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Exploring the consequences of the financial crisis on employment relationships in Greece

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An invited presentation delivered during the 2013 EAWOP congress in Munster

An invited presentation delivered during the 2013 EAWOP congress in Munster

Published in: Business, Technology

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  • 1. Exploring the consequences of thefinancial crisis on employmentrelationships in GreeceIoannis NikolaouCentre of Research in Organizational Behavior & LeadershipAthens University of Economics and Business, Greecehttp://about.me/nikolaou
  • 2. Research Framework• The fear of unemployment– Job insecurity• The role of HRM– Perceived organizational support• Their impact on employment relationships– Psychological Contract– Psychological contract breach and violationIoannis Nikolaou | http://about.me/nikolaou
  • 3. Study 1. Psychological contract, job insecurity andthe role of perceived organizational support
  • 4. Hypotheses• H1: Experiences of organizational change areassociated with breach/violation, job insecurity,job satisfaction and psychological well-being• H2: Psychological contract breach and violationare positively associated with job insecurity andnegatively with job satisfaction• H3: Psychological well-being is associated withjob insecurity (Job insecurity climate hypothesis)• H4: POS will mediate the relationship betweenjob insecurity and well being/job satisfaction (HRhypothesis)
  • 5. Sample - Measures• A cross-sectional survey across organizations– Sample: N=301 working individuals• Measures:• Experiences of organizational change (a: .77)• Psychological contract breach (a: .92)• Psychological contract violation (a: .96)• Job insecurity (a: .85)• Perceived organizational support (a: .78)• Employee satisfaction (single item)• Psychological well-being (a: .87)Ioannis Nikolaou | http://about.me/nikolaou
  • 6. Inter-correlation matrix
  • 7. Main Findings• Experiences of organizational change are associated with psychologicalcontract breach and feelings of violation, increased job insecurity andreduced employee satisfaction (H1 confirmed) but not with psychologicalwell-being.• Psychological contract breach and violation are positively associated with jobinsecurity and negatively with job satisfaction (H2 confirmed)• Job insecurity is the strongest predictor (than experiences of organizational change,psychological contract breach and violation) of psychological well-being  job insecurityclimate (H3 confirmed)• Perceived organizational support partially mediates the relationship between job insecurityand psychological well-being and between job insecurity and employee satisfaction  HRHypothesis (H4 confirmed)Conclusion: The impact of job insecurity on employee well-being and the usefulness of perceived organizational supportin order to deal with job insecurity climateSimilartopreviousresearchIoannis Nikolaou | http://about.me/nikolaou
  • 8. Study 2. Following a multi-level perspective
  • 9. Hypotheses• H1: Experiences of organizational change are associatedwith breach/violation, job insecurity, job satisfaction• H2: Psychological contract breach and violation arepositively associated with job insecurity and negatively withjob satisfaction• H3: Supervisor’s psychological contract breach and feelingsof violation are positively associated with subordinates’breach and violation• H4: Both employees and supervisors will perceive POS thesame way• H5: Experiences of change will mediate the relationshipbetween supervisors’ POS and employees Ψ contractfulfilmentSimilartost.1
  • 10. Sample - Measures• Matched sample: N=205 employees & N=100supervisors from various banks– Measures:• Experiences of organizational change (supervisors’ a: .84)• Psychological contract breach (employees’ a: .85/supervisors’ a: .89)• Psychological contract violation (employees’ a: .92/supervisors’ a: .94)• Psychological contract fulfilment (employees’ a: .71/supervisors’ a: .80)• Perceived organizational support (employees’ a: .82/supervisors’ a: .85)• Job insecurity (employees’ a: .84/supervisors’ a: .89/supervisors’ a: .91)• Employee satisfaction (single item)Ioannis Nikolaou | http://about.me/nikolaou
  • 11. Main Findings• Supervisor’s psychological contract breach and feelings of violation are positivelyassociated with subordinates’ (H3 confirmed)• Employee’s perceived organization support is positively associated with supervisors’ perceivedorganizational support (H4 confirmed)• Experiences of organizational change mediate the relationship between supervisors’perceived organizational support and employees’ psychological contract fulfilment (H5 conf.)Conclusion: Interaction between employees’ and supervisors’ Ψcontract and the role of experiences of organizational change• Experiences of organizational change are associated with psychologicalcontract breach and feelings of violation and with increased job insecurity,reduced employee in both samples (H1 confirmed)• Psychological contract breach and violation are positively associated with jobinsecurity and negatively with job satisfaction in both samples (H2 confirmed)Similartost.1Ioannis Nikolaou | http://about.me/nikolaouHLManalyses
  • 12. Study 3. The role of individual characteristics(resilience and core-self evaluations)
  • 13. Hypotheses• H1: Experiences of organizational change areassociated with breach/violation, job insecurity,organizational commitment and turnoverintentions• H2: Psychological contract breach and violationare positively associated with job insecurity andnegatively with organizational commitment• H3: CSEs is positively associated with resilienceand negatively with job insecurity and resilienceis also negatively associated with job insecuritySimilartost.1
  • 14. Sample - Measures• Sample: N=115 M&S employees (76% response)– 32% with managerial responsibilities• Measures:– Core-Self evaluations (a: .74)– Resilience (a: .88)– Experiences of organizational change (a: .75)– Psychological contract breach (a: .89)– Psychological contract violation (a: .92)– Job insecurity (a: .80)– Organizational commitment (a: .77)– Turnover intentions (a: .70)Ioannis Nikolaou | http://about.me/nikolaou
  • 15. Inter-correlation matrix
  • 16. Main Findings• CSEs is positively associated with resilience and negatively with job insecurity andresilience is also negatively associated with job insecurity (H3 confirmed)• Feelings of violation is the strongest predictor of turnover intentions/commitmentcompared to experiences of organizational change and breach  Lack of trustConclusion: Previous change history and Ψ contract violationhave a major impact on employees’ attitudes.• Experiences of organizational change are associated with breach/violation,turnover intentions but not with job insecurity, organizational commitment, evenwhen controlling for resilience and CSEs  Lack of trust (H1 part. conf)• Psychological contract breach and violation are positively associated with jobinsecurity and negatively with organizational commitment (H2 confirmed)Study1-2Ioannis Nikolaou | http://about.me/nikolaou
  • 17. General discussion• Very high levels of psychological contractbreach and violation; employees feel betrayedand insecure• The strong impact of job insecurity climate• HRDs can have a strong impact (through POS)• Small effects of individual characteristics(CSEs-resilience)Ioannis Nikolaou | http://about.me/nikolaou
  • 18. Exploring the consequences of thefinancial crisis on employmentrelationships in GreeceIoannis NikolaouCentre of Research in Organizational Behavior & LeadershipAthens University of Economics and Business, Greecehttp://about.me/nikolaou