DG304DESIGNING FORTHE USER EXPERIENCEMANUEL SUAREZDAVID KAPPEJOANNE PEK
2TABLE OF CONTENTS3484855WEEK 1 jordan’s pleasures maslows herarchy of needsWEEK 2 diary case scenario storyboardWEEK 3 storyboard 2.0 personas concept story sessionsWEEK 4 thematic anlalysis group sessions resultsWEEK 5 & 6 final concept story conclusions individual reflections
3jordan’s need pleasures andpleasures of appreciationNeed pleasures are driven by a negative motivation: pre-venting to become discontent.Pleasures of appreciation are driven by a positive motiva-tion: experiencing some extra pleasure, no matter whatthe current level of the contentment.Jordan’s pleasures in relation toMaslow’s hierarchy of needsIn Maslow’s hierarchy, the deficiency needsare described, which are strongly relatedwith the need pleasures of Jordan. Namely,the deficiency needs and the need pleasuresare both driven by the negative motivation ofpreventing to become discontent. Except forthe need of self-actualization, that is drivenby the positive experience, and in that wayrelated with the pleasures of appreciation ofJordan.The need pleasures that belong to the phys-io-pleasures mentioned in Jordan’s frame-work of pleasures, are related with thephysiological/biological needs mentioned inMaslow’s hierarchy of needs. Both the phys-io-pleasures as the physiological needs derivefrom the sensory organs.Also the need pleasures that belong to thesocio-pleasures are related with the belong-ingness and love needs. These pleasures andneeds derive from the relationship with otherpeople.The need pleasures that belong to the psy-cho-pleasures are related with the safetyneeds, belongingness and love needs and es-teem needs, in which emotions play a role tosatisfy them. At the same time, psycho-plea-sures that are pleasures of acceptance, canbe related with the self-actualization need, inwhich cognitional development play a role toderive the need or pleasure.Theideo-pleasureisrelatedwiththeself-actu-alization need, in the way that people searchfor competence and autonomy. However, theideo-pleasure goes beyond the self-actual-ization need, because the ideo-pleasures arealso based on peoples values.
42 DAY DIARYLEISURE DAYWORK DAYWake up late: Autonomy-independent, pleasure-stimulation.Go to Decathlon to see shoes: self-actualizing - meaning, security - control,money - luxury, and pleasure - stimulation.Siesta: autonomy - independence, pleasure - stimulation.Clean my rooms and living room: autonomy - independence, competence - ef-fectiveness, self-esteem – self respect.Watch Real Madrid VS Barcelona: influence – popularity, pleasure – stimula-tion.Wake up very early: Competence – effectiveness.Spend all morning in presentations/ meetings: competence – effectiveness,self-actualizing – meaning, physical thriving – bodily.Go to the gym and for a run: autonomy – independence, physical – bodily,pleasure – stimulation, security – control.Work on assignments: competence – effectiveness, self-actualizing – meaning.
5CASE SCENARIOSPeople at home will be able to eat food from all over the world. Food is programmedall over the world and people at home download the programs and print them athome. The programs are community based. Scientists and engineers are probably firstadaptors but eventually it should become like cooking when programming. Maybe justdoing minor alteration before printing each day. At first, in early stages of the tech, itmight just be for special occasions like fondue and stone grilling. You could have Ja-mie Oliver memory cards with his recipes. Dishes would be very special, exiting newtextures and taste combinations. Enabling people to taste all parts of the world. Print-ing is still very much a notion that does not directly sound comforting when speakingabout food.Top print chefs will enable you to eat their creations at home. It might not resemblewholesome daily food but it will be very interesting.True avant-garde gastronomic top restaurants like el-bully use the printing techniqueto build very special recipes to test the boundaries and limitations of the technique.Do it yourself restaurant. You will be able to do alterations in dishes before they getprinted. You will have an ipad and have curtain levers to edit.Some sweetshops will build truly inventive sweets. Sweets will cost a bit but they willbe editable on commission.People will do workshops printing their own sweets.123456
6CHOSEN CASE SCENARIOPeople at home will be able to eat food fromall over the world. Food is programmed allover the world, and people at home down-load the programs and print them at home.The programs are community based. Sci-entists and engineers are probably firstadaptors but eventually it should becomelike cooking when programming. Maybejust doing minor alteration before printingeach day. Dishes would add to currently forhouseholds available foods in being veryspecial with exiting new textures and tastecombinations. Enabling people to taste allparts of the world. Printing is still very mucha notion that does not directly sound com-forting when speaking about food.We chose this scenario because, althoughother scenario’s seem more plausible andnearby in the future, this scenario gets intothe daily life experience of the user. Con-fronting people with a truly very differentway of having dinner, doing a task that isculturally fixed for some time now.
8STORYBOARD 2.0After the feedback, I chose to make the firststoryboard less specific, by leaving the im-ages of a person at work out. Not everybodyworks, so people could have difficulties byidentifying themselves with the storyboard.I only showed them the image of a personon a bicycle that thinks of food. After thesessions, I learned that even this imagecould have been less specific. One test per-son did not recognize the situation, becauseshe was never hungry when she ride a bicy-cle. Next time, I would just show a personthat thinks of food, so users can add in whichsituations they feel hungry.For the second storyboard, I chose to re-place the image of a person with an iPadkind of product. I added an image of a per-son behind a table. I wanted to prevent thatpeople would think of a product the alreadyknow: the iPad. I wanted to give them morefreedom in which functions the new kitchenmachine could have and how the interactionwith this machine would be and thereforeI showed the image of a person behind anintelligent table.The storyboards I used in my sessions:JOANNESTORYBOARD 1STORYBOARD 2
9Using Joannes experience with her first storyboard, Idecided to focus the first part of the storyboard slightlydifferently. I changed the working environment to a sportenvironment. The people that I used this storyboard withhad sometime experience this type of situation when aftermaking sports they felt hungry, for this it was easier forthem to continue with the storyboard and identify them-selves with it.The storyboard I used in my sessions:manuelSTORYBOARD
10After the feedback, I chose to make the firststoryboard less specific, by leaving the im-ages of a person at work out. Not everybodyworks, so people could have difficulties byidentifying themselves with the storyboard.I only showed them the image of a personon a bicycle that thinks of food. After thesessions, I learned that even this imagecould have been less specific. One test per-son did not recognize the situation, becauseshe was never hungry when she ride a bicy-cle. Next time, I would just show a personthat thinks of food, so users can add in whichsituations they feel hungry.For the second storyboard, I chose to re-place the image of a person with an iPadkind of product. I added an image of a per-son behind a table. I wanted to prevent thatpeople would think of a product the alreadyknow: the iPad. I wanted to give them morefreedom in which functions the new kitchenmachine could have and how the interactionwith this machine would be and thereforeI showed the image of a person behind anintelligent table.The storyboards I used in my sessions:davidSTORYBOARD 1STORYBOARD 2
11comparison different storyboardsJOANNEMANU davidADVANTAGES: No extra informationabout the actions people do beforegetting hungry, so people could identifythemselves more easily.DISADVANTATES: Because the proposedsituation is less specific, people couldhave troubles to imagine themselves in aspecific situation.-Not all people could identify themselveswith riding a bicycle.ADVANTAGES: It was a good approachto find out how people would want thedevice to work, concerning the interface.DISADVANTATES: The shape of the prod-uct is already determined (a table) whichreduces the possibilities people do comeup with.ADVANTAGES: The storyboard was agood first try. It led us to the insight ofeven better personalization of our test.DISADVANTATES: The storyboard showsa person sitting behind his or her deskand cycling home. There are people thatcant relate to this everyday scene. Ourvision was to get as personal as possibleso this was not ultimate.ADVANTAGES: People do not immedi-ately think of a medium they alreadyknow: an iPad.DISADVANTATES: The shape of the prod-uct is already determined (a table) whichreduces the possibilities people do comeup with.STORYBOARD 1 STORYBOARD 2
12PERSONASJOANNEPersona 1: The busy business ladyLydia van der Wal30 years oldWorking at the a lawyer’s officeLives in AmsterdamHobbies are reading magazines and chattingwith friends on the terrace.“I want to get good, varied dinners”Lydia works fulltime at the lawyer’s office in Amsterdam. When she has a busy period,she eats her dinner in the restaurants of Amsterdam. She earns enough money to doso, and she likes to vary dinner. The kitchen in her house is barely used. Cooking isnot something she wants to spend much time on. When she cooks, she makes some-thing that needs little preparation time and is easy to make. Her cooking skills are notsufficiently developed to make a more extended dinner and to try out new combina-tions for dinner. If she could get the most delicious and extensive food served, whywould she cook by herself?Values: Independency, efficiency and self-actualization.Source image: http://www.essentialkids.com.au/preschoolers/preschooler-education/wiggles-shake-up-female-backup-dancer-joins-as-three-members-retire-20120517-1yt3z.html
13PERSONASJOANNEPersona 2: The elderly ladySascha Leinze75 years oldWidowLives in her apartment in EindhovenHobbies are listening to classical musicand to receive visitors like her childrenand grandchildren.“It becomes difficult to keep the overviewin the kitchen”Sascha has cooked her whole life. As little child, she helped her mother in the kitchen,and later she prepared food for her own man and children. She has good developedcooking skills and she knows a lot of recipes by heart. Cooking is something that ispart of her everyday tasks, and she has good nor bad feelings for cooking. Cooking issomething she has always done, and will always do. However, the latest years it be-comes more difficult to keep the overview in the kitchen. She forgets if she alreadyhave turned the furnace on and where she has put the saucepan. She feels uncertainabout this and does not dare to make her extensive, delicious dishes anymore. Shewould like to keep preparing her own food, but she has her doubts if she keeps ableto do so.Values: Caring, bonding, connecting, surveyability, independency.Source image: danrouthphotography.blogspot.com
14PERSONASDAVIDThe following persona’s are based on almost complete fantasy they have barely anyground in reality in any way. Human values are taken and a story is thought up aroundthem. The shame of it being fictional is that they have to be tested to in any way bepowerful input for a design sequence. They will now add to a hypothesis. To verifywhat is learned from actual user testing.Peter sees it as the most convenient, andclean kitchen everPeter: “To be honest I hate doing the dishes.My parents would always make us do it andwhen we had done something bad we wouldhave to do it for a week. I would love to getfully rid of it. Of course I have a dish washer,but I still have to clean the kitchen, the pansand the furnish. But you would probably stillhave dirty dishes right? Haha… you shouldalso take care of that.”Jack sees it as ultimate health controllerMy name is Jack “I am kind of an athlete,haha. Did you know I ran a marathon in un-der 2:30?!” So although I am not an absolutetop athlete, I need to balance what goes in. Imean, I can really feel it in my performanceand in my body when I have eaten Mac Don-ald’s. I try to effectively balance eating justenough proteins, calories, fats and fibers asmuch as I can. This could be for me the opti-mal way to have tasty, interesting and chang-ing dishes. I could see my food being a moreconstant factor in my diet and sporting pro-gram, leading to even better results.Laura sees it as optimal supporter of cookingabilitiesLaura feels not in control over her own dish-es. The consistency, the combinations of in-gredients, the taste, and textures are oftennot spot on this frustrates her. She does nothave the natural feeling for it and she was notbrought up a kitchen princess. Somehow shedoes not have the urge to put an amazing loadof effort in developing her skills. She sees thismachine as a solution to easily control thisand in this way feeling able to put a good dishon the table for the people she loves. “Theywill be happy and I will be happy!”Jeroen sees it as ultimate lazyness and feel-ing supportedJeroen has no affection with cooking what-
15PERSONASDAVIDsoever. He laughingly sais: “I have no specialinterest in eating veggies and fresh ingredi-ents”. Eating is to be full and serves as fuelas long as it tastes good. “With this machineI would have my own personal chef and Iwould love it.”Gerard sees it as help in the kitchen to pro-vide the foodI am older now and I have never cooked formyself. She always did. Now she is gone I can-not develop the skills for it. I always boil anegg. Could this machine enable me to makefood for myself?Suzanne sees it as ultimate relief takes acare out of her hands.Suzanne: Cooking is important because thefamily deserves a good meal but my workdoes not allow me to put a lot of effort in it.Sometimes I love to slave away in the kitchenbut mostly my interest is with other things.If it were possible that somebody else wouldcook a good variety of healthy food for us thiswould be amazing.Wouter sees it as most special experienceevery day, the real foodieWouter sees himself as the real nerd, a hob-byist or as he calls it a chef or food engineer.He belongs to the avant-garde and has hisown blog. He prides himself in having mas-tered the tool in every single aspect. He canliterally sculpt the most wonderful variety ofdishes tasting like they come from the mag-ic master el bully himself. “I started cookingin college, it would always be good with theladys.” He spent many weekends to find thenewest ingredients available and the new-est techniques. Also he has a friend who haswritten a bit programming for him so he canadd bubbles to his own special sauce. “Foodis very important! So in many ways this is theultimate creative process.”Yasmin sees the machine as additional cook-ing device. How can she see it as a full chang-er. Combination between old and newMarcel sees it as the most ultimate and ful-ly equipped kitchen ever, all tastes, textures,looks possible
16PERSONASDAVIDJohn thinks caring about food is feminine. It is not a job for men. Themachine does what he does not need to do.Person sees it as a way to eat something different every dayPerson sees it as ultimate time saverThe personas are not very realistic because they are all based on justone value. There are combinations possible and real life will show thesecombinations and examples.
17PERSONASMANUELPERSONAL PROFILEKK works for a housing agency full time.Often he has to work 7 days a week,depending on how the sales are going.His schedule is very unpredictable. Hehas been married 2 years and his wife is3 months pregnant. She works as a nurseand she usually gets home earlier that KKdoes.KK enjoys sharing meals with his wife,but with his constant change of schedulehe barely can share two or three mealsa week with her. He is working hard thisyear because he wants to get promotedto a position that he can work less andspend more time with this wife and fu-ture baby.His wife loves cooking but since she neverknows when KK is coming home, she usu-ally leaves what she has cooked that dayon the table and let his husband see itwhen he comes. The meal is always coldand not as good as if it was just made.KK does not like having supper alone, butusually when he comes his wife is alreadyin bed. KK believes that heating his foodin the microwave takes the nutrientsaway from the food, so he has to eitherput it in the oven or heated up in a pan.This gets KK very frustrated.Kevin Ketler
18PERSONASMANUELBACKGROUND- 30 years old- Comes from a low class family- Believes in hard work- His mother died when he was 15- Likes to spend time with his dad and hiswifeATRIBUTES- He is not happy with his body since hehas no time to work out- He expects his boss will recognise hiswork soon- He used to play video games, but nowhis wife beats him in FIFA- Wants to surprise his wife with a mealhe used to prepare when they use todate- He still remembers the smell of freshcookies made by his mom.CUSTOMER NEEDS- Would like a system that he could cooka meal digitally and have it ready the dayafter for his wife, while he is still at work.- Would like to implement smell in theinterface of a digital cooking device.- Would like to have a app in his phoneto know what will be his dinner when hegets home and time it so its fresh whenhe gets home.Kevin Ketler
19PERSONASMANUELPERSONAL PROFILEMervin used to be a semi-professionaltennis player. When he was 12 he movedto a different city to a high performancetennis centre. There, Mervin and 15 otherkids had one cook that made them alltheir meals. After several years, he start-ed traveling with his coach around Europeto play tournaments. At the beginning heloved the room service from the differenthotels, but after 3 years of traveling thegot sick of it and just had sandwiches fordinner. When he turned 21, the spon-sors went away and he couldn’t afford tokeep competing so he moved back to hisparents house for one year where all hedid was tennis coaching. Now, with themoney he saved he moved to London 4months ago and it trying to learn Englishto get to the level he needs to get a fullscholarship in the US.BACKGROUND- 22 years old- Comes from a mid class family- He lives in London with one other friendin the flat- He is starting a relationship, but hedoesn’t want to get too attached becausenext hear he is expecting to go to USAand he heard that American girls areamazing.- He appreciates good food, especiallylasagne. But he has no patience to makean elaborate meal.- He does not like vegetables or othergreen things on the plate.- He always had someone else to cook forhim.Mervin Simpson
20PERSONASMANUELATRIBUTES- Is tired of fighting and often stays homeall day doing nothing- He is jealous from his younger sister,he believes that she gets everything sheasks and his parents never spend moneyon him.- He would like to be a good cook, but hedoesn’t want to show his parents be-cause he wants them to feel guilty be-cause they never told him how to cook- Whenever he starts to loose control ofsomething, he often turns around andleaves that behind.- He loves watching the cheese get toast-ed when putting a pizza in the oven.CUSTOMER NEEDS- Mervin doesn’t want to think too muchon what to put on a meal, he would likea system that measures his mood, anddepending on how he feels the machinewould cook one meal or another.- He would like to have a machine thatshows the process when making a meal,transparent material so he can spendtime observing the “magic”- He wants a machine that can previous-ly cut the meal in pieces so he does nothave to cut anything, just grab and eat,while he watches X Factor.- Since he doesn’t like hovering everytime he eats something, he wants thefood not to have crumbsMervin Simpson
21PERSONASMANUELPERSONAL PROFILEKelli is married to a very powerful busi-nessman. Her husband has accepted ajob as CEO of a big company, but unfor-tunately he has to work in a differentcountry. He comes during the weekendsto see Kelli and their three daughters.She doesn’t need to work because withthe money her husband make, they havemore than enough to live a very confort-able life.Kelli comes from the USA and tends notto trust people very much. She has a girlworking full time at her house takingcare of the kitchen and the 3 girls. Thegirls play volleyball with the school team,golf at a private club and they also go toswimming lessons. Kelli spends all morn-ing working out in the gym and running.She likes to be very fit and feeling goodwith her body.Now that her daughters are growing up,she doesn’t need a girt to take care ofthem and the girl she had full time had abetter job and left recently.BACKGROUND- 41 years old- Comes from a high class family- She loves her husband and have con-stant contact with him through whatsapp- She has always loved to go to expensiverestaurants although she does not appre-ciate that much the food, she just likes itshow high status.- In important dinners, she always getsa private cooking staff to come to herhouse and cook.- She is starting to feel interested aboutcooking since her daughters like to cookpastry in the weekend, when they don’tcompete in the sports they practice.Kelli Robertson
22PERSONASMANUELATRIBUTES- Kelli doesn’t want to hire someone fulltime just for cooking because she doesn’ttrust strangers to come into her house,and is very negative with recommenda-tions from friends.- She wants to know what their daugh-ters eat and if its good for their growth.- After going to the gym, she usually callsa restaurant where they know her andmake them cook for her and take themeal to her house just on time when shearrives.- Since she has three daughters and onthe weekends they all do different sportscompetitions, she never gets so eat withall of them, expect some Saturdays fordinner.CUSTOMER NEEDS- Kelli wants a system that is synchro-nized with her iPhone that can smartlycreate healthy and varied food for herdaughters. She always wants to keep up-dated with what they eat at school andnot to repeat a meal in 10 days.- Kelli would like the system to contacther when she is away, to as her if sheapproves the meal that their daughterswant, the system will only go on if sheapproves, automatically it shows otherseveral suggestions that are most suit-able for her girls on that meal.- Since Kelli spends most of her time inthe car on the weekends, traveling withthe girls taking them to competitions, shewould like to have a small platform insidethe car that can deliver some energeticfood with fast digestion for the girls sothey can be hydrated and full of energyright before their competition.Kelli Robertson
23CONCEP STORYOlle is hanging around on the couch and discovers he is quite hungry andwants to eat something. He wants to make a nice meal, without putting toomuch effort in it.Therefore, he walks to a high table. The surface is a screen and is white atfirst. While he leans on the surface, all kinds of textures and flavors appearon the surface. He can choose what kind of texture and flavor he wants bymaking “grab” movements in the air above the table. He starts combin-ing the textures and flavors on the table, shapes them and colors them bymaking the natural cooking movements in the air. He feels in control andfeels able to make very nice food. He can develop himself in designing hisfood more precisely and he can keep making new combinations, whichstrengthens his creativity. When he is finished with combining and shapinghis meal on the table screen, his food design is made in a kitchen device andhe starts enjoying his nice meal. He likes that he has his own designed foodthat tastes good, and did not take too much effort to make.
24PILOT SESSIONSMANUELFor the pilot sessions I already started using the storyboard. I did thesessions with 5 different users. Instead of having myself telling themwhat to do I gave them the freedom to design their own 3d cookingmachine. My main goal, was to see how they would react and see whatwhere their preferences. The storyboard was half full, so they all couldget in the situation and have a better the concept. Since the storyboardwas about making sports, all of my users had at some point of the nearpast gone through that situation. I had very good insights and ideasabout how the users wanted to use them and why, this made me realizesome of the weaknesses of our concept or some of our strong points.Here I show pictures of the results of the storyboards:
27I recorded two pilot sessions, since I realized that I was missing a lot of information bynot recording the first three. Here are the recordings:USER 1I ask the user how important is the foodhe eats every day. For the user the foodis a need and does not link it too much assomething you can get much pleasure outof.He is more interested if the food ishealthy or not, instead of looking forsomething he enjoys eating.I ask why he doesn’t see the food assomething he can get pleasure, he saysthat of course he gets pleasure but nowat this stage of his life where he studiesand sports a lot he leaves the “enjoyable”food for special occasions.He defines his meals just in breakfast,lunch and dinner; the rest is just smallsnacks. That explains why he would preferan interface that gives you a starting pointof which meal is he going to have.He likes the feeling of touch screen, buthe says that since he does not like to cookthat much he would care if he had to dothis the rest of his life. I ask if he wouldprefer to have both experiences, touchscreen but with 3D visuals so he couldgive them shape. The user just likes thesmoothness of the touch screen.Then, the user draws in the next step away to choose different ingredients andwith different amounts. He says that hewould also like to choose the level ofcooked each ingredient would have. I askwhy does he goes for separate ingredientsinstead of choosing a whole recipe, he an-swers that in the recipe most of the timehe doesn’t really believe all the nutritionalfacts and by choosing an ingredient oneby one he can keep track of that withmore precision.The user does not say much about howthe execution of the making the foodphysical. He just says that he would like itto send the file to the printer machine likea normal file we send to a normal printerso print documents. I ask why does heprefer that, but his answer is not veryclear, he says that he cannot imagine oth-er way of creating something made froma digital interface.
28USER 2I ask the user if she likes and enjoysfood, she answers that she lovesfood. I now focus the next questionabout what is the favourite tool forher to cook; she says that she enjoysmaking cupcakes and then put thein the oven.I as her to start drawing on how theinterface would work if she had abig touchscreen to design her ownmeals. While she is drawing shestates that she like traditional rec-ipes but sometimes she gets tiredespecially on how they look. Shedoes not want to experiment toomuch with flavours, but with coloursand shapes. She also finds it import-ant to have Internet access whereyou can see other recipes of otherpeople that used the same cookingsystem. I ask why, she finds cookinga very social experience where canbring people together.Moving on to the next step, I askher how would she like her foodto be made within this system, sheanswers that it would be creative ina way that she can physically giveshape with her hands to the mealthrough a 3D hologram with a basictemplate.She imagines the machine to be likea big box with a screen on the sidethat has all the touch experience.This box can be compared with themachine that makes minced meat,that she puts the ingredients onone side and on the other side thefinal product comes out. I ask whyshe prefers to place the ingredientsherself instead of having the ma-chine make them, she ways that atleast there would be some tradition-al experience within the cooking;this is going to the supermarket andchoosing the ingredients herself.
29PILOT SESSIONSDAVIDIn my pilot sessions I asked people about their current experience withcooking. Their likes and dislikes, in essence what they felt was valuableand not so valuable to them in their current situation. Then workingtowards the concept asking them about printing food and how theywould see this working for them and how they would see daily use.These are small transcripts of the first sessions.Student oneHe likes to cook every day. He loves spend-ing time in the kitchen and he loves freshingredients. He does not like the thoughtof microwave meals. He could see himselfimplementing the machine much like hewould do witTh every other cooking uten-sil. He could see himself creating parts ofa dish with the printing machine. Howeverhe would not like the machine to make hisentire dish. This proved for then also dueto shortage of information a showstopperworking towards an everyday full utensil.ThemesFresh ingredientsIntegrated in current cookingLiking the cooking processNot having whole dish printedDaily machine as cool extraStudent twoHe really does not like to spend time in thekitchen and sees it as time that could bespent doing other things. He sees cookingas a chore. He does like microwaved food.He sees it as easy tasty and it makes himfeel full. He does not really care about freshingredients. He could see the machine bevery useful for he could spend no time oncooking and still eat whatever he wanted.The influence in cooking would increase forhim.ThemesBeing able to eat what he wanted, “beingable to cook”.Having something different every timeNo time spent on cooking, doing thing helikes,Seeing cooking as a choreNot caring about fresh foodEating for fillDaly machine use is a door to being cookedfor and eating tasty food that you chooseyourself
30JoanneEnabling competence perspective.She has difficulty with making tastydishes for herself. She sees the ma-chine as something to help makingtasty and good dishes, good everytime. She does not like the thought ofprinted food and certainly not every-day. The quality must resemble currentfoods. Losing fresh foods is a problem.ThemesEnabling her to serve a good dish,Made wellTastyFresh foodsDaly machine use is not ok because ofunnatural not fresh foodsLearnedI learned from these first quick sessionsthat my approach worked really well.The amount of data and the depth ofthe answers for just five minutes inter-view is amazing. This was al very un-structured so I would have to improveon this to be able to make a good com-parison between data later on. Also inthe next tests I made an appointmentand took far more time for the inter-view. I used the questions that seemedpowerful in this sessions and I took theapproach to personalize the sensitizingstory as far as I could to the next ses-sions.
31PILOT SESSIONSJOANNEI chose to do a pilot session with a friend, because I had few timeto arrange a meeting with another group before I had my real ses-sions. I learned two important things in the pilot session: I formu-lated the concept with the term “intelligent table”. However, theconcept was better understood by using the term: A table thatcould help you with everything during the preparation of foodin the kitchen. The other thing I learned was that people foundit more easily to first start talking about a dinner that was verynice, instead of a dinner that was less than expected. Therefore,I switched the order of situation 1 (a bad meal) and situation 2 (agood meal when you had to rush) in the interview.
32SESSIONSMANUELAfter my pilot sessions with the storyboard I decided to run interview ses-sions already knowing what I wanted to get out of that interview. The pilotsessions gave me useful information, but it was not very much focused onthe purpose of the CCS. The interface was a useful thing to find out but nowit was not the best moment to dig deeper into that surface. I did a thematicanalysis with the pilot session to have a clearer idea about what was theinformation I wanted from my users for the sessions. I did two interviews,one with a 24 year old Dutch computer engineering student and the otherone with a 40 year old woman that works as a nurse.SESSION 1Do you want printed food?Depends on a couple of parameters: Is thefood still natural? If it’s not natural I don’twant 3D printed food.What do you call natural?Honest products, with no e-numbers, noadditives.How do you usually cook?I start with two or three ingredients, andthen I decide the flavour or taste. I don’twant something with nuts, because of aller-gies.Is it more important for you the ingredientsand the flavours than how the meal willlook?Yes, I also like going to restaurant and seenice presented food but most of the stu-dents won’t make his dish look like in arestaurant.So when you go to restaurants, you givemore importance to how it looks ratherthan its ingredients and how healthy itmight be?Yes, when I go to McDonald’s or otherrestaurants I don’t care about the quality, myexpectations regarding quality are lower, butI adapt to that.
33Are McDonald’s burgers still tasty for youeven though they are not healthy?They are less tasty than a burger that I willcook at home, but its quick, easy and cheap;those facTTtor also play a role when eatingfood.When you go to the supermarket, which areyour parameters when choosing your foodproducts?I try to avoid buying these packages thatyou have to just put water and its ready in ashort amount of time.Then you prefer spending more time cook-ing?I don’t decide the time of cooking; the fooddecides the time. I don’t care about thetime.What happens when you are in a hurry?Would you still be making self-made elabo-rate dish?Yes, but maybe not spending 2h cooking but15-30min cooking. That’s possible, the dishwill not be as tasty but it will still be goodand healthy.What is the core of you wanting to eathealthy or cooking elaborate dishes?I have a mother that is vegetarian and all herlife she has been buying biological products,my GF is also semi-vegetarian and my sportlife have all contributed for caring abouthealthy food. As a consequence I like tocook.If your mom or GF wouldn’t have beenvegetarian do you think you would still likethat type of food?Yes, I think so. But them being vegetariangives me more possibilities of cooking. Be-cause having them sharing meals with mehelps. Maybe if I would have been withsomebody that likes fast food I maybe adaptto what they like.Is your decision based on the peoplearound you?They have a strong influence. If it’s in myhouse I have complete influence to oth-er people, but when I go to other peopleshouse I adapt to what they eat.What happens when you invite people toyour house and they bring frozen pizza?Would you eat that?Yes, because I consider that a generous offerand the social aspect behind it is more im-portant that the food.
34SESSION 2Do you consider food an important part ofyour life?Yes. Two main reasons why; pleasure I haveeating, and I consider it very important tomy own health.Which parameter is more important foryou: pleasure or healthy eating?Healthy eating first, a couple of years ago itwould have been pleasure. Now when I eatsomething it has to be because it’s healthy,before I did not care if it was healthy or not.But you will still be eating things that youlike? Or would you eat something that youdon’t like the taste but it’s healthy for you?I would always eat something that I like, be-cause the things I don’t like I know I can eatother things with the same nutritional facts.How do you know that what you are eatingis healthy?I know it’s healthy because I buy the ingredi-ents from the supermarket myself having alook at the nutritional facts, I cook it myselfand eat it calmly and with a good environ-ment.Do you prefer buying ready-to-cook food orcooking yourself?I prefer cooking the food myself.But when you buy cooked food why do youdo it?Because where I buy it I know in whichconditions the food was cooked, I have seenthat they cook with olive oil and speciallybecause they use similar ingredients as I usefor cooking.Isn’t the real reason a matter of savingtime? Since you said you prefer cookingfood yourself?Yes, the main reason is because I save a lotof time, and also because in my opinion thequality of the food is similar to the one Icook.Would you the food from a machine thatwould be able to cook the food that youlike, with the quality as you liked and stillvery healthy?Yes, as long as it’s with the same ingredients.Then cooking your food it’s not as import-ant as the end result of the dish itself?If I had the choice of not cooking, I wouldrather do other things as long as the food Ieat is the quality and as healthy as I want-ed. I mean, if I had the money to havesomebody to cook at my house everydaythat would be great. I EAT FOR PLEASURE, IDON’T COOK FOR PREASURE.
35What is the main reason of cooking then?Why spending that much time?I do it for the end result; I don’t enjoy cook-ing as much as the end result, which is atasty and healthy meal. But if I could, I wouldhave someone to cook for me at home withmy ingredients.When you invite people home, do you buyfood or cook yourself?Depends of the level of confidence and re-lationship with my guests, if I have a strongrelationship I will cook myself because is amore personal way to show how I care. Ifmy relationship with the guests is not thatstrong, maybe I would buy some food.If you are a guest in another house, andyou get served not very natural and healthyfood would you eat it?I would eat it because if not would be impo-lite.Do you go often to restaurants? Why?I don’t go very often, the main reason is be-cause the food is bad and the second reasonis because even though I don’t cook, it takesmuch more time than cooking and eating athome.Do you consider also having dinner out re-lated to social relationships?Yes, Is also one of the reasons why. The so-cial part is also very important.When you say that it is not healthy is it be-cause you don’t know what is in the meal?Yes, I like to know every ingredient I eat.In the daily basis, do you give big impor-tance to variety within your meals?Not really, if its cooking for myself I don’tmind cooking a big meal and having it for 3or 4 days. When I have to cook for someoneelse, then I make sure there is enough vari-ety.When you cook, you cook thinking in theend result? Or you do it to become a bettercook every day and improve your skills?I don’t have any challenge to become a bet-ter cook; I do it to have a good meal. I knowhow I like the meals and I know what I amgood at so that’s it. Of course I always try mybest but my goal is not to become a bettercook.When you are watching TV and there is afood program, do you watch it to learn newrecipes?Yes, I like learning new stuff but its not oneof my priorities. Sometimes when there isa conversation about food I am proud that Iknow certain types of recipes.
36SESSIONSDAVIDThe setup for my test was to arrange an in-terview with people. I interviewed two of myroommates and one teammate Manuel.Instead of giving the users a pre-set story Iwill construct their own story with them. Iwould ask them about the current equiva-lent of the concept. In our case of printingfood this would be cooking also with engi-neered foods like vegetarian meet and eat-ing prepared food like in restaurants, mi-crowaving and MacDonald’s. Questions arethen how they go by in general. What thelike about this way of doing and what thedislike, what goes well and what needs work,what does not go so well. Also because ourconcept was to be used in normal day lifeI would ask them about a ordinary day forthem. What do they do and when do theystart thinking of food.Then I would simply feed them back theirown story asking them how they would likebeing cooked for. Using their specific valuesderived from what they currently like anddislike. Then slowly coming to the point ofthe fact that the food and the way in gener-al would be different from what they knowat this moment and all the other aspects ofthe concept where it will differ from theircurrent experience and how they wouldappreciate that and if not directly appreci-ated if they could see themselves adjustingor finding true breakpoints for using a foodprinter for normal day life.The first trials to construct people their ownstories and letting them think of our envi-sioned future were done just a few minutesafter the idea was thought of. These wereyet unstructured and uninformed sessions.Later on I realized that the better informedabout all the reasons, comparisons andalternative the questioner gets the better itis possible to guide the person down everypossibility to do think about the envisionedfuture. The amount of data you get from thisis amazing also how surprizing and signif-icant the data is, is amazing. I think this isbecause it is very easy for people to identifywith their own story. Later on seeing othergroups having great problems with findingthese results I also think it is because peo-ple think it is easy to think about their ownvalues. It is just them telling you what theylike and dislike and they can manage andthey find it engaging for you show interest inthem.
37The quality of a personal perspective I think is always better because people knowtheir own situation best. Being able to handle a personal perspective with yourinterviewees depends on the assumptions and the opinion or how judgmental youare. In the presentations people described that elderly people did not like to becalled lonely or isolated. This is I think because they do not like this thought aboutthem. Instead it is easy to just describe their situation. A skill is then to not judgethem show you accept their situation for what it is. Do not name it but keep anopen space around this situation. Then you will create the space for people to talkabout their situation. It gave me the possibility to get really personal information.SESSION 1NoortjeShe really loves cooking and she is very good at it. She loves to experiment with in-gredients, combinations and tastes. She likes the process she really feels it is a cre-ative process where you can fully put your focus on, to set your mind on. In this wayshe is able to use it as a distraction and a break of things she does for her work. Sheis very interested in the concept of printing food. She sees herself experimenting withthe technique inviting friends to have fun with the machine. However if the machinewould take over cooking or even parts of the process for her she is directly put off.She was time and time again asked if the concept would enable her to make evenmore tasty and creative foods it would work for her but the answer was no becauseshe likes the way it is now she enjoys playing with ingredients to much and I agreethat this would probably be compensated in the printing concept. Maybe the conceptshould focus on people that do not find the current situation so wonderful.Loves cooking processDaily use is not ok because of loss of tangible cooking
38SESSION 2SESSION 3CasCas is an engineer. He has a very busy existence working a job and a university studysimultaneously He is also very pragmatic. He sees the food as a possibility. Difficulty’she might now have concerning the quality of the food will, disappear over time. Hesees it for now as a possibility to ease a little of his packed schedule.Time scheduleFamiliar with printing stuffSees himself adjusting to eating printed food, he would take the time to program fora couple of hours. Way to incorporate other interests with cooking maybe compe-tence.ManuResearch question: would you like to seeyourself eating 3D printed food on a dailybases?What does a typical day for you look like?Manu has played tennis with Nadal yearsago.For Manu his schedule is important. Heknows what he wants to do and he doesa lot on a day. Breakfast Manu starts ev-ery day with the same breakfast. He hasa stroop wafel and four times of Chocoserials.SchoolSport6:30 chicken filet and cheese sandwichSchoolwork8:30 start cookingTakes 10 minutes Four different dishes always thesame Frozen vegetables with chicken,salmon or another Omelette with onions and otherthings in thereYou say you care about the amount of
39time you put in there. Why than do youcook your food and do not take micro-wave food. Because I think fresh food ishealthier and I want to be good for mybody.He knows about food though. He comesfrom a Spanish Bolivian background bothcultures where food plays a big role incomparison to the Dutch culture. Alsowhen his girlfriend comes he sais “Whenmy girlfriend comes she has to takeeverything from the supermarket whitewine and everything, she ruins me (fi-nancially) so, I have to eat cheap stuff therest of the month.” With his girl friend hewill spend an hour cooking.How would you see a machine that pre-pares your food?Well that is just like now. An oven, a mi-crowave and even a pan cook your food.How would you like a machine thatmakes your food for you? I would likethat. Do you want more control? For nowI do not need more control in the pro-cess. What if your food would look morelike the chicken filet you eat at the end ofthe day? Well for me that would be ok.But it depends on the history of a personwith food. For instance my mom mademe drink fruit shakes and I hated that.My brother makes ultra healthy vegan-istic shakes and I hate them to. What ifthe machine would know exactly what Iate my whole life, what I liked and whatI disliked. It would then be able to makea suggestion shat I would not even knowthat I wanted to eat but it would be per-fect. Interview ended.In shortManu eats like a sports man. First callingthe main sources of proteins, a technicalapproach of getting the right stuff in thebody. He can see the envisioned futurebe to his likes because it will give himwhat he wants from food. Fitting in hisschedule, healthy, good tasting food forhis body.
40SESSIONSJOANNESet up of the test: I showed and explained the first storyboard, after which I didan interview with the participant about two situations in the past: the last situ-ation they had prepared a bad meal and the last situation that they prepared agood meal when they had to rush. I also asked the participant to act out the waythey had prepared the meal in their own kitchen and speak out loud the stepsthey did and the thoughts they had.I showed and explained the second storyboard of our concept (in the shape of atable), after which I did an interview with the participants about a situation in thefuture, where they would have such a table. I also placed a white piece of paperon the surface of the kitchen (the table) and asked people to act out the way theywould use the table in the kitchen. They could draw on the paper to show howthe table would look like and spoke out loud what the table had to do.SESSION 1MarijnMarijn Vos25 years oldWorking as a ZZP’er and designs podia,showrooms and building extensions.Lives in a student house in EindhovenHobbies are dancing hiphop, walkingoutside and reading books.Storyboard 11) Herken je je in de situatie? Wat her-ken je in de situatie?Ja. Ik ga op de fiets boodschappen doenen meestal heb ik dan al honger. Danbedenk ik me wat ik ga eten.Mijn vraag is om na te denken overde laatste keer dat je eten had bereidwaarbij het gerecht minder goed wasdan je van te voren had gehoopt.2) Kan je beschrijven welke keer datwas?Ik ging bladerdeegflapjes maken, maarze waren te vochtig, omdat ik de creme
41fraiche er te snel bij had gedaan.3) Wat waren je verwachtingen voordatje begon met eten bereiden?4) Kan je uitbeelden hoe het bereidenvan dit gerecht in zijn werk ging en bes-chrijven tegen welke zaken je oplieptijdens het bereiden en welke zakenmeevielen tijdens het bereiden?Eerst alles klaar zetten.Samenwerken met Luuk, afstemmenBij afgieten al de kruiden en creme fraicheweg.5) Wat viel je tegen aan het resultaat vanhet eten bereiden?Te sappig. Ik nam het mezelf helemaal nietkwalijk dat het mislukt was.6) Speelde de tijd die je genomen had omhet eten te bereiden een rol in het vor-men van je mening over het resultaat?Ik had geen haast, alleen te snel de cremefraiche erbij gedaan.Mijn volgende vraag is om na te denkenover de laatste keer dat je weinig tijd hadom eten te bereiden en waarbij je zeertevreden was over het gerecht dat je ge-maakt had.7) Kan je beschrijven welke keer dat was?Ik moest dansen. Toen had ik heel snel ietsgekocht en gemaakt. Het was in drie mi-nuten klaar.8) Wat waren je verwachtingen voordatje begon met eten bereiden?Ik had erge honger, dus ik verwachte dathet lekker was.9) Kan je uitbeelden hoe het bereidenvan dit gerecht in zijn werk ging en bes-chrijven tegen welke zaken je oplieptijdens het bereiden en welke zakenmeevielen tijdens het bereiden?Alles wat je nodig hebt klaar zettenEerst afwassen van pannen: Dat valt te-gen.Wachten tot het klaar is.10 ) Wat maakte je tevreden over hetresultaat van het eten bereiden?Het smaakte lekker.11) Speelde de tijd die je genomen hadom het eten te bereiden een rol in hetvormen van je mening over het resultaat?
42Ik had een simpele maaltijd gekozen, die tochlekker was, omdat ik haast had. Soms neem ikwel heel veel tijd om eten te bereiden. Vind ikook leuk.Storyboard 2Stel je voor dat je dit nieuwe keukenapparaatgehad in de eerste situatie die je vertelde12) Wat zou er anders gegaan zijn?Ik zou niet met mijn vrienden in de keukenhebben gestaan, de avond zou er heel andersuit hebben gezien. Het zou een beetje alseen magnetron maaltijd hebben gevoeld. Ikzou tijd hebben over gehouden voor anderedingen.13) Kan je de situatie in het verleden vergeli-jken met je voorgestelde situatie met ditnieuwe keuken apparaat?Nu had ik het zelf gemaakt, en ook al was hetniet helemaal gelukt, het maakte het niet toteen minder geslaagde avond. De avond zou ertotaal anders hebben uitgezien.14) Wat waardeer je in iedere situatie?15) Wat zijn de dingen die je ongerust makenin beide situaties of die je niet fijn vind?Ik wil graag zelf met mijn eigen eten bezigzijn.16) Wat zou de toegevoegde waarde zijn vande ene situatie in vergelijking met de ande-re?Tijd voor andere dingen. <-> zelf met mijneten bezig zijn.17) Wat zijn de nadelen van iedere situatie?Minder tijd voor andere dingen <-> niet zelfmet mijn eten bezig zijn.18) Welke situatie zou je over het algemeenprefereren en waarom? In welke situatieszou je het concept prefereren?19) Kan je uitbeelden hoe jij het nieuwe keu-kenapparaat zou willen gebruiken?Een tafel die je ondersteund, en waar je nietper se naar hoeft te luisteren.-Inhoud van de koelkast aangeven, zodat jeniet vergeet wat je al in huis hebt.-Recepten aangeven, of laten zien welk receptje kan maken van de verschillende producten-Laten zien welke kruiden erbij passen-Tips tijdens het koken: Hoe kan ik dit hetbeste snijden? Op deze manier leer je steedsbeter koken tijdens het koken.-Wedstrijd van maken: Snij snelheid bij houd-en
43SESSION 2Lia Vos67 years oldLives as a housewife and is married with anelectrical engineer.Lives in a detached house in a little villagenearby Helmond: BakelHobbies are working in the garden, sculp-turing and Tai Tsji.Storyboard 11) Herken je je in de situatie? Wat her-ken je in de situatie?Ik herken me niet in de situatie, want ik zitnooit op de fiets als ik honger heb. Meestalben ik niets aan het doen en heb dan trekin iets.Mijn vraag is om na te denken over delaatste keer dat je eten had bereid waarbijhet gerecht minder goed was dan je van tevoren had gehoopt.2) Kan je beschrijven welke keer datwas?Ik had een recept uitgekozen en daaraanbleek zeer weinig smaak te zitten. Het wasniet pittig.3) Wat waren je verwachtingen voor-dat je begon met eten bereiden?Ik heb meestal geen verwachtingen, ikprobeer het gewoon uit.4) Kan je uitbeelden hoe het bereidenvan dit gerecht in zijn werk ging en bes-chrijven tegen welke zaken je oplieptijdens het bereiden en welke zakenmeevielen tijdens het bereiden?Moeilijk alles tegelijkertijd klaar. Tussen-door allerlei stappen doen.5) Wat viel je tegen aan het resultaatvan het eten bereiden?Flauwig. Ik neem het het recept kwalijk.6) Speelde de tijd die je genomen hadom het eten te bereiden een rol in hetvormen van je mening over het resultaat?Hier speelde het geen rol.Mijn volgende vraag is om na te denkenover de laatste keer dat je weinig tijd hadom eten te bereiden en waarbij je zeertevreden was over het gerecht dat je ge-maakt had.7) Kan je beschrijven welke keer datwas?Vorige week had ik weinig tijd omdat iknaar Tai Tsji moest. Het smaakte omdat ikhonger had.8) Wat waren je verwachtingen voor-dat je begon met eten bereiden?
44Dat het snel klaar zou zijn.9) Kan je uitbeelden hoe het bereidenvan dit gerecht in zijn werk ging en beschri-jven tegen welke zaken je opliep tijdens hetbereiden en welke zaken meevielen tijdenshet bereiden?Ik was blij dat ik alle ingrediënten in huishad.10) Wat maakte je tevreden over hetresultaat van het eten bereiden?Het smaakte goed en het was op tijd klaar.11) Speelde de tijd die je genomen hadom het eten te bereiden een rol in het vor-men van je mening over het resultaat?Nee gebeurd niet altijd. Meestal sta ik éénuur in de keuken.Storyboard 2Herken je de situatie?12a) Hoe vind je het concept?Het zou lijken alsof je naar een restaurantgaat. Ik zou de tafel soms wel gebruiken omalles klaar te maken, maar soms zou ik hetook zelf klaar maken. Als ik laat thuis benzou ik vragen of de tafel het klaar maakt.12b) Wat vind je goed aan het concept enwat vind je minder goed?De tafel kan soms het eten maken als ik geenzin heb. Maar na een tijd zou dat gaan verve-len.Stel je voor dat je dit nieuwe keukenappa-raat gehad in de eerste situatie die je vertel-de12c) Wat zou er anders gegaan zijn?Ik hou ervan om een beetje te kunnenvariëren en tijdens het proces nog wat aante passen. Dan zou ik er de hele tijd bij moet-en blijven, en dat wil ik niet. Het is wel eenvoordeel als je haast hebt.13) Kan je de situatie in het verledenvergelijken met je voorgestelde situatie metdit nieuwe keuken apparaat?14) Wat waardeer je in iedere situatie?15) Wat zijn de dingen die je ongerustmaken in beide situaties of die je niet fijnvind?Wat voor invloed heeft het op je eten? Ik wilweten wat hij gaat doen, geen magnetron-stand bijvoorbeeld. Daarover wil ik controlehebben. Hij moet goed de groente uitwassenen snijden en hij moet aangeven wat er alle-maal inzit. Overleggen zal moeilijk zijn. Als ikhet pittig wil, hoe weet hij dan HOE pittig?.16) Wat zou de toegevoegde waarde zijn
45van de ene situatie in vergelijking met deandere?17) Wat zijn de nadelen van iedere situ-atie?18) Welke situatie zou je over het al-gemeen prefereren en waarom? In welkesituaties zou je het concept prefereren?Als ik haast heb.19) Kan je uitbeelden hoe jij het nieuwekeukenapparaat zou willen gebruiken?Ik schrijf op de tafel wat ik wil hebben, voorhoeveel personen en welke ingrediënten.Dan maakt hij dat voor mij.Later tijdens het echte koken: “Ik vind hetaltijd zo lastig om alles tegelijkertijd klaar tehebben en welke stappen ik moet nemen.Tafel, giet de rijst even af. Tafel, roer even inde pan.SESSION 3Joep Slagter21 years oldStudent Industrial Design.Lives in a student appartment in EindhovenHobbies are building on his car, squashing,drinking a beer with friends.Storyboard 11) Herken je je in de situatie? Wat her-ken je in de situatie?Ja. Ik fiets aan het eind van de middag weleens door de straten en ruik allerlei lekkeredingen. Daar krjig ik dan honger van.Mijn vraag is om na te denken over de laat-ste keer dat je eten had bereid waarbij hetgerecht minder goed was dan je van te vorenhad gehoopt.2) Kan je beschrijven welke keer datwas?Het valt eigenlijk nooit tegen. Of trouwens,van noedels word ik altijd teleurgesteld.3) Wat waren je verwachtingen voordatje begon met eten bereiden?Bij noedels denk ik van te voren hmmm, ja.4) Kan je uitbeelden hoe het bereidenvan dit gerecht in zijn werk ging en beschri-jven tegen welke zaken je opliep tijdens hetbereiden en welke zaken meevielen tijdenshet bereiden?Ik pak de noedels, zet water op. Gooi het bijelkaar. De geur is dan al twijfelachtig, en alsik eet valt de nasmaak me tegen.5) Wat viel je tegen aan het resultaatvan het eten bereiden?De smaak6) Speelde de tijd die je genomen hadom het eten te bereiden een rol in het vor-men van je mening over het resultaat?Nee. Het is makkelijk te bereiden, en daaromeet ik het soms. Eigenlijk ben ik geen fan van
46een snelle hap.Mijn volgende vraag is om na te denken overde laatste keer dat je weinig tijd had ometen te bereiden en waarbij je zeer tevredenwas over het gerecht dat je gemaakt had.7) Kan je beschrijven welke keer datwas? Dan moet ik even nadenken, want ik kookpas een half jaar zelf. Als ik kook heb ik bijnanooit haast. Als ik haast heb koop ik meestalsnel iets op het station. Maar is bak wel eenseen eitje tussen door als ik haast heb.8) Wat waren je verwachtingen voordatje begon met eten bereiden?Ik heb bijna nooit verwachtingen als ik gakoken. Al weet ik dat het lekker zal wordenals ik zout bij mijn omelet doe.9) Kan je uitbeelden hoe het bereidenvan dit gerecht in zijn werk ging en beschri-jven tegen welke zaken je opliep tijdens hetbereiden en welke zaken meevielen tijdenshet bereiden?Ik zet de pan op het fornuis, doe het vet erin.Soms vergis ik me in welke pit ik aansteek,de knoppen zijn onduidelijk. Dan doe ik deeieren erbij. Ik draai hem om, of ik husselhet door elkaar als het niet zo goed lukt. Danschep ik het op een bord en ga eten.10) Wat maakte je tevreden over hetresultaat van het eten bereiden?De smaak en het is simpel te bereiden. Ikdenk ook dat het gezond is.11) Speelde de tijd die je genomen hadom het eten te bereiden een rol in het vor-men van je mening over het resultaat?Het duurt even lang als de noedels, en is eenstuk lekkerder. Daarom koop ik ook iederemaand nieuwe eieren, en de noedels liggener al 4 maanden.Storyboard 2Stel je voor dat je dit nieuwe keukenappa-raat gehad in de eerste situatie die je vertel-de12) Wat zou er anders gegaan zijn?Bij de noedels zou ik de tafel gebruikt heb-ben. Eieren bakken is namelijk verschillendehandelingen doen, en noedels is alleen wa-ter erbij gooien. Dat wil ik best helemaal aande tafel overlaten.13) Kan je de situatie in het verledenvergelijken met je voorgestelde situatie metdit nieuwe keuken apparaat?14) Wat waardeer je in iedere situatie?Zonder tafel ben je lekker bezig. Bewegingis goed. Ook leer je koken door het te doen.Bij de tafel hoef je niet per se iets te kunnen.Je wint er tijd mee en geeft je meer mogeli-jkheden.15) Wat zijn de dingen die je ongerustmaken in beide situaties of die je niet fijn
47vind?De tafel zou me erg lui maken. Het voelt ookkunstmatig en onnatuurlijk. Waarom zoud-en we perfect eten willen? Het leven is nietperfect.16) Wat zou de toegevoegde waarde zijnvan de ene situatie in vergelijking met deandere?17) Wat zijn de nadelen van iedere situ-atie?18) Welke situatie zou je over het al-gemeen prefereren en waarom? In welkesituaties zou je het concept prefereren?Bij haast zou ik de tafel wel eens vragen omeen gerecht voor me te maken. Als ik geenhaast heb blijf ik het liever zelf doen.19) Kan je uitbeelden hoe jij het nieuwekeukenapparaat zou willen gebruiken?Ik zou het fijn vinden als ik mijn afwas op detafel zet, hij opklapt en het schoon maakt. Ikhou namelijk niet van afwassen.Ook zou het fijn zijn als ik snel op kon zoekenhoe lang aardappelen moeten koken. Danzou ik een menu hebben op de tafel, en kanzo informatie zoeken door in te typen en inhet menu titels aan te klikken. Er kunnendan filmpjes starten met uitleg. Die filmpjesmoeten wel groot zijn, zodat ik het makkelijkkan zien en niet hoef te bukken.Ook zou het een snijplank, kookplaat en tab-let in één kunnen zijn. Op de tafel staat hetrecept , wat het voordeel heeft dat het nietals een kookboek tijdens het bereiden vieskan worden. Daarnaast snij je alles. Erbovenzet je de pannen neer. De tafel herkent waterin zit en zorgt dat het precies zo lang kookten niet aanbrand.Ook kan de tafel voor een prettige ambiancezorgen, door de keuken mooi te belichten.Ik zou ook experimenteren met andereingewikkeldere recepten, zoals een oostersrecept. Er kan namelijk niets mis gaan.
48THEMATIC ANALYSISWhat are the needs, pleasuresor values that play a role whenpeople prepare food?Hungry before buying food.Expecting good food because of hungriness.Good experience because of hungriness.Good taste/ good tasteWorking with your handsTouch and smell of foodGetting hungry during relaxation.Hungriness by smelling.Smell influences experience. Taste influences experience.HealthyWorking with your hands.ExercisingBiological needVARIATIONThinking which food to eat before buying/prepar-ing it.Trying new things.Adjusting recipes
49Structure/StructureOverview/OverviewNot blaming yourself/ Not blaming yourselfAll ingredients were easily availableFinished on timeAdjusting the idea for the meal during backing.Biological needSOCIO PLEASURESSteps ofpreparationTime not relatedwith bad resultWorking togetherSocial aspectAtmosphere eveningWhat goes wrong whenpeople prepare food?Moving through the steps too fast.Spilling ingredientsRush did not play a role/ Rush did not play a role.
50DEPENDENCYpersonal tasteExpectationsConfusion toolsoperating.Cleaning dishes housemates beforecookingWrong recipeSpecific ingredient gives a badresult.Different expectations onforehand.Confusion in use of a kitchenmachine.
51What is the extent to which people are comfortable in relin-quishing the preparation of food to an intelligent system ?How would people want to use an intelligent system thathelps preparing food in future?unnatural feeling/ Unnatural feelingKnow the influence on food.Understanding of working system.HealthyNo need for perfectness.Natural andhealthy foodSaving time/Saving time/Saving timeRush/RushCleaningControl/ Control/ControlEasily communicationSafe environmentTake on tasks/ Take on tasksUnderstanding of working system.Saving timeKEEP CONTROLKeep the overview
52ServingNot want to cook sometimes.Take on tasks.Buying food if you have to rush.Easy actions can be done by an intelli-gent system.ServingExtended memoryExtended information preparing food/Extended information preparing food.Know the influence on food.Understanding of working system.Development cooking skillsDevelopment cook skills.Take on tasks/ Take on tasksUnderstanding of working system.INFORMATIONDevelopment cookingskillsKeep the overviewTrying new things.Adjusting recipesMore possibilitiesSafe environment. ExperimentingVariation
53THEMES CONDENSEDNatural and healthy foodSteps of preparationPersonal tasteExpectationsKeep the overviewGet served (negative control)InformationSteps of preparationDependencyConfusionChallengesInformationDevelopment Cooking SkillsCompetitionBoringConfusionSaving timeGet servedEfficient use of spaceGet servedGood atmosphereDependencyBiological pleasureControlSelf-actualizationneedEFFICIENCYSOCIO PLEASURENatural and healthy foodVARIATION
54GROUP SESSIONS RESULTS ANALYSISWe decided to take the themes that cameout of the thematic analysis of Joanne ashypothesizes, because the analyzes of Jo-anne were quite complete. First, we con-densed the themes from the analyzes ofJoanne from 24 to 6. We looked at whichthemes had the common underlying needs,values and pleasures, and chose to takethese six needs, values and pleasures asthe main themes. In attachment x, we showhow the themes are merged.The final themes that contain of values,needs and pleasures• Biological pleasure• Efficiency• Socio pleasure• Self-actualization need• Control• VariationThe themes, based on the thematic analysisof Joanne, became the hypothesizes. Davidand Manuel confirmed these hypothesiz-es by checking if their results fitted in thethemes or not. The final overview of thethemes, in combination with quotes and theconsequences for the concept can be foundin the exercises of week 5 and 6.
55FINAL CONCEPT STORYIn the first version of the concept story, weinspired Olle (the character in the story) on aperson who eats microwave meals nowadaysand who find efficiency very important. Afterthe Co-Constructing Sessions, our expecta-tions of giving value to people’s everydaylife in satisfying the value of efficiency, isconfirmed. See also the results shown inthe next exercise. Because our expectationswere confirmed, we chose to make the con-cept story of Olle even more focusing on ef-ficiency. We also chose to focus more on theexperience of the main character, instead ofdescribing the features of the device. Below,you can find the second version of the con-cept story.Concept story 1:Olle is an electrical engineer student, forwho efficiency is important. He likes to chillon the couch and to have no stress. Whenhe comes back from university, he enters ishouse and puts his stuff on the ground. Hewants to make a nice meal, without puttingtoo much effort in it. He walks to the newkitchen machine, chooses his meal with theinterface and waits just a few seconds. Hefeels in control and feels able to make verynice food within a few steps. His food designis made in a kitchen device and he startsenjoying his nice meal. He likes that he has aquick meal,that tastes good, and did not taketoo much effort to make.The Co-Constructing Story sessions and thethematic analysis have broaden our view onthe functionality of the concept. The devicecould not only satisfy the value of efficiency,but also the other 5 values, needs or plea-sures that came out of the thematic analysis.In this way, the device would be valuable fora bigger target group. As example, we madea concept story about Claire, in which thesocial need and the self-actualization needplay a big part.
56Concept story 2:Claire is a young woman, workingpart time as secretary for the city ofEindhoven. She finds it important tolive healthy and to have a rich socialnetwork. She has a day off and shestarts thinking about the meal shewould like to prepare this evening. Shewalks to the new kitchen machine. Shedecides to experiment with differentingredients, textures and tastes, andthe machine gives her tips and givesher extra cook information. Claire likesthat the machine helps her to devel-op her cooking skills. She prints littletests samples of her new creationsand tastes it. When she is happy withthe result, she saves her creation dig-itally with the interface. She invitesher friends through a social networkintegrated in the device. Those friendscan see what she is going to serve thisevening and accept the invitation.When all friends are at Claire’s house,the machine starts to print the meals.Claire uses the time that she savesin being with the friends invited andthat way build a stronger relationshipwith them. Her friends are positivelysurprised by the taste of Claire’s newcreation and she shares the digital rec-ipe her friends through the same socialnetwork she used to invite them.
57CONCLUSIONSAs a final overview of our results, we showthe themes with related quotes of theCo-Constructing story sessions and showhow these themes influence the further de-sign of the concept. We show the demandsfor the concept, to fulfill the need pleasuresof users, and we show the added value ofour concept compared with preparing foodnowadays, which is related with the plea-sures of acceptance.Biological pleasureQuotes:” I want to have natural and healthy food.”“The meal was good, because it tastedgood.”“I like cooking, because I can work with myhands.”“The direct touch and smell of the ingredi-ents is important to me.”Demands for the concept:- A highly inter-sensible interactionwith the interface: The touch, smell, sight,feel and taste have to be triggered in thephase of creating the meal.- The printed meals have to be fromgood quality, have to be healthy and have totaste good.Concept creates extra value:- Enabling people to have new tasteexperiences: new combinations of textures,flavors, taste and shapes.EfficiencyQuotes:“I cook this meal more often, because thepreparation consists of a small amount ofsteps.”“I liked the end result of my cooking, be-cause it tasted good and it did take littleeffort to prepare the meal.”“When I have to rush, I do not cook, but buymy meal at the station.”“I go shopping once a week to buy micro-wave meals for the whole week. Microwavemeals are prepared very quickly, so I do nothave to wait too long.”Concept creates extra value:- The kitchen machine enables peopleto prepare a meal quickly in a few, simplesteps.
58Socio pleasureQuotes:“When a friend passes by, we cook togetherand talk about all kind of things.”“I find it important to create a nice atmo-sphere while cooking.”“When I have to rush, I eat alone, because itis faster”Concept creates extra value:- The kitchen machine enables peopleto have an overview of which friends arecooking this evening and gives people theopportunity to easily invite friends to havedinner together.- The kitchen machine enables peo-ple to share digitally saved creations withfriends.- The kitchen machine enables peopleto easily cook for big groups of people.- The kitchen machine enables peo-ple to design a meal on forehand, so whenfriends come in, the preparation time offood can be used to sit together and chat.Self-Actualization needQuotes:“I want to develop my cooking skills by tryingnew combinations of ingredients, and tryingnew recipes.”“I would like to learn which herbs I could useto make the food more tasty.”Concept creates extra value:- The kitchen machine enables peopleto learn about good combinations of ingredi-ents, textures, tastes and flavors by showingtips when people design their meal.- The kitchen machine enables peopleto learn from others, by sharing digitally reci-pes with friends.ControlQuotes:“Sometimes, I have troubles to keep theoverview of the steps I have to do when Iprepare food.”“I want to know exactly which ingredientsare used and how these ingredients are pre-pared.”“I want to be able to adjust for example theingredients during the preparation of myfood.”“I like to get my food served.”Demands for the concept:- The interface have to give a goodoverview of the preparation steps and theinformation of the ingredients.- The people have to be able to influ-ence every step in the preparation process.- People have to understand the work-ing of the machine easily.Concept creates extra value:- The machine can serve a meal withina few steps, so people feel being served.
59- The kitchen machine enablespeople with little cooking skills to havecontrol over the preparation of theirfood.VariationQuotes:“I like to try new recipes.”“I would like to experiment with differ-ent meals more often.”“When I am in the supermarket, I donot know the recipes for new meals, so Imake a meal I already knew.”“I eat the same microwave meal everyweak”Demands for the concept:- The kitchen machine has to en-able people to vary meals every day.- The kitchen machine has to en-able people to easily print the mealsthey want to eat more often.Concept creates extra value:- The kitchen machine enables peo-ple to try new recipes every day.- The kitchen machine enables peo-ple to print meals, created by others.- The kitchen machine enables peo-ple to adjust recipes of others.- The kitchen machine enable peo-ple to digitally save meals they like, andprint these meals easily every time peo-ple want these meals.
60PERSONAL REFLECTIONSJOANNEGoal:My main goal for B2.2 is to design an intel-ligent system that behaves adaptively onthe users’ needs and desires. In the assign-ment Designing for the User Experience,I want to learn theories about influencingthe user experience and learn how I couldapply this theories in a design process. Thisknowledge will help me in the project todo research on the user’s expression of hisneeds and desires.Reflection:This assignment satisfied my goals that Ihad described on forehand. I learned fromthe pyramid of Moslov, the psychologicalneeds of Sheldon and the pleasures ofGordan what needs and desires peoplehave in general. The theories gave meinsight in the reason why I do the thingsI do, and how a product could add valueto the everyday life of a user. In future, Iwant to think more about the functionalityof the concepts in my design process, bykeep asking myself why the concept wouldadd value to the everyday life of the user. Iwill apply the method of the Co-Construct-ing Stories in my following design processto discover the user’s needs, values andpleasures that play a role in the contextof the concept. In future, I would connectthe results of the Co-Constructing storysessions to the needs of Moslov, the valuesof Sheldon and the pleasures of Gordan,rather than translate the results in a con-cept story. In this assignment, I namelyconnected the results of the Co-construct-ing Stories to the needs of Moslov, thevalues of Sheldon and the pleasures of Go-rdan. In this way, I discovered which needpleasures the concept had to fulfill andhow the concept could create extra valueby fulfilling pleasures of acceptance. Thismethod helped me to see which demandsthe concept had to fulfill and to discovernew possible features of the concept.(User Focus and Perspectives, Design andResearch Processes)
61The image of the firm’s network for radi-cal innovation from Verganti was a revela-tion to me. On forehand, I was strugglinghow I could integrate my wish for de-signing for closing the life cycles and thematerial cycles into my design process. Itis a radical innovation to bring productson the market that are produced locallyand that can be disassembled to materialsthat can be recycled without losing qual-ity, or can be biodegraded. As designer,I am not able to make such a product onmy own. After seeing the image of Ver-ganti, I realized that I want to talk withpeople of different disciplines, bring themtogether and share the different insights,so that new possibilities can be discov-ered. I want to use this insight during myinternship in B3.1. During my internship,I want to get to know people from dif-ferent disciplines, talk with people whoalready take into account closing the lifeand material cycles in their work field, talkwith people who do not take the cyclesinto account, discover which thresholdsplay a part in changing the productionand design process, and together see newpossibilities for integrating a new way ofproduction and designing in everyday life.(Designing Business Processes, Social Cul-tural Awareness)Within the assignment team, I experi-enced a new way of working together.Normally, I look at the exercises we haveto do for the assignment, briefly discusswhat the group is going to do and dividethe tasks. In this way, the group worksefficiently. Within my current team, therewas a different approach. My teammatesdiscussed a lot, and did not talk onlyabout subjects that were directly relatedwith the exercises. They took a broaderperspective on the assignment. Subjectsthat seem to be not related with the exer-cises on forehand, sometimes led to newinsights for our concept, which took ourconcept to a higher level. The disadvan-tage was that the approach of this teamwas very time consuming and that thework of my teammates gave less concretematerial to put in the report. Discussionswithout clear conclusions and future stepsare namely difficult to put in the report.From this team, I learned that I wouldleave more space for discussion in mydesign process in future. It will bring theconcept to a higher level. However, keepan eye on the direction the process hasto go and draw clear conclusions after thediscussions.(Teamwork and Communication)
62PERSONAL REFLECTIONSDAVIDWhen I started with this assignment Ihave finished my HBO studies with quiteextensive qualitative usability researchon product level. At the TU/e I followedthe assignment user research methodsand simultaneous with this assignment Idid the user testing assignment.Overall I can say the assignment gave meinsight in:Placing usability in context, knowing howthere could be something beyondAcademic thinking, thinking out of theusability paradigm.Handling personal data, the value of per-sonal data, tools to obtain and work withlarge amounts of data.Creating empathyDesigning for value,User involvementI think as a designer I have grown tosee haw valuable it is to keep in mindthat what we should do is make toolsto create the strongest empathy withuser possible. In line with this we shouldcreate ways and find out how to connectto peoples values and what values toconnect to.In one of the lectures it was explainedthat in market research the publics opin-ion on the possible success or demandof a concept should not always be lead-ing. Some of the greatest innovation likethe mobile phone would have not comeby if developers and designers wouldhave had listened to the public. Marketresearch in that days showed people didnot need a mobile phone for they werefine without one.A thought on why there could be sucha big discrepancy between what peoplethought they wanted and what they ac-tually wanted was that it is hard for peo-ple to see in the future. People are notin general good at envisioning the futurein a truthful way. Also of course nobodycan envision the future truthfuly for it is
63the future. As so it is even impossible forpeople to tell the truth about the pastfor the description of the past dependson the person that sees it and their angleand perspectives. The future is of courseper definition unknown.The assignment made me think on mak-ing a success of a product. Because itmakes designing what people want sotangible. Seeing with my own eyes howdifferent people are when it comesto their values made me see that youjust need the right users for your test. Ishowed me the importance of designingfor a group that wants your product. Alsoyou can design your first usergroup byfinding just the right people for whoemthe value is greatest in your early stagesso you can start adding value for peo-ple straight away even in testing phase,maybe even generating revenue fromthe first moment. This goes in place ofme always wanting to create such a goodproduct that everybody should simplylove it. Now I know I did not even knowwhat to aim for. I could see myself doingthis in a company.The assignment gave me insight in know-ing what values are closest to the humancore, core values. Also showing the valuerange and how and when they are im-portant to people. This gives a designera framework to structure the findings. Asa consequence you are able to say some-thing about what products will be suc-cessful. Also being able to see obviousfails if products are just aimed wrong.Trying analyse products from kickstarterdid not yet work so well. Enabling me todesign for value. Being able to say some-thing about what aim a product develop-ment cycle should have.This assignment gave me the tool co-con-structing stories to very quickly get pow-erful data on a concept from virtual anyuser.Down sides- A lot of work- Long time to arrange- Not sure on dataAdvantages- Pictures say more then a thousandwords- Large amounts inspiring and personaldataCULTURAL PROBES
64Co-constrUcting storiesDown sidesNo pictures (could do like Joanne andManu)Advantages- Large amounts of inspiring and personaldata.- Great for finding values- Great for creating empathy- Ability to steer the process during thetest. - Forming questions along the way.- Easier to processed and les work to pro-cess data.Thinking out of the usability paradigm. Thisis very important for somebody that camefrom HBO. In this assignment we wereshown how to enhance a thought struc-ture so that it fits where you think prob-lems occur. In this case it is obvious thatmaking something usable in general is notgood enough. The thing you make usableis more important. This looks obvious butis very powerful. Also the way to deal withcollecting the data is very interesting.It gave me the insight that you can takemodels like in this instance the usabilitytesting methods and improve on themfrom a theoretical perspective. In this caselooking at how the professor approachedand broke down the problem of only us-ability and going beyond these problems.It was very interesting to see how he wasstill struggling with the material but alsohow he made wonderful progress in find-ing ways to do so.I used the building a concept from valuesmethod in my project but you should al-ways keep in mind the functional aspects.My focus was so much on the values thatwhen I discussed my concept with otherstudents they pointed out that I forgot thesimple usability factors.
65PERSONAL REFLECTIONSMANUELOne of my conditions this semester isrelated to the UFP competence. Lastsemester I had a lack of development inthe User Focus related part of the proj-ect. The reasons of choosing this assign-ment were pretty obvious because ofthat, and because I am very curious sinceit’s my first assignment in the UFP com-petence area focused assignment.My main goal for this assignment wasto try to get closer to the user and try tounderstand his/her needs and feelingsabout products.Throughout the assignment every lec-ture had a high amount of content inthe presentations. There was a lot ofinformation to process, especially for mesince my development in this compe-tence was not as substantial as the restcompetences.The basic content of Moslov, Sheldonand Gordan had made me understandthe human behaviour and reactions. Onegood thing that this assignment mademe relate and connect the change indesign of the products have been by thehand with the change in human society.Concerning the team, I worked veryconfortable with Joanne and David. Thisis the assignment that I have learnedthe most from my teammates. Theirvision on design and their values havealso helped me to understand better theassignment and to reflect on things thatbefore I would never had thought.