Simosi: Αντιλαμβανόμενη Οργανωσιακή Υποστήριξη: Μια έρευνα ημερολογίου
Perceived Organizational Support, emotionalreactions and conflict management: A diary study in Greek professionals Maria Simosi firstname.lastname@example.org University of the Aegean, Product & Systems Design Engineering Department
Aim of the studydelineate specific types of workplace events that were linked tospecific positive and negative emotions better understand the circumstances leading to positive/ negative affective reactions improve employee’s emotional quality of life minimize destructive responses
Definition of related conceptsPOS: general perception of the extent to which their work organizationvalues their contribution and cares about their well-being (Eisenberger, 1994) POS events as affective events: incidents that stimulate appraisal of and emotional reaction to a job related agent, object or occurrence.Emotions: discrete affective state that is perceived by the individualto have an identifiable cause and/or referent (Mignonac & Herrbach,2004) positive emotional reactions are likely to arise from interactions which favor the individual’s goals and values, while negative emotions may be generated by interactions which inhibit such goals and interests (Lazarus, 1991) various classification schemes (Warr, 1990. Diener, 1984. Van Katwyk et al. 2000)
Definition of related conceptsConflict Management: Constructive behaviour: actively tried to negotiation a solution (e.g. accept an apology, discuss the event etc..) Aggressive/confronting behaviour: shouting/ protesting/ arguing Withdrawal: silent treatment, avoiding/ ignoring the other person
Research questionsidentify various types of POS eventsinvestigate similarities/ differences amongst employees’ emotionsas instigated by POS eventsinvestigate similarities/ differences amongst conflictmanagement behaviour emanating by negative POS events
Diary study“Diaries are designed to capture “the little experiences of everydaylife that fill most of our working time and occupy the vast majority ofour conscious attention” (Wheeler & Reiss, 1991) Instructions: Please recall – if any – an incident occuring today in your workplace when you felt that (a) you either experienced organizational support or b) lack of organizational support. Please write down the description of the incident (what was all about, how each person involved behaved). Please describe the emotions you have experienced during/throughout the incident described above.
Method - Sample54 employees x 5 days 280 eventsSector: 40% public 60% privatePositive POS events: 49.1 Negative POS events: 50.9% responses were sorted out in categories, according to their thematic similarity
Analysis – Categories of events Positive POS events Negative POS eventsInterpersonal treatment Interpersonal mistreatment(support on personal issues) (disrespect, rudeness, communication problems)Recognition Lack of recognition(praise, feedback, challenging task)Work conditions Work stressors (disorganization, lack of supervision., task conflict)Acts of colleagues Immoral behaviour/ unfairness (asking to cheat, favouritism, injustice, not carrying one’s share of workload) categories derived from examination of participants’ descriptions & relevant literature inter-rater reliability: 88% for event types. 81% for affective reactions
Analysis – Categories of emotionsAnger: angry, disgustedSadness: disappointed, unhappy, depressionFrustration: worried, embarrassedHurt/ deceivedFear Happiness Affection/ care Security Relaxation
Findings significant difference in emotional reactions, depending on type of POS incident significant difference in conflict management, depending on emotion experienced categories of anger events that are consistent with prior research on this emotion
Analysis – Emotion intensity Differences in the intensity of negative emotions depending on tenure: younger employees -> more intense emotional reactions“I had really worked hard for that project: day & night [..] the least Iwas expecting was to offer me the day off.. Instead, he told me that hetold me that what I’ve done was not that much of an effort.. that it wasa quite easy thing to do. [..] I became furious.. all this hard work.. andnothing in return.. I simply cannot digest it.. I’ m so furious..” (Manpublic sector, 1,5 years of tenure) older employees -> more passive emotional reactions “I was the one who volunteered to help so that the department would get out of the difficult situation.. I know that the least the supervisor could do is to thank me in front of the rest of the team. However, nothing of this sort happened.. This is sad I guess.. so sad.. I’m so much used to it.. I feel very tired with all this situation.. But in the end of the day, I say to myself ‘never mind!“ (Woman, public sector, 18 years of tenure)
Analysis – Emotion trajectories of anger incidents Differences in the evolution of anger incidents depending on tenure: increasing amount of anger in younger employees -> outrage“I asked my supervisor’s help.. I needed some clarifications fromher….but she wouldn’t give them to me.. I started getting frustrated..the work could not be done.. However, I tried to keep on being focusedon what I was doing.. Next day, I kept on asking for more informationbut she would keep ignoring me..I became furious.. no way to continuewith what I was doing” (Woman, public sector, 2years of tenure) anger giving way to sadness in older employees“I was assigned an unfairly amount of work, as compared to the rest ofthe team.. I got angry but what could I say? [..] As yesterday, I tried toexplain her once again why this distribution of work was not fair.. By theend of the day, I feel increasingly tired.. In fact I’m exhausted..“(Woman,public sector, 15 years of tenure)
Limitations & Implications Limitations single-sourceImplications role of tenure in the experience and expression of emotions Thank you!