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Apospori

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  • 1. Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture 5 rd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN EUROPE : TRENDS AND CHALLENGES Thursday , May 27 , 2010
  • 2. To examine the role of ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS on Workplace Bullying (WPB) Our Goal
      • Need for inclusion of organizational predictors in an explanatory model of WPB
      • Despite the abundance of literature on the association of leadership and employees’ behavior, the connection between leadership or management style and workplace bullying has received little attention.
      • Also, organizational culture is an important potential facilitator or impediment of WPB. However, few studies have included organizational culture in their explanatory models
    The relevant literature
  • 3. To examine the role of ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS on Workplace Bullying (WPB) Our Goal
      • Furthermore, the methods of analysis used so far have treated i ndividual and organizational predictors at the same level , assuming that individual predictors do not vary across various leaders/managers and organizations
      • Research in other fields – i.e. education - has shown that students’ individual characteristics vary over schools as a function of school characteristics
    The relevant literature
  • 4. Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
      • Expands on the existing literature by adopting
      • a multi-level approach where three levels of data are used , individual, managerial and company level
      • For this purpose, HLM has been employed for the analysis of the
      • multi-level data
      • The general idea behind this method
        • Individuals under the same manager and in the same organization are more similar than individuals under other managers and from different organizations
        • Thus, individuals are nested in groups, in terms of management style and organizational culture
    The present study
  • 5. Methodology
    • Our sample
    • convenient sampling
    • 303 employees
    • from 32 organizations and under 89 managers
    • in the Greater Athens Area, Greece
    Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 6. Methodology
    • The questionnaire :
    • 1. Work-Place Bullying
    • R espondents were asked to
    • indicate how often they had
    • experienced 32 negative and
    • potentially harassing acts
    • within the past 12 months
    • Factor and reliability analysis of the 32 Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ) indicators yielded five different factors
    • EXCLUSION
    • (5 indicators, alpha=.801)
    • WORKRELATED BULLYING Over-check /Over0load
    • (7 indicators, alpha=.779 )
    • VERBAL BULLYING
    • (6 indicators, alpha=.803 )
    • VIOLENT/RACIAL BULLYING
    • (3 indicators, alpha=.778 )
    • COMMUNICATION BULLYING
    • (2 indicators, alpha=.647)
    Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 7. Methodology III
    • The questionnaire :
    • 2. Individual’s psychological characteristics
    • External locus of control
      • I am very sensitive of what people think of me
      • My actions are governed by the way people expect me to behave….
    1. External Locus of control (4 indicators, alpha=.701) Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 8. Methodology III
    • The questionnaire :
    • 3. Leadership/management style
      • Co-ordinator, organizer, administrator
      • Entrepreneur, innovator, risk taker
      • Mentor, sage, father/mother figure
      • Producer, technician, hard-driver
    • Good leadership
    • (3 indicators, alpha=.773)
    Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 9. Methodology III
    • The questionnaire :
    • 4. Dimensions of organizational culture
    • assertiveness
    • gendered/male culture
    • humane orientation
    • communication
    • 1. Assertiveness
    • (4 indicators, alpha=.787)
    • Gendered/male culture
    • (3 indicators, alpha=.748 )
    • Humane orientation
    • (4 indicators, alpha=.810 )
    • Communication
    • (4 indicators, alpha=.728 )
    Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 10. Descriptive statistics
    • The respondents reported
    • 34% EXCLUSION
    • 40% WORK RELATED BULLYING, over check/over load
    • 7% verbal bullying
    • 1% abusive calls or emails
    • 1% violent/racial bullying
    • at least once a month in the past 12 months
    Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 11. Results
    • EXCLUSION
    • INDIVIDUAL LEVEL (1)
    • External locus of control
      • Employees with high external locus of control are more likely to be excluded
    • 2. MANAGEMENT LEVEL (2)
    • Leadership is not a predictor of exclusion
    • 3. COMPANY LEVEL (3)
    • Communication
      • Employees in companies with worse communication are more likely to be excluded
    • Humane orientation
      • Employees in companies with more humane orientation are less likely to be excluded
    • 4. INTERACTION between external locus and communication
      • Employees with higher external locus of control in companies with worse communication are more likely to be excluded
    Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 12. Results
    • WORK RELATED BULLYING/over-check over-load
    • INDIVIDUAL LEVEL (1)
    • External locus of control
      • Individuals with more external locus of control are more likely to be over-checked/overloaded
    • 2. MANAGEMENT LEVEL (2)
    • Good leadership
      • Employees under better leadership are less likely to be over-checked/overloaded
    • 3. COMPANY LEVEL (3)
    • Gendered culture
      • Employees in companies with more male-gendered culture are more likely to be over-checked/overloaded
    • 4. INTERACTION between external locus and gendered culture
      • Employees with higher external locus of control in companies with more gendered culture are more likely to be excluded
    Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 13. At the policy level
    • The findings suggest that
    • if organizations want to confront WPB, they will be more successful
    • if they
    • 1. Develop good leaders/managers
      • coordinators
      • mentors
      • Organizers
      • innovators and
    • 2. Change their organizational cultures to
      • More communicative
      • Less gendered
    Triangulating Work-place bullying: The individual, supervisor and organizational culture
  • 14. Thank you & Have a Relaxing Summer Eleni Apospori, Assistant Professor Athens University of Economics and Business Department of Marketing and Communication 76 Patission St., 104 34 Athens, Greece Tel. +30-2108203445 Email: [email_address]

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