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  2. 2. 4 5INTRODUCTIONMany professional athletes dedicate their life to sport. They spend many hours training for years on end to be-come the best in their chosen field. However these hours can be wasted if the training is not tailored to create aspecific increase in performance. Little is still understood about the precise training methods that create the bestoutcomes for the athletes. Therefore the key to gaining outcomes for athletes is to know the relationship betweentraining load and bodily response.To keep training on the edge, the Dutch Olympic Swimming Team and Innosportslab NL are always looking toimprove and tailor training programmes for their swimmers to get the best results To get a detailed look at thebodily response of professional swimmers, Innosportlab NL are proposing to use detailed Heart rate data froman Electrocardiogram (ECG). It is hypothesized that an insight into heart while training will give scientist a betterinsight on athlete response to training. This could lead to further personalization of training for individual athletes.This project looks at the development of device or swimming suit for the Dutch Olympic Swimming Team that willrecord detailed ECG data about the athlete underwater while training.
  3. 3. 6 7CLIENTThe Innosportslab comes under the umbrella of InnosportNL, a company set up to provide innovative products,services and support to professional Dutch Athletes. Innosportslab works directly with the Royal Dutch SwimmingFederation to improve sporting performance. To do this they focus on Biomechanics, physiology, talent develop-ment, psychology and propulsion optimisation with measurements such as start speed, stroke frequency, turnspeed and force generation.The current method of measuring and improving performance maximal testing once every 6 weeks. The data iscompared with the athletes previous test 6 weeks ago, and seeing where the improvements where made. Howeverfindings show that many times, athletes do not improve.Therefore the questions are asked;What happens in the 6 weeks between tests?Can we optimize programs to prevent over or under training?Can we predict a certain outcome?Innopsortslab’s idea is to use continous heart rate meausrement as a basis. Heart Rate data allows scientists todeduce a number of factors key in improving performances including Heart Rate Reserve (HRR), Heart Rate Vari-ability (HRV) and recovery times. Heart rate measurements also allow scientists to deduce velocity, heart ratekinetics and how long it takes to get to different heart rates at different velocities. Innosportslab can than comparehow swimmers get through the water as fast as possible using different techniques.Innosportslab have theoretical models for optimizing performance, but they need Heart Rate data to prove theirtheories. This data can then determine whether training methods are effective. Currently they cannot apply thesemodels, as there is no sound data from professional swimmers, only out of water experiments.This data shouldgive an in depth picture of a swimmers physical state.
  4. 4. 8 9EXPERTSSander Ganzavles is the stakerholderin this project. He has been an Embed-ded Scientist at the InnosportsLab, forthe past 3 years and focuses on humanmovement sciences and athlete perfor-mance. He was a professional swimmerfor the Netherlands until 2004. Aftermissing out on Olympic selection forthe 2nd time, he felt he had been overtrained, which gave birth to his drivefor the current project. Sander offers aunique standpoint in this project. His ex-perience as a professional swimmer andhis knowledge as a human movementscientist not only allows him to test thesuits ability record the necessary dataneeded to make training gains, but alsoallows him to empathise with currentswimmers on the comfort and style ofthe suit.Rik Vullings is an expert in obtainingand processing signals in medical fields.His experience in measuring ECG over avariety of patients is key to the develop-ment of monitoring ECG underwater. Ac-quiring ECG underwater involves a lot ofmotion artifacts. From the data capturedfrom various prototypes, Rik will processand filter the data into a useable formatto be analysed by Innosportslab.Gabriele Spina is currently a pHd stu-dent at TU/e and staff in the Signalprocessing department in Electricalengineeing.His PHD studies are look atemergin technologies and ebiquitoussensors to monitor patients in health-care scenarious. Gabriele is an expert inusing th Shimmer research platform andwill be helping us code the device to ourneeds.
  5. 5. 10 11OBJECTIVESThis project has a number of key objectives set out by our client, Innosports lab.One suit of all trainingCurrently Innosportslab use 3 devices to measure ECG and heart rate in different types of training sessions. Thesedevices work at different levels of quality and strength. There an inherent objective of this project is to create onedevice for all training situations.ECG UnderwaterThe main objective of this project is to develop a wearable swimming suit that measures detailed ECG of the heartwith more than one lead underwater. This data must be able to be then be processed by scientists at Innosportslabto see the bodily response of athletes.Swimming SuitIt must measure ECG in the most comfortable way possible while in an non- invasive manner. The device must besuitable for professional athletes doing long training sessions. The suit must have minimal impact on the tech-nique and speed of the swimmer. The suit must also be aesthetically pleasing and be something the swimmerswould want to wear.Adquisition DeviceDuring the previous project, the PASAQ acquisition device was damaged due to water. Therefore we must find adevice that can gather detailed ECG data over more than one lead. This device must be able store the data on a SDcard, as currently wireless transmission of data is not possible underwater. The device must also be small enoughto be non invasive on the swimmer while training. It should be relatively inexpensive as is will need to be inte-grated into many suits. Preferably the device should also work above the water, so in future it can be developed fordifferent sports.
  6. 6. 12 13PREVIOUS WORKPrevious to this project, Robert Noome, a masters student in Industrial Design at the Technical University of Eind-hoven conducted the first iteration of this project with Innosportslab. He made some key findings and his project isa basis from where this research project can continue.Conductive fabric electrodes or “Textrodes” seem to be a viable way forward to attaining an ECG signal underwa-ter. There is potential to integrate them into a range of suits with different techniques, with the use of conductiveyarn as well. Robert also proved that water does not majorly effect the electrode connections to an acquisitiondevice or the skin, as he was able to measure full ECG underwater [16].His research showed no proof that textrodes would provide a strong enough signal above or under water. Becauseof technical problems with his acquisition device, he was unable to prove his final concept worked. He came upwith a number of different shape iterations, however still believe there is a lot of opportunities left to explore thesuit of the shape that will meet all the requirements set by Innosportslab [16]
  7. 7. 14 15RESEARCH
  8. 8. 16 17WHY HEART RATEHeat rate and its derivatives, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) are directly linked to themetabolic system of the body. The metabolic system is where carbohydrates, calories and fats are converted intoenergy to be burnt by muscles in the body. The better your metabolic system is, the faster and more efficient youcan transfer this energy in the body into power. The more power you have and the more efficiently you can developit, the stronger and faster you can swim [9] [16].Swimmers are looking to be as efficient as possible in the water. To be efficient they must have the perfect balanceof power and technical ability. Efficiency is defined as the work accomplished divided by the energy expended to dothat work. The more efficient a swimmer is, the faster they can go using the least amount of energy [8].Heart rate increases when there is a higher metabolic demand. This is when more energy is being consumed tocreate more power. This is because the heart needs to deliver more oxygenated blood to your system. Heart ratetherefore can show the rate at which you develop power while swimming and also the performance of yourcardiovascular system. From the heart rate we can see a relationship with VO2 max levels and anaerobic/aerobicmetabolism [9].This entire system can show the rate at which the heart can transport oxygen, therefore showing the metabolicrate, which in-turn shows how fast you can develop power through the water.
  9. 9. 18 19WHAT IS ECG?ECG or Electrocardiogram is a technique for measuring the electrical activity produced by the heart. Every timethe heart compresses to send blood around the body, it depolarizes. Depolarization is like the firing of theelectrical pulses, when the heart rests, it re polarizes. What an ECG does is it creates a visual interpretation of theelectrical activity of the heart over time. Electrodes can detect the electrical signal from the heart. To detect thissignal, electrodes need to be placed in pairs and this is called a lead. Electrode pairs must be placed across theheart, as leads detect the small rises and falls in the voltage between two electrodes. This difference in voltage isthen shown as the wavy line known as the PQRS Complex on the ECG readout [4].Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)HRR can be used as a gauge of training intensity, HR max – HR rest = HRR. As the cardiovascular fitness for anathlete improves, HRR should increase [11].Heart Rate Variability (HRV)HRV is the time between heartbeats. This can also be known as RR variability, which is the time between the Rpeak in the PQRS complex in an ECG. This data is Important for knowing the stress of training and cardiovascularhealth [2].
  10. 10. 20 21WHY ECG?Scientists such as Sander Ganzevles from the Innosportslab have hypothesised that there is a lot moreinformation available in the complete Electrocardiogram (ECG) of the heart. This is in contrast to the conventionalR-R top heart rate recorded by current devices. Having a multiple lead ECG signal because will reduce the noiseand motion artifacts that occur in the current 1 lead ECG products. By means of a redundant system Innosportslabwill be able to be sure they measure the correct RR intervals [9].The real start of a heartbeat is the P-top. If coaches can measure this instead of the RR they might get a moreaccurate indication of heart rate of the swimmer. Another interesting value hypothesized by sports scientists is theQT interval. Accurate PQRS tops are needed to do analysis on for instance Heart Rate Variability [2]From the ECG data recorded of the heart rate, sports scientists and coaches are able to determine a number ofthings about professional swimmers. Coaches can measure heart rate data over a number of trainings to see howtheir cardiovascular and metabolic system improves. When the swimmer is at the same velocity but with lowerheart rate, the swimmers body has become more efficient at developing power, which is the goal [9]. Throughusing heart rate, coaches and scientists at the Innosportslab are able to see how swimmers respond to varioustraining regimes. They will be able to see if swimmers stick to the program, if they have to adjust the program andpotentially might be able to indicate the dosis-response relation of different sessions [11].Detailed HRV and HRR data from ECG measurements of the heart can also be used after training to find outoptimal recovery periods. The HRR during post exercise sessions can track changes in physical and cardiovascularperformance, and show a functions autonomic nervous system. If swimmers do not show a response or a differentone than expected after a certain training, they know something is wrong. Some responses can indicate under-training, while others overtraining [12].The use of detailed ECG data and HRV also allows for the detection of abnormalities in the heart of professionalswimmers. Through monitoring the athletes HRV, scientist can look at the autonomic nervous system of theathlete, which can show sympathetic hyperactivity or reduced parasympathetic activity, which is associated with anincreased risk of cardiac disease and overall mortality [13].Detailed ECG data showing variations in the PQRS complex of the heart can show other abnormalities Theses cansuggest the presence of structural cardiovascular disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenicright ventricular cardiomyopathy or myocardial infraction [13].
  11. 11. 22 23CHALLENGESThis project presents a unique set of challenges, as it has a number of goals that have never been achieved to alevel required by Innosportslab before.Acquiring ECG Signal UnerwaterWater will play a big part in affecting the signal strength of our ECG data. As water is a conductor, it is possiblethat if the electrodes are placed too close, the presence of water will create a short circuit. Water can also createimpedance between the skin and electrode, which can reduce the resulting amplitude of the ECG signal.Motion ArtifactsPerhaps the most important challenging and important goal, is a detailed ECG signal underwater. To do this wemust create a suit that causes minimal motion artifacts when it records ECG. ECG is prone to artifacts within thesignal when there is excessive movement of the skin or the electrode. This can be reduced to an extent by signalprocessing, but correct compression is needed to reduce it further [16].ElectrodesNormal foam electrodes that are used in day-to-day experiments are disposable and not designed for useunderwater. For this application we need to develop an electrode that will withstand water, washing, stretchingand multiple uses. Textile electrodes are a possibility in this area, but stretching the fabric has the possibility toinfluence skin-electrode contact negatively. We must make sure also the electrode will not cause abrasion to theskin.Signal TransmissionThe suit will require a means of transferring the heart signal from the electrodes to the ECG acquisition device.Since the signal from the heart will be extremely weak, it will be prone to artifacts. The transmission ideally wouldcome from active electrodes, or the cabling should be shielded in a way the movement through the cable will notcause changes in signal. The better intergrated the cable can be into an elastic suit, the better the comfort will be.WaterproofingA casing will need to be designed to facilitate waterproofing of the acquisition device while swimming. The casewill have to be a small as possible whike being able to be easy taken off for analysing of data
  12. 12. 24 25CURRENT DEVICESCurrently, Innosports lab uses 3 different devices to record heart rate. None of these devices are able to reach therequirements needed by Innosportslab to get sufficient data on athlete performance. Following this, they mustswitch devices during different parts of training as some only work in certain environments. This causes inconsis-tent cross overs of data, increased costs for Innosportslab and inconvenience for the swimmers.Polar Team 2This device is used to measure resting heart rate and heart rate variability with up to 10 swimmers simultane-ously. These measurements take place several times per week just before morning training sessions. This data isused to measure the parasympathetic/orthosympathetic balance of the swimmers ie; are the swimmers in recov-ery mode or ready for high loads. However this system is useless underwater as it does not stay in place for con-sistent measurementFreelapThe freelap system is used for measuring heart rate during underwater training sessions. It records 1 lead ECGdata. This data is used to compare training output from the training relationship calculated based on a maximaltest. It also used to calculate HRR. This is the only current device Innosports lab have for training underwater.HossandThe hosand system is used to measure heart rate online when swimmers are submerged in cold water (not mov-ing) on recovery sessions. The problem with this system is that it gives Innosportslab a 4 second average and notthe beat-to-beat data. For this specific situation, it is important to get continuous information during the session.
  13. 13. 26 27CONCEPTSThese sketches on the next pagerepresent a range of shape concepts thatcould be used for the swimming suit. Theshow a number of different style optionsthat incorporate different shapes,compression area’s and ways to minimizemotion artifacts.
  14. 14. 28 29PROTOTYPING
  15. 15. 30 31PROTOTYPE 1Made out of Politex* material, andintended to focus on the left-handside of the chest, where the heartis situated (therefore, its shape wasasymmetric). It did not provide theright amount of compression. It wassewn with a classic stitch.
  16. 16. 32 33
  17. 17. 34 35PROTOTYPE 2Pattern developed from base male shirtpattern with standard measurements.Wide armholes, especially in the backin order to allow comfortable swimmingmovements, it was found too long and stillnot compressing enough. Politex* mate-rial was used in this prototype.Sewn with classic stitching and overlockedin all edges. Zip on the centre back in-tended to allow the prototype to be easilyplaced above the head.
  18. 18. 36 37
  19. 19. 38 39PROTOTYPE 3Changes to the patterning madethe prototype smaller and finallydelivering the desired compres-sion. Also made out of Politex*material and sewn with doubleclassic stitching (which represent-ed a problem during trial since thestitching did not stretch). Elec-trode- textrodes have not beenfitted in the prototype yet.
  20. 20. 40 41
  21. 21. 42 43PROTOTYPE 4First prototype including integratedtextrodes. Made in two layers, aninternal one made out of Lycra and anexternal layer made out of Politex*.For data recording purposes, the suitincludes non-elastic conductive mate-rial, sewn to the internal layer. Thepattern is the same as the one used inprototype 3, and sewn using Turkishstitching for elastic purposes.First suit that allowed ECG recording.
  22. 22. 44 45
  23. 23. 46 47PROTOTYPE 5Single-layer suit including elastic bandsplaced on top of the textrodes in order toachieve a better contact between the con-ductive fabric and the body.This was the first prototype including elasticconductive fabric stuck using specific textileglue as well as first to use shielded wiresprovided by our coach, Wei Chen.Pattern remains the same as in prototype 4,and this time it was made out of Lycra only.
  24. 24. 48 49
  25. 25. 50 51PROTOTYPE 6Same as prototype five except for twomain differences: first, an improvemente on the metallic joints connecting thecable to the conductive fabric, whichconsisted of a smaller joint with a flatsurface. Second, a more homogeneousdistribution of the elastic bands, whichallowed a better compression.This was the first prototype to be testedunderwater for data recording purposes.
  26. 26. 52 53
  27. 27. 54 55DEVELOPMENT
  28. 28. 56 57COMFORT AND SHAPESPATTERNSPATTERN 1Having researched where the electrodes needed to be placed, we discovered that theywere focused on the left-hand side of the body, which is the one surrounding the heart.This is why the first designs were driven to develop a single shoulder suit, which em-braced the body from underneath the body and was supported on the left shoulder.During the first test, apart from the fact that the suit was not tight enough, the asym-metric shape was not very appreciated by Sander, since he mentioned that swimmersdo not feel comfortable when wearing asymmetric suits.
  29. 29. 58 59COMFORT AND SHAPESPATTERNSBASE PATTERNAs a result of the first test, we decided to start working with a totally different shape. This time ourstarting point was a base male top pattern with standard size measurements. Since it was intendedto be on an elastic fabric, we decided to take in two centimetres all around the patterns from thebeginning in order for it to be tight. Since we needed to try it on a mannequin, we added a zip in thecentre back to make sure it will fit through the head.After drawing the pattern, we cut it in the fabric and sew it, and then put it on the mannequin, wherewe drew the desired shape with the intention of reducing the friction and movement limitations be-tween the fabric and the body as much as possible.
  30. 30. 60 61
  31. 31. 62 63COMFORT AND SHAPESPATTERNSPATTERN 2We transported the previous pattern into paper again, in order to cut a new one with the shaperesult we wanted. The process was to put it on top of the paper, and bearing in mind that the basepattern was not as fitted as we wanted, we took in another centimetre and a half for it to be tighteron the body.We kept the zip just in case we needed it; since it was likely that it would not fit as well through thehead once it was taken in.When we tried the prototype on Sander, his overall impression was positive in terms of shape. Theshape of the sleeves was not limiting his movements while moving his arms as if he were swim-ming.
  32. 32. 64 65
  33. 33. 66 67COMFORT AND SHAPESPATTERNSPATTERN 3The main change when developing this pattern was to remove the zip and substituting it with a centredart.We also changed the neckline to avoid the problems inside the water, and then we shortened thepattern until just underneath the chest muscles. Finally, we took in another centimetre and a half inorder for the prototype to compress the body more.The feedback from the fitting was very positive. All improvements were spot on. We worked with thissame pattern on the next prototypes, except for the one intended for the final exhibition.This was the first pattern to be tested underwater.
  34. 34. 68 69
  35. 35. 70 71COMFORT AND SHAPESPATTERNSPATTERN 4For the final prototype pattern, bearing in mind the results of the underwater testing withthe previous one, we made the neckline smaller, since it was still flapping as a result ofthe currents formed underwater.This was the only change that the prototypes and testing were demanding in terms of pat-terning.
  36. 36. 72 73COMFORT AND SHAPESCOMPRESSIONSCOMPRESSIONS 1While producing the patterns, we found out that we were in need of an extra compression material where theelectrodes would be placed. We decided on wide elastic bands for this purpose.We started by using 25 mm wide elastic bands on the prototype number 5. Before sewing them, we placed thealready sewn prototype in a mannequin in order to decide the position where the elastic bands would be placedin regards to the body.Two bands formed a V shape in the front and another two crossed each other in the back, while another wasplaced underneath the chest. The way the bands were sewn into the fabric did not distribute the compressionevenly. The crossing of the elastic bands in the back generated big issues on the pattern, since fabric got caughtin between them.
  37. 37. 74 75
  38. 38. 76 77COMFORT AND SHAPESCOMPRESSIONSCOMPRESSIONS 2Taking into account the issues with the first ellastics, we decided essentially on three improvements: a much moreevenly distributed compression and changing the placement of the bands in the back in order to reduce the fabricaccumulation, as well as a wider band underneath the chest.To achieve an even compression, we drew marks on the bands and fabric in order to have the same amount of fab-ric in each part of the band. In the back we placed a central elastic band that opened in a v shape both close to theneck and underneath the shoulder blades.The band underneath the chest was changed from a 25 mm to a 40mm wide one, which was much more consistent.
  39. 39. 78 79
  40. 40. 80 81COMFORT AND SHAPESSEWING TECHNICS The first prototype was sewn by using plainseams. As we decided not to continue with thisprototype, on the second one we used plainseams as well as overlocking in the edges.
  41. 41. 82 83Due to the need to work in the prototype’s compression, we didn’t fo-cus as much into sewing in a more “elastic” way.On the next prototype, we used double plain seams, reinforcing themevery two centimetres, since this prototype already had the desiredlevel of compression, Sander faced some difficulties since the seamswere not elastic and were not giving when expanding the fabric.Due to this, the majority of the seams were torn apart when Sandertried it on, so the next step would be to focus on the elastic propertiesof the sewing.
  42. 42. 84 85We decided to try different techniques of elas-tic stitching (see appendix) and finally decided onTurkish stitching. We used this type of stitchingfrom then until the final prototype.
  43. 43. 86 87TEXTILESThroughout the whole project we used three different types of fabrics in the prototypes.We first used a thick curtain fabric 100% polyester. This fabric was used to make thebase shirt pattern. Since this was a step we had to do in order to get a more athleticpattern, which allowed the swimmer to move freely, we did not use an elastic fabric.
  44. 44. 88 89The second type of fabric was a Lycra fabric we purchased in the Eindhoven Market.The seller could not give us that much information about the fabric, but we found asimilar fabric in sportex.com. Its called “Nylon-Spandex Tricot Shiny”. Excellent forSwimwear, it is made of 83% Nylon and 17% Spandex.We used this type of fabric for development of prototypes 4,5,6 and final prototype. [19]
  45. 45. 90 91The third type of fabric used was another fabric bought at Eindhoven market. By looking on theInternet, we discovered that the most similar material is Politex, made out of Polyamide 100%.Its main characteristic is that it only stretches on one direction (horizontally).This feature was highlighted by Sander when he tested the prototype, since swimmers considerrelevant that the garment does not stretch vertically, since it would affect their movements un-der water.Due to the limited amount of fabric, we could only use it in prototypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and final. Wetried to find more, but we did not succeed. [20]
  46. 46. 92 93TECHNOLOGYECG DEVICE/SHIMMERAfter extensive research into existing products and possible solutions into finding a replacement acquisition device at low cost, wesettled on the Shimmer platform. “Shimmer is a small wireless sensor platform that can record and transmit physiological andkinematic data in real-time. Designed as a wearable sensor, Shimmer incorporates wireless ECG, EMG, GSR, Accelerometer, Gyro,Mag, GPS, Tilt and Vibration sensors. Shimmer is an extremely extensible platform that enables researchers and industry to be atthe leading edge of sensing technology.”[18]The shimmer device is a base platform that allows the attachment of expandable sensor modules for a range of physiological andkinematic data. The shimmer system has an ECG module that can record detailed ECG data. This device fitted the needs of Innos-portslab for a number of reasons [8].COSTAs this suit will eventually need to be worn by many swimmers in the Dutch Olympic Swimming team, it is essential that costs arekept down so many of these suits can be manufactured. Currently, the Shimmer Sensor module costs 200EUR, the expandable ECGsensor module costing EUR147 and the base station is 170EUR. This is a drastic reduction in price from the previous PASAQ devicewhich was approximately 4000EUR [18].EXPANDABLEThe Shimmer system is a expandable module that allows for a number of different parameters to be measured. In future if Innos-portslab wishes to measure other data from sensors such as EMG, Strain Gauge, GPS and Kinematics [18].
  47. 47. 94 95TECHNOLOGYECG DEVICE/SHIMMERSIZEThe Shimmer plus ECG expansion module is extremely small. This is key to reducing the invasiveness on the swimmer.The external casing measures 53mm x 32mm x 25mm with a total weight of 50g. Creating your own custom enclosure forthe electronics can reduce this weight and size [18].DATA AQUISITIONThe ECG module for the Shimmer platform records a 3 lead ECG at customisable sample rates. It is able to store this dataon a microSD card for underwater measurement. It also is able to wirelessly stream the data in real time over Bluetooth,which allows for more applications above water. The base module also includes an accelerometer on board. This is a greatadvantage, as it will record the motion of the chest muscles while swimming. This data should in turn be similar to themotion artifacts on the ECG data. Therefore it can be processed out to get a cleaner signal. It also allows Innosporstslabto calculate stroke frequency. The battery can record data for over 20 hours, perfect for long training sessions. The deviceuses stock DIN42-802 jacks, which allows users to use or make their own custom cables [18].PROGRAMMABLEThe Shimmer system is completely programmable via the software VMware. This allows for high customization of thedevice. You can change the amount of data it records, when it records and what it records. This allows for greater person-alization of training sessions. The data can then be easily processed in matlab by Innosportslab scientists [18]
  48. 48. 96 97ASALAB/ANTTo test our protoypes, we used an asalab acquisition device by Ant Neuro [1]. It is a hi tech system that can recordbetween 32 nd 256 channels over noise insensitive signals allowing for excellent data transmission even with noshielding. This allowed us to test the progress of our electrodes and get real time feedback on the effect of motionartifacts and the quality of our textrodes.This system allowed us to increase our understanding of medical software and devices. It also made more awareof the different factors in getting a good signal. The placement of electrodes is key to gettting a good signal, aswellthe use of a ground cable.TECHNOLOGY
  49. 49. 98 99CONDUCTIVE FABRICConductive fabric was chosen as the most viable way to create an integrated electrode (textrode) within the swim-ming suit that would withstand multiple uses. These textiles are an alternative to conventional gel electrodes.These textiles promote a viable way of recording ECG with easy intergration into a suit or garment. Samples whereacquired from a range of companies, but Sheildex fabrics by Statex, manufactured in Germany were chosen as thebest supplier. These farbics are a staple yarn spun with a blend of normal textile fibres and conductive metallicfibres.Extensive studies have used conductive fabrics for vital signs monitoring in projects such as WELTHY, MYHEARTand MAGiC [3] [5] [10] [17]. The Technical University of Lisbon has published a number of research papers intomeasuring ECG underwater using textrodes, as well as developing a suit called BIOSWIM that measures ECG un-derwater. They’re results showed promising proof that textrodes work underwater and acquire a signal [5] [6] [7].When using textrodes as dry electrodes above water, there is a large skin-textrode impedance due to the lack ofelectrolyte gel. This increases noise and decreases signal amplitude. However when underwater, water acts likean electrolyte get, reducing the skin-textrode impedance and allowing for a stronger signal. However water asloacts as an electric conductor thus reducing the resulting amplitude of the ECG signal [5] [6] [7].TECHNOLOGY
  50. 50. 100 101CONDUCTIVE FABRICFor our initial test we used Sheildex Bremen Ripstop fabric stitched onto some sample fabric. We then attachedthis to the ANT system, which proved that Textrodes worked, however the data was high in artifacts and hard toget a full ECG signal from. This was due to poor compression, gel between the skin and the type of fabric.In the double layer prototype we utilized Bremen Ripstop fabric again, but with intergrated with in our 3rdprototype. The suit initially picked up no signal, but when extra pressure was applied to the electrodes, an ECGsignal was clear on the ANT system. Artifacts were still apparent in the cables, as they were not shielded.TECHNOLOGY
  51. 51. 102 103In our final prototype, we used Sheilded Medtex 130+B fabric. This medical grade conductive fabric, whichmeans it is antibacterial and can be used on a number of swimmers. It’s a 2 way stretch fabric, so it is able tofit to each swimmers body. We utilised elastics as tight compression to reduce movement and create a tightconnection with the body. The result of this was a superb ECG signal with little artifacts even with movement.The stretching of the textrode seem to have little effect on the quality of the signal because once stretched itdid not move.CONDUCTIVE FABRICTECHNOLOGY
  52. 52. 104 105DATA RECORDINGTECHNOLOGYWe have been recording data from before the third prototype until the the latest prototypes. First, we used the ANTsystem to record, to make sure that the data was good enough or to try to improve something regarding the conductivefabric, or anything that had to do with compressions, etc.When we considered the contact with the body to be the best that we could achieve, we went to try it underwater with theShimmer. We were not sure if there was data recorded or not, since we didn’t know if the shielded cables would shortcircuit underwater. Fortunately, Sander did filter the data and managed to see the signal the suit was collecting. With theShimmer we tried underwater, as well as out of the water in order to compare and evaluate the differences.Sander’s impressions were very positive. He considers the data recorded underwater very good and he points out that itcould definitely be used in training scenarios.
  53. 53. 106 107
  54. 54. 108 109FINAL PROTOTYPEThe final prototype was the same as prototype number 6 but including two additions and an improvement.The first addition was to integrate the electronics inside the suit, and the second was to add an outer layer ofPolitex* material for aesthetic purposes.The improvement we made was in terms of patterning: we adjusted the neckline even more in order to avoidthe material to move inside the water due to currents formed under the chin.
  55. 55. 110 111
  56. 56. 112 113FINAL EXHIBITONThe final exhibition was an excellent opportunity to show our proposal and get all kinds of feed-back. We used most of the feedback to set new goals for the “next steps”. Most of the peoplefound our prototypes very feminine, it is curious because that was the first impression. On theother hand, in the swimmers environment no one commented anything similar to that, they arewilling to improve their training quality regardless of how the device to measure ECG looks aslong as it’s comfortable and lets them swim normally.
  57. 57. 114 115NEXT STEPSAfter all the work, we saw room for improvement. If we were to continue with this project, wewould need to consider this list of factors: - Make further research into more materials for the suit, considering the weight, elasticity underwater and its behaviour in chlorine environment. - Find other ways to integrate the conductive fabric into the suit. - Experiment with elastic cables or other types of cables to see which is the best way to inte grate them into the elastics and suit. - More underwater testing with Shimmer in various training situations. - Developing a way of waterproofing the Shimmer that allows easy access to the data trans mission once out of water. - Look and learn at a professional swimming brand in order to study how they make their suits, to make it resemble a real swimsuit as much as possible.
  58. 58. 116 117RESEARCH APPENDIXResearch was carried out at the begin-ning of this project to compile an archiveof existing products, research prototypes,manufacturing techniques, textiles anddifferent techniques of measuring ECG.Through this research we were able toprovide a reference going foward onprevious to show us what had and had notworked. It also to exploit problems thathad not been solved and fill a gap in themarket.Brand: Sheildex®Type: Medtex® 130+BMaterial: 99.9% Pure Silver Plated Nylon. 78%Nylon,22% elastomerForm: KnitResistance: Average <5 OhmsWeight: 140g/m2Thickness:0.45mmStretch: Double Stretch DirectionData Sheet: http://www.shieldextrading.net/pdfs/Medtex%20130.pdfBrand: Sheildex®Type: Curtain – 2611 Mesh FabricMaterial: High conductive silver plated nylon elasticForm: Knit Mesh.Resistance: <1 OhmsWeight: 28g/m2Thickness: 0.23mmStretch: NoneData Sheet: http://www.shieldextrading.net/pdfs/2611.pdfBrand: Sheildex®Type: Bremen-RS Bremen Mil-Std-285 ModifiedMaterial: Silver plated Nylon fabric.Form: Rip-StopResistance: < 0.5 OhmsWeight: 48 g/m2 ± 15%Thickness: 0,120 mmStretch: NoneData Sheet.http://www.shieldextrading.net/pdfs/Bre-men.pdfBrand: Sheildex®Type: Technik-tex P 130 + BMaterial: 99% pure Silver Plating.78% Polyamide + 22% Elastomer.Form: KnitResistance: <5 ohmsWeight: 135g/m2 ± 10%Thickness: 132cm ± 5cmStretch: Double stretch directionData Sheet: Via EmailBrand: Sheildex®Type: Technik-tex P 180 + BMaterial: 99% pure Silver Plating.94% Polyamide + 6% Dorlastan.Form: KnitResistance: < 0.5 OhmsWeight: 220g/m2 ± 10%Thickness: 0.55mm ± 10%Stretch: Single directionData Sheet: Via EmailBrand: Sheildex®Type: SilverjerseyMaterial: PA 16% with 99% pure Silver/ 84% ModalForm: Jersey Yarn Knit – Plated YarnResistance: < 5 OhmsWeight: 137g/m2 ± 10%Thickness: Data N/AStretch: NoneData Sheet : Via EmailCONDUCTIVE FABRIC/SAMPLES
  59. 59. 118 119Brand: Sheildex®Type: Supertext P130+ATMaterial: 78% Polyamide + 22% Elastomer 99% pureSilverForm: KnitResistance: < 1 OhmsWeight: 155g/m2 ± 10%Thickness: 0.50mm ± 10%Stretch: Double DirectionData Sheet: Via Email.Brand: Sheildex®Type: Supertex P180 + ATMaterial: 94% Polyamide + 6% Dorlastan 99% pureSilverForm: KnitResistance: < 1 OhmsWeight: 165g/m2 ± 10%Thickness: 0.57mm ± 10%Stretch: Single DirectionData Sheet: Via EmailBrand: Sheildex®Type: SilverknitMaterial: PA 34% with 99% pure Silver / 58% Cotton/ 8% LycraForm: 3 way bondedResistance: 0.8 -1.2 OhmsWeight: 160—180 g/m2Thickness: NAStretch: One directionData Sheet: Via EmailBrand: Sheildex®Type: SilverCurtainMaterial: Nylon, Silver PlatingForm: KnitResistance: 0.8 -1.2 OhmsWeight: 30-35g/m2Thickness: 0.22mmStretch: NoneData Sheet: Via EmailBrand: Sheildex®Type: 235/34 dtexMaterial: Silver Plated Nylon 66,Form: Multi String YarnResistance: 10-30 ohm/cmBrand: Sheildex®Type: 110/34 dtexMaterial: Silver Plated Nylon 66Form: Multi String YarnResistance: < 30 ohm/cmBrand: Karl Grimm®Type: 7077 High Flex with KevlarMaterial: Silver Plated Copper and KevlarForm: 2 Ribbon Multi Filament YarnResistance (Ω/m):: 2.9Twisting: 3x1Diameter (mm): 0.52Brand: Karl Grim®Type: 7314 High Flex with KevlarMaterial: Tin Coated Copper and KevlarForm: Single Ribbon Multi filament YarnResistance (Ω/m): 0.85Twisting: 7x1Diameter (mm): 0.65Brand: Karl Grim®Type: 8325 High Flex with VectranMaterial: Vectran with Copper and Silver PlatingForm: Single RibbonResistance (Ω/m):Twisting:Diameter (mm):Brand: Karl Grim®Type: 3981 High FlexMaterial: Sliver Plated CopperForm: Single RibbonResistance (Ω/m): 1.2Twisting: 7x1Diameter (mm): 0.5Brand: Karl Grim®Type: 3981 High FlexMaterial: CopperForm: Multi Filament Yarn.Resistance (Ω/m): 2.3Twisting: 7x1Diameter (mm): .42Brand: Karl Grim®Type: 3981 High FlexMaterial: Silver Plated CopperForm: Multi Filament YarnResistance (Ω/m): 2.3Twisting: 7x1Diameter (mm): 0.42Brand: Karl Grim®Type: 3981 High FlexMaterial: Tin coated CopperForm: Multi Filament YarnResistance (Ω/m): 2.3Twisting: 7x1Diameter (mm): 0.42Brand: Karl Grim®Type: 3981 High FlexMaterial: Silver Coated CopperForm: Multi Filament Yarn Resistance (Ω/m): .45Twisting: 7x5Diameter (mm): 0.9CONDUCTIVE FABRIC/SAMPLESCONDUCTIVE YARN/SAMPLES
  60. 60. 120 121INTELESENS -MONITORING EQUIPMENThttp://www.intelesens.com/ ST&D electrodesIntelesens is a Dublin based company that focuses on smart sensor and electrode technology for hos-pital and home use. They have developed a number of products that all incorporate wireless monitoringover long periods of time. These products include Zensor, V-Patch and Aingeal. The main difference inthese products is the use of long term disposable electrodes that do not cause skin irritance. Anotherpoint that sets these prdoducts apart are their sleek interfaces and product design. These are one ofthe only sets of products that look functional as well as aesthetically pleasing that are on the market todate.Aingeal & Zensor- This design utilizes a revolutionary new electrode patch system that can be worn for48 hours (zensor 7 days) with little motion artifacts and irritation. Real time monitoring and analysis ofrespiration and 2 lead ECG signals aswell as skin temperature and activity by a 3-axis accelerometerAdvantages: Up to 48 hours use, Recognition and notification of specific cardiac events, Pre and postevent data recording, Out of range detection and alert to patient, Minimum signal path from electrode toelectronics produces clearer signals, miniaturised, reusable, body-worn wireless sensor compact andlightweight design.Disadvantages: Electrodes are not reusable, not waterproof, cables are loose, wireless does not workunderwater, Only 2 lead.V-Patch- http://www.vpatch.com/This design is for monitoring outside the hospital, where datat is wirelessly uploaded onto a web basedplatform for real-time analysis Events are automatically detected and recorded, producing a diagnosticquality 3-lead ECG,. The design of the patch is compact to wear, ensuring greater compliance, and canbe worn for 7 days without changing and minimal motion artifacts.Advantages: Long use time, compact design, wireless upload to web platform, alerts physians aboutpossible heart problems, compact, non irritating.Disadvantages: One use’s electrodes, loose cables, no wireless underwater, not waterproof.MagIC system (Maglietta interattiva computerizzata)MagIC is a garmet designed to be worn to detect heart and respitory functions through smart textiles.The suit uses conductive fibres to transmit signals from sensors to a portable electronic board on thesuit. Elastic fibres around the thorax allow for compression while monitoring ECG. It has been testedduring movement and artifacts are minimal.Advantages: Complete integration with conductive fibres for signal transmission, washable, multipleuse, portable.Disadvantages: Not on the market, still in development, only 1 lead ecg – not deatailed enough, con-ductive transmission will not work underwater, will need to be shielded [7].BIOSWIM; Body Interface System based on Wearable Integration MonitoringBIOSWIM is a research project performed by universities around Portugal that aims to crates an “au-tonomous instrumented swimsuit, capable of recording several signals available in real time for ob-servation and also for later analysis”. This project looks at a higher level of integration of sensors, byknitting the sensors seamlessly into the garment. The system is a full compression suit that monitorsperformance, EMG and ECG. It wirelessly transmits the data by antennaAdvantages: Works underwater, High Compression means minimal artifacts, wirelessly transmits datathrough antenna, full integration of sensors in the yarn, completely autonomous, reusable and comfort-able.Disadvantages: Entire swim suit, labour intensive construction, custom made for each swimmer. Re-cords more data than necessary. Not in production [8].ANT: asalabAsalab developed by ant neural is in fact an EEG machine by trait, but can be configured to record ECGmeasurements. It is a hi tech system that can record between 32 and 256 channels over noise insensi-tive signals allowing for excellent data transmission even with no shielding. This state of the art systemcan measure many parameters at once at a very high resolution.Advantages: Can measure 8 channel ECG at very high quality – no shielding needed, - no noise, com-pletely customizable and programmable.Disadvantages: Very large, not designed for ECG, Expensive. [1]RESEARCH/EXISTING PRODUCTSRESEARCH/EXISTING PRODUCTS
  61. 61. 122 123SHIMMER RESEARCH PLATFORMShimmer research platform allows for the measuring of multiple physiological and biometric systemsthrough the use of different sensors. It can record and transmit data in real time over wireless or storeon an SD card. It measures 4 lead ECG data that can be programmed to the users needs.Advantages: Sensor unit is cheap, Bluetooth technology for out of water transmitting, small – 4 leads –Can store data on SD card – Configurable HardwareDisadvantages: Not water proof, not wireless underwater – Possibly not enough channels to recorddetailed enough ECG[18].WEALTHYWealthy is a garment that incorporates sensors and electrodes through conductive and peizoresistivematerials. These materials are connected to an electronic portable unit to process and transmit thesesignals to a computer. The aim is simultaneous recording of vital signs to create a synoptic patient tableand alert messages over a long period of time. Designed to be used in intensive care units for manage-ment of critically ill patients, measuring respiratory function and heart rate.Advantages: A full garment, monitors multiple signals, integrates conductive yarns, local processing ongarment, multiple parameters.Disadvantages: Not waterproof, not compressive to minimize motion artifacts, not in productions, wire-less wont work underwater. [3]MYHEARTMyHeart is a European Union project that creates a new system of rehabilitation in preventing cardio-vascular problems. It involves a textile sensor garment worn by patients. This suit can be involved in avariety of scenarios, from Heart care, to training and exercise and use on chronically ill patients. Theidea is for the system to gather data from Vital sign sensors, such as ECG. This data is then providedback to the user to show them how their body is coping with the activity and gives them recommenda-tions and overview on their health. This data can also be sent to physician’s aswell for further analysis.Advantages: Gives users real time feedback and reccomendations, reusable textrode suit.Disadvantages: The system is based on a bigger conceptual plan of patient rehabilitation rather than adetailed electrode suit, not in production, not for underwater [7].FREELAP -http://www.freelap.ch/int/en/products/receivers/cardio-swimFree lap is the existing product used by the Innosports lab to monitor the swimmers while training.Advantages: Works underwater, stores data, non invasive, minimal impact on swimmingDisadvantages: Only l lead, not detailed enough, motion artifacts coause to much noise, loose signalmore often than not.HOSAND -http://www.hosand.com/prodotti.aspThe Hosand system is used to measure heart rate online when swimmers are submerged in cold waterbefore in-between trainings (not moving). The problem with this system is that it gives a 4 second aver-age of the heart rate, not the beat-to-beat data. For this specific situation, it is important to get continu-ous data during the session.Advantages: Comfortable suit, measures underwater, streams onlineDisadvantages: 4second average of Heart rate, not beat to beat ECG.POLAR TEAM 2 -http://www.polar.com/us-en/b2b_products/team_sports/polar_team2_proThe Polar Team 2 system is used to measure resting heart rate and heart rate variability with up to 10swimmers simultaneously. These Measurements take place several times per week just before morn-ing sessions. Data is used to measure the parasympathetic/orthosympathetic balance of the swimmers,or in other words: are they in recovery mode or ready for high loads.Advantages; Measures multiple swimmersDisadvantages: Un-useable underwater because belt slides off, not wireless underwaterRESEARCH/EXISTING PRODUCTSRESEARCH/EXISTING PRODUCTS
  62. 62. 124 125VITALJACKET -http://www.biodevices.pt/VitalJacket, developed by Biodevices, is a commercially available ECG monitoring shirt. It uses a com-pact Holter ECG system to measure ECG over 5 leads. It uses conductive film to create cabling to asmall storage and wireless device that sends real time data over Bluetooth to its own developed soft-ware. It uses disposable electrodes rather than textile electrodes.Advantages: Commercially available product, 5 lead ECG, small and compact acquisition device, wash-able garmentDisadvantages: Uses disposable electrodes, not waterproof, no wireless underwater, not enough com-pression to reduce severe motion artifactsNUUBO nECG - http://www.nuubo.com/The nuubo nECG is cardiac monitoring garment that focuses on its special e-textile technology, theBlendFix®sensor. This sensor integrates into a suit with a various number of leads. It is cost-effective,wearable, remote, continuous and non-invasive. This sensor uses an elastic textile with minimal mo-tion artifacts. The nECG platform can be used simultaneously for both individuals and large number ofpatients. It can be used with minimal impact on patient lifestyle, and is capable of being used in real-time and for continuous recording. It comes with personalized software that works with the monitor.Advantages: High detail ECG from multiple leads, commercially viable, comfortable and non invasive.Disadvantages: Not for use underwater, no wireless/data sorage for underwaterARDUINO EKG-EMG SHEILD - https://www.olimex.com/Products/Duino/Shields/SHIELD-EKG-EMG/The EKG shield as an add on for the open source controller Arduino. It stacks on top and allows for 6inputs to create ECG or EMG visualisations.Advantages: Low Cost, programmable to out needs, medium sized.Disadvantages: Not waterproof, need protecting, no data storage.Silver Chloride Electrodes -(Ag-AgCl)Standard Medical Electrodes. Low polarization, stable skin electrode impedance – acquires good signal. Have to be used with hydro gel toimprove connection. Largest part of them is the adhesive area to make sure no movement appears in the connection.Textile ElectrodesSensory areas of textile electrodes present a much higher ductility than normal electrodes. Can adapt to a range of contours on the body.Textile integration means they can be reused. Permeability to air and water prevents skin irritation. This can be improved by balancing theph of the fabric. The larger area textile sensors can cover means them minimize skin impedance to reduce noise and have a better contactwith the skin.Conductive Rubber - MIRAESANG Engineering coThese electrodes are made from Silicone Rubber with a nickel coated filler material. The electrodes are thin, flexible and are able to beintegrated into garments for non invasive monitoring. They have a very good long-term stability due to the chemically inert material alongwith little to no slin irritation. The electrodes also maintain their properties through washing. They are possibly less comfortable than tex-tile electrodes and can be susceptible to motion artifacts, requiring adequate compression to reduce this. Sheilded cable should be used toconnect to the amplification device and if conductive connecting yarn is used, it must be isolated.RESEARCH/EXISTING PRODUCTS
  63. 63. 126 127Fabric Electrodes – Flat knitting technology.Flat knitting allows a topographical style of application, where the fabric electrode is sewn on to the garment. This can be achived by usingcommerical machines such as the Steiger Flat knitting machine. It involves standard commercial stainless steel thread twisted around cot-ton textile yarn to create a textile electorde. The quality of signal gathered during movement can be improved by coupling the fabric elec-trodes with a hydro gel membrane. The PH levels of hydro gel should be neutral as to not cause skin irritation. (Not need for underwaterapplications.) [14]Fabric Electrodes – Seamless Knitting Technology.This technique involves using a base yarn, an anti bacterial fabric and sewing stainless steel yarns or cunductive yarns directily into thefabric. This alows for a “seamless intergration” of the electrode into the garment. The seamless intergration is created by expensive indus-truialmachines such as the Santorini sewing machine. This technique allows for a more complex distribution of the sensors throughout the gar-ment [14].Knitted Piezoresistive Fabric - Seamless knitting technologyPiezoresistive fabrics are often resistive across distance (x,y) but have a resistance that decreases under pressure (mechanical stress)through a material. Peizoresistive materials alow for making pressure, bend and stretch sensors. In terms of intergration within fabric,they can applied to garments using Santoni seamless machines using the intarsia technique. Fields of different colours and materials ap-pear to be inlaid in one another, but are in fact all separate pieces, fit together like a jigsaw puzzle [14].Printed Piezoresistive Fabric relized by Serigraphy technologyThis techniques is similar to screen printing, which involves a modifies conductive silicone with a reduce viscocity. This allows the use of anindustrial coating process. The silicone or elastomer then coast the elasctic substrate or base to create a desired sensor topography. Thesenors and connections can be created with the same material [14]Printing through Conductive Inks. (study of vital signs monitoring in swimming)These materials may be classed as fired high solids systems or PTF polymer thick film systems that allow circuits to be drawn or printedon a variety of substrate materials such as polyester to paper. These types of materials usually contain conductive materials such as pow-dered or flaked silver and carbon like materials. This production technique allows complete flexibility of the design pattern and placementof elctrodes on the substrate. This additive production process creates no wasted materials [14][1] Asalab, “Turnkey Solutions for ERP Research,” Advanced Neuro Technology B.V., Enschede, The Netherlands, 2010[2] A. E. Aubert , F. Beckers, B. Seps, “Heart Rate Variability in Athletes”, Laboratory of Experimental Cardiology, School of Medicine, K.U. Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, Sports Med 2003; 33 (12): 889-919, 2003[3] L. Bourdon, D. Cianflone, S Coli et al., “First Results with the Wealthy Garment ElectroCardiogram Monitoring System” Computers in Cardi-ology, p615 - 618, 2005, DOI 10.1109/CIC.2005.1588176[4] S. Bouwstra, Smart Jacket, Final Master project by Sibrecht Bouwstra, Indus- trial design, TU/e NICU, Maxima Medisch Centrum Veldhoven,2008[5] A.Catarino, H. Carvalho, A. M. Rocha et al., “BIOSIGNAL MONITORING IMPLEMENTED IN A SWIMSUIT FOR ATHLETE PERFORMANCE EVALU-ATION” Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Lisbon, Department of Art and Design, Portugal, Center of Textile Sciences and Technol-ogy, University of Minho, Portugal, AUTEX 2011 Conference, June 2011.[6] A.Catarino, H. Carvalho, A. M. Rocha et al .,“Study of vital sign monitoring with textile sensors in swimming pool environment” Universityof Minho, Technical University of Lisbon Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON ‘09. 35th Annual Conference of IEEE: 4426 – 4431, DOI 10.1109/IECON.2009.5414898[7] A.Catarino, H. Carvalho, A. M. Rocha et al.,, “TEXTILE SENSORS FOR ECG AND RESPIRATORY FREQUENCY ON SWIMSUITS” Technical Uni-versity of Lisbon, Faculdade de Arquitectura, Alto da Ajuda - 1349-055 Lisboa, Portugal, 2009.[8] G. Cea E. Gaeta, “AmIRTEM: A Functional Model for Training of Aerobic Endurance for Health Improvements” IEEE Transactions on Biomedi-cal Engineering, Vol. 59, No. 11, November 2012. DOI 10.1109/TBME.2012.2207953[9] S. Ganzevles. (2013, 05, 28). ECG & Heart Reate Information [Email]. Available e-mail: Sander Ganzevles sander_ganzevles@hotmail.com[10] J. Habetha, M. Harris, “The MyHeart Project: A Framework for Personal Health Care Applications” Philips Research, Aachen, Germany,Computers in Cardiology 2007;34:137−140.RESEARCH/ELECTRODE TECHNIQUESRESEARCH/REFERENCES
  64. 64. 128 129[11] A.J. Hautala, H. Kinnune A.M. Kiviniemi, n et al., “Endurance training guided individually by daily heart rate variability measurements” De-partment of Exercise and Medical Physiology, Verve Research, Kasarmintie, Oulu, Finland. European Journal of Applied Physiology Volume 101,Issue 6, pp 743-751, December 2007[12] M. I. Lambert, T.D. Noakes, J. Swart, “Changes in heart rate recovery after high-intensity training in well-trained cyclists” Dept Human Biol-ogy, Fac Health Sciences, The Sport Science Institute of South Africa, University of Cape Town, European Journal of Applied Physiology, Volume105, Issue 5, pp 705-713, March 2009[13] M. J. Lewis, A. L . Short, “Sample entropy of electrocardiographic RR and QT time-series data during rest and exercise”, Physiol. Meas. 28731, Department of Sports Science, University of Wales Swansea, Swansea, U doi:10.1088/0967-3334/28/6/011 2007[14] G.Loriga. M.Pacelli, N.Taccini, et al., “Sensing Fabrics for Monitoring Physiological and Biomechanical Variables: E-textile solutions”, 3rdIEEE-EMBS International Summer School and Symposium on Medical Devices and Biosensors MIT, Boston, USA, Sept.4-6, 2006, DOI 0-7803-9787-8/06/[15] J. Muhlsteff, O. Such, “Dry electrodes for monitoring of vital signs in functional textiles” Philips Research Aachen, Germany, 26th AnnualInternational Conference of the IEEE EMBS San Francisco, CA, USA, Sept 1-5, 2004, DOI 0-7803-8439-3[16] R. Noome, Goby, Research Project M1.2 by Robert Noome - Industrial Design TUE, InnosportsLab ,2012[17] G. Parati, M. D. Rienzo, F. Rizzo et al., MagIC System: a New Textile-Based Wearable Device for Biological Signal Monitoring. Applicabilityin Daily Life and Clinical Setting” Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th AnnualConference Shanghai, China, September 1-4, 2005, DOI 0-7803-8740-6/05/Online Sources[18] http://www.shimmer-research.com/p/products/sensor-units-and-modules/wireless-ecg-sensor[19] Nylon-Spandex Tricot Shiny: http://sportek.com/cgi-bin/index.cgi?cart_id=1371275571.30200&pid=1&back=0&category=Nylon_Spandex_Solids[20] POLITEX: http://www.grupomoron.com/ontex/fichas/ontex-politex.pdfRESEARCH/REFERENCES
  65. 65. 130 131USER TESTS
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  68. 68. 136 137LOGO/DEVELOPMENT & FINAL
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