Cross-cultural Examination of Applicant Reactions to the Employment Interview: An exploratory study
Cross-cultural Examination of ApplicantReactions to the Employment Interview:An exploratory studyIoannis NikolaouAthens University of Economics and Business, GreeceTalya N. Bauer1, Ana Costa1, Berrin Erdogan1, JulieMcCarthy2, Burcu Rodopman3, Donald Truxillo11 Portland State University, USA2 University of Toronto, Canada3 Bogazici University, Turkey
Previous findings on Applicant ReactionsWork samplesInterviewsResumesReferencesPersonal contactsIntegrity testsGraphologyPsychometric tests(Personality, Ability)BiodataTruxillo, D. M., & Bauer, T. N. (2011). Applicant Reactions to Organizations and Selection Systems. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APAHandbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. (pp. 379-398). Washington, DC: American Psychological Assn.Hausknecht, J. P., Day, D. V., & Thomas, S. C. (2004). Applicant reactions to selection procedures: An updated model andmeta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 57(3), 639-683.
Cross-cultural research and applicantreactions• Similar findings obtained between countries,such as US, France, Spain, Portugal, Germany,S. Arabia, Vietnam, etc.• Lack of research in cross-cultural applicantreactions towards specific selection methods– An issue with important practical and theoreticalimplicationsFocus on the employment interview
Applicant Reactions & Employment Interview• Employment interview is the most widely used selection methodwith the highest face validity among all selection methods, acrosscountries (Ryan et al, 1999; in preparation)• Applicants find structured interviews fair, while unstructured unfair.They also find behavioral & situational interviews equally fair (Day &Carroll, 2003; Terpstra et al., 1999)• Reduced use of structured interview in Human ResourcesManagement practise (Lievens & Paepe, 2004)• Warmth, sincerity, empathy and good listening skills might explainapplicants’ positive reactions to the employment interview (Nikolaou &Judge, 2007)• Applicants’ perceptions of the interviewers were related to their post-interview attitudes and intentions, although this relationship wasfully mediated by the overall perception of the interview held by thejob applicant (Nikolaou, 2011)
Outcomes of positive applicant reactions• Hausknecht et al.’s, meta-analysis (2004)demonstrated moderate to large positiveassociations between positive applicantreactions and organizational attractiveness,intentions to recommend the employer to otherapplicants, and offer acceptance intentions.
Organizational Attractiveness, POS andjustice perceptions• Lack of research linking applicant reactions toorganizational attractiveness, POS, justiceperceptions & applicants’ intentions– Applicants’ positive reactions of the interviewinfluence their perceptions of the attractiveness ofthe organization, the POS of their future employerand also their behavioral intentions, acrosscountries.
Aims of the study• To explore the role of interviewer perceptions,organizational attractiveness, POS, justiceperceptions and alternative job opportunitieson job attractiveness & applicants’ behavioralintentions• To explore cross-cultural differences acrossfour different countries in Europe and Asia
Method - SampleN=238N=128N=173N=131Sample: Job seekers with at least one recent (<3 months) jobinterview experience.
Measures– Interviewer perceptions (Nikolaou, 2011) - 16 items (5-point)• Interviewer informativeness: “Presented the organization with clarity” (a: 78)• Interviewer personableness: “I would describe the interviewer as a warm personality” (a: 77)• Interviewer competence: “S/he asked interesting and job-related questions” (a: 77)– Justice perceptions (Smither et al., 1993) – 5 items (5-point)• Overall, I believe that the interview was fair (a: . 85)– Organizational attractiveness (Highhouse, et al., 2003) – 15 items (5-point)• This is a reputable company to work for (a: 95)– Perceived organizational support (Eisenberger et al., 1997) – 8 items (7-point)• I believe that this organization would really care about my well-being (a: 87)– Job attractiveness (Harris & Fink, 1987) – 2 items (5-point)• Overall, how attractive is this job? (a: .84)– Applicants’behavioral intentions (Nikolaou, 2011; adopted from Liden and Parsons (1986) – 2items (5-point)• What are the chances that you will accept the job if it is offered to you?. - (a: .65)– Alternative job opportunities (Liden & Parsons,1986) - 2 items (5-point)• Do you think you will have other job possibilities during the next three months? (a: .76)
Initial findings – Hierarchical Regression Analyses• Job attractiveness is predicted by organizationalattractiveness (β=.61) and POS (β=.15; Adj. R2=.50),but not from interviewer perceptions, justiceperceptions and alternative job opportunities• Behavioral intentions are predicted by organizationalattractiveness (β=.62), POS (β=.11) and interviewerperceptions (β=.10 ; Adj. R2=.56), but not fromjustice perceptions and alternative job opportunities– The important role of organizational attractiveness
Initial findings – Moderating analyses• Justice perceptions moderates the relationshipbetween interviewer perceptions and jobattractiveness
Initial findings – Moderating analyses• Justice perceptions moderates the relationshipbetween interviewer perceptions and behavioralintentions
Initial findings – Moderating analyses• POS does not moderate the relationshipbetween interviewer perceptions and jobattractiveness / behavioral intentions• Alternative job opportunities do not moderatethe relationship between interviewerperceptions and job attractiveness /behavioral intentions
Country differencesWith the exception of alternative job opportunities, the combined USA & Canada meanscores were consistently higher than joint Greece-Turkey scores
Conclusions• Job attractiveness and applicants’ behaviouralintentions are mainly predicted byorganizational attractiveness and weakly fromPOS, interviewer perceptions• Applicants’ justice perceptions moderate therelationship between interviewer perceptionsand outcomes• Strong cross-cultural differences
Implications-Limitations• Research:– The first study of this kind in applicant reactions research– Need to explore more countries following a longitudinal design• Practise:– The important role of company image and secondly of theinterviewer (i.e. organizational attractiveness, POS).– Differences between East-West important for multinationalcompanies• Limitations:– Cross-sectional samples & common method variance effects– Initial analyses, multi-group SEM is required
Cross-cultural Examination of ApplicantReactions to the Employment InterviewIoannis NikolaouAthens University of Economics and Business, GreeceTalya N. Bauer1, Ana Costa1, Berrin Erdogan1, Julie McCarthy2Burcu Rodopman3, Donald Truxillo11 Portland State University, USA2 University of Toronto, Canada3 Bogazici University, TurkeyThank you for your attention
Measures - Perceptions of the interviewer measure• Informativeness– Discussed about the career opportunities within thecompany– Presented the organization with clarity– Described thoroughly the job duties– Presented the position with clarity– Presented the required profile of the successful candidate– Gave a realistic job preview without overstating thepositive elements of the jobNikolaou, I. (2011). Core processes and applicant reactions to the employment interview: An exploratory study in Greece. International Journal of HumanResource Management, 22, 2185-2201.
Measures - Perceptions of the interviewer measure• Personableness– S/he behaved aggressively occasionally (r)– Did not allow to discuss issues I was considering important(r)– S/He kept interfering during the interview (r)– I would describe the interviewer as a warm personality– S/he made me feel awkward (r)Nikolaou, I. (2011). Core processes and applicant reactions to the employment interview: An exploratory study in Greece. International Journal of HumanResource Management, 22, 2185-2201.
Measures - Perceptions of the interviewer measure• Competence– S/he was listening carefully what I was saying– S/he allowed me to talk about my qualifications– S/he asked interesting and job-related questions– S/he showed to understand my feelings during theinterview– S/he was willing to let me present myselfNikolaou, I. (2011). Core processes and applicant reactions to the employment interview: An exploratory study in Greece. International Journal of HumanResource Management, 22, 2185-2201.