:28) graduate, 29.8% (f:14) postgraduate (Master) and 6.4% (f:3) postgraduate (PhD). 100.0 47 Total 6.4 3 Postgraduate (PhD) 29.8 14 Postgraduate (Master) 59.6 28 Graduate 4.3 2 Undergraduate % f
Table 6: Branch Branches of the participants with their percentages are as follows: 34% (f:16) Social Sciences teacher , 55.3% (f:26) History teacher and 10.6% ( f:5) other branches (Geography, Classroom Teacher, Literature teacher, etc.) . 100.0 47 Total 10.6 5 Other 55.3 26 History 34.0 16 Social sciences % f
Data obtained from teachers included within the scope of the research were coded with content analysis method, frequency and percentage computations were performed and relevant tables were formed.
Table 8: Teachers’ Perceptions Of Historical Recreation 100.00 51 Total 1.96 1 To describe the events imagining the characteristics of past events 3.92 2 To present the event occurred via the current events 5.88 3 To use every kind of audio-visual materials in order to obtain lasting learning in the instruction of significant historical events 5.88 3 Recreation of the history with a specific scenario utilizing visual materials by students 5.88 3 To repeat the historical events in exactly the same way as they happened or recreate 7.84 4 To present the subject of the course imaginatively 19.61 10 Recreation of the significant events, roles of heroes with their peculiar characteristics by students 23.53 12 To dramatize historical events with historical reality 25.49 13 To recreate an historical event via audio-visual materials constructing dialogues/texts in the classroom and in other places with costumes, environment peculiar to relevant historical period % f
Percentages and the frequencies related to teachers’ perceptions of historical recreation were as follows respectively:
25.49 % (f:13) “To recreate an historical event via audio-visual materials constructing dialogues/texts in the classroom and in other places with costumes, environment peculiar to relevant historical period”,
25.33% (f:12) “to dramatize historical events with historical reality”,
19.61% (f:10) “recreation of the significant events, roles of heroes with their peculiar characteristics by students”.
One of the teacher state s that ;
“ To recreate the historical events does not reflect the reality! However, films or slides can be used as supplementary materials”.
Table 9: The Topics Preferred By Teachers 100.00 57 Total 17.55 10 Other 3.51 2 Harem and The Effects of Women in Ottoman Empire 3.51 2 Lives of Sultans 5.26 3 Turkish Grand National Assembly Studies 3.51 2 Determining period is more appropriate than topic 5.26 3 Declaration of Constitutional Monarchy and Imperial Edicts of Administrative Reforms and Improvement 3.51 2 Ottoman Empire’s Entrance into World War I 5.26 3 Divan-ı Hümayun (The Council of Ministers in Ottoman Empire) 3.51 2 Lausanne Peace Negotiations and Sevres Treaty 7.02 4 Congresses (Sivas, Erzurum, Amasya) 3.51 2 Law of Institutionalization of Instruction 7.02 4 Conquest of İstanbul 3.51 2 The Tulip Period 10.53 6 Independence War 3.51 2 Internal Rebellions 14.04 8 Çanakkale Victory % f % f
The topics preferred by teachers involved in the research are as follows respectively:
Table 10: Reasons of Teachers’ Preference Of The Topics They Would Select 100.00 78 Total 2.56 2 To find out the real reasons behind the rebellions in Anatolia 2.56 2 To display the strategical importance of Turkey 2.56 2 Importance of democracy and democratization efforts 3.85 3 The topic reveals the secret aspects of the history 5.13 4 The topic is important and interesting 6.41 5 The topic reflects the tolerance of Anatolian people 7.69 6 The topic is related with the issues of the importance given to science, art, loves of motherland and nation by important people such as Atatürk 7.69 6 The topic affects the history of the world 8.97 7 Near history. The outcomes are still important and current 10.26 8 The topic is easy to recreate 11.54 9 Importance of the Turkish National Struggle for Independence and independence 12.82 10 Importance of Turkish people’s resoluteness and determination 17.95 14 History of a nation coming into existence from nothing despite all negativeness % f
According to the findings in Table 10, reasons of teachers’ preference of the topics they would select were as follows respectively:
17.95% (f:14) “history of a nation coming into existence from nothing despite all negativeness”,
%12.82 (f:10) “importance of Turkish people’s resoluteness and determination” and
11.54% (f:9) “importance of the Turkish National Struggle for Independence and independence”.
Table 11: The People That The Teachers Discuss With In Choosing The Topics 100.00 77 Total 2.60 2 Refer to historical resources 3.90 3 Museum, History Institute, Authorized Personnel of Ministry 5.19 4 School Management 6.49 5 Other (drama, music, literature, etc.) teachers 6.49 5 Real people (experienced individuals) 7.79 6 Theatre artists 14.29 11 Students 19.48 15 Academicians 33.77 26 Group of teachers in the same branches % f
According to Table 11 ;
33.77% (f:26) of the teachers state that they discuss with the “group of teachers in the same branches”,
19.48% (f:15) of them discuss with “academicians” and
14.29% (f:11) of them discuss with “students” in choosing the topics.
Table 12: The Sources The Teachers Wish To Utilize 100.00 174 Total 1.72 3 Reference people 4.60 8 Décor 1.72 3 Film (Movie)/Documentary 4.60 8 Scenario/text 1.72 3 Internet 5.75 10 Memories/recollections 1.72 3 Computer 7.47 13 Picture 1.72 3 Projection 7.47 13 Environment/multi-purpose halls 1.72 3 Maps 8.62 15 Archive/documents 3.45 6 Music/audio records 9.20 16 Tools-equipments 3.45 6 Live (real/first person) witness (if there is) 14.94 26 Costumes (clothes belong to different periods) 3.45 6 Historical remains/work of arts 16.67 29 Books % f % f
The sources the teachers wish to utilize stated by teachers were as follows respectively:
16.67% (f: 29) “books”,
14.94% (f:26) “costumes (clothes belong to different periods)”,
9.20% (f:16) “tools-equipments” and
8.62% (f:15) “archive/documents”.
Table 13: Teachers’ Experiences Related To The Use Of Project Method 17.78% (f:8) of the research participants state that “they have experience in using project method” and 82.22% (f:37) of them state that “they do not have any experience in using project method”. 100.00 45 Total 82.22 37 No 17.78 8 Yes % f
Sample extracts related to teachers’ opinions are given below:
“ I have not used this method before.” (29, female)
“ This is the method I have used frequently in my courses.” (28, female)
Table 14: Education Needs Of Teachers On The Topic Of Project Method 97.73% (f:43) of the participants involved in the research state that they need education on the topic of “project method” and 2.27% (f:1) of them state that they do not need education on the topic of “project method”. 100.00 44 Total 2.27 1 No 97.73 43 Yes % f
Sample extracts related to teachers’ opinions are listed below:
“ Of course. A teacher knows and selects the methods, topics, age groups considering children and young and the materials via education that he/she will receive.” (26, male)
“ I want to be experienced enough in this field.” (38, male)
“ Certainly, education-instruction practitioners should be aware of every innovations and developments and also the applicability should be especially tested and observed.” (24, female)
“ There is always a need for education. I want to be informed on developments and innovations.” (39, female)
“ This is an important matter. The subject would deviate from the objectives if the wrong method is used. In my opinion, not only me but also all teachers are in need of this.” (31, female)
Table 15: Teachers’ Perceptions Related To An Expert Consultation Need On The Topic Of Historical Recreation 100.00 43 Total 4.65 2 No 95.35 41 Yes % f
According to Table 15,
95.35% (f:41) of teachers state that they will need an expert consultation on the topic of historical recreation by saying “yes” and
4.65% (f:2) of teachers state that they will not need an expert consultation on the topic of historical recreation by saying “no”.
Sample extracts related to teachers’ opinions are given below:
“ If an expert consultation will be provided by an actor/actress, a drama educationalist or a specialist in this field, why not!” (25, female)
“ If we consider that how our expressions, for instance even a word, affect the young, realizing such kind of study that is really very important in an amateur way will be a fatal error.” (29, female)
“ I need an expert consultant in order to do this work much better.” (33, male)
“ No. I do not think that there is a need of an expert consultant in the significant level within the settings of current curriculum and opportunities!” (24, Female)
“ No. I believe that I can realize this utilizing the opportunities provided by environment and with the support of school and teachers..” (33, male)
“ Of course I need an expert consultation in order to be more proficient.” (23, female)