Ray tracing


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Ray tracing

  1. 1. 10/9/2013 1
  3. 3. Ray tracing is a technique for generating an image by tracing the path of light through pixels in an image plane and simulating the effects of its encounters with virtual objects. The technique is capable of producing a very high degree of visual realism, usually higher than that of typical scan line rendering methods, but at a greater computational cost. 10/9/2013 3
  4. 4. Ray tracing Provides a related, but even more powerful, approach to rendering scenes. A Ray is cast from the eye through the center of the pixel is traced to see what object it hits first and at what point. EYE (or) Pixel (or) Frame Buffer 10/9/2013 4
  5. 5. The Resulting color is then displayed at the pixel, the path of a ray traced through the scene, interesting visual effects such as shadowing, reflection and refraction are easy to incorporate and producing dazzling images. 10/9/2013 5
  6. 6. Ray tracing can create realistic images. In addition to the high degree of realism, ray tracing can simulate the effects of a camera due to depth of field and aperture shape 10/9/2013 6
  7. 7. This makes ray tracing best suited for applications where the image can be rendered slowly ahead of time, such as in still images and film and television visual effects, and more poorly suited for real-time applications. 10/9/2013 7
  8. 8. Ray tracing is capable of simulating a wide variety of optical effects, such as reflection and refraction, scattering,and dispersion phenomena (such as chromatic aberration). 10/9/2013 8
  9. 9. Optical ray tracing describes a method for producing visual images constructed in 3D computer graphics environments, with more photorealism than either ray casting or scanline rendering techniques. It works by tracing a path from an imaginary eye through each pixel in a virtual screen, and calculating the color of the object visible through it. 10/9/2013 9
  10. 10. Descriptions of all then Objects are stored in an object list. The ray that interacts the Sphere and the Cylinder. The hit spot (PHIT) is easily found wit the ray itself. The ray of Equation at the Hit time tbit : PHIT=eye + dirr,ctbit EYE (or) Pixel (or) Frame Buffer PHIT 10/9/2013 10
  11. 11. define the objects and light sources in the scene set up the camera for(int r=0 ; r < nRows ; r++) for(int c=0 ; c < nCols ; c++) { 1.Build the rc-th ray. 2.Find all interactions of the rc-th ray with objects in the scene. 3.Identify the intersection that lies closest to and infront of the eye. 4.Compute the Hit Point. 5.Find the color of the light returning to the eye along the ray from the point of intersection. 6.Place the color in the rc-th pixel. } 10/9/2013 11
  12. 12. We need to Develop the hit() method for other shape classes. Intersecting with a square: A square is useful generic shape. The generic square lies in the z=0 plane and extends from -1 to +1 in both x and y axis. The implicit form of the equation of the square is F(P)=PZ for |PX| <= 1 and |PY| <= 1. The Square can be transformed into any parallelogram positioned in space & provide thin, flat surface like Walls, Windows, etc. 10/9/2013 12
  13. 13. The function hit() finds where the ray hits the generic plane and then tests whether the Hit spots lie s within the square. 10/9/2013 13
  14. 14. Intersecting with a Cube or any Convex Polyhedron: Convex Polyhedron is useful in many graphics situations. It is centered at the origin and has corners, using all six combinations of +1 and -1. The edges are aligned with the coordinate axes, and its six faces lie in the Planes. 10/9/2013 14
  15. 15. PLANE NAME EQUATION OUTWARD NORMAL SPOT 0 TOP Y=1 (0,1,0) (0,1,0) 1 BOTTOM Y=-1 (0,-1,0) (0,-1,0) 2 RIGHT X=1 (1,0,0) (1,0,0) 3 LEFT X=-1 (-1,0,0) (-1,0,0) 4 FRONT Z=1 (0,0,0) (0,0,0) 5 BACK Z=-1 (0,0,-1) (0,0,-1) 10/9/2013 15
  16. 16. 10/9/2013 16
  17. 17. The generic cube is important for 2 reasons: 1. A Large variety of interesting “boxes” can be Modeled and Placed in a scene by applying an affine transformation to a generic cube. In Ray Tracing each ray can be inverse transformed into the generic cube’s coordinate system. 2. The generic cube can be used as an extent for the other geometric primitives in the sense of a Bounding box. 10/9/2013 17
  18. 18. 10/9/2013 18