History & Future Instructional design & technology
“theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning” (AECT, 2010) “the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation, and management of instructional and non-instructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particularly educational institutions and the workplace” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, P.7) What is instructional technology? The definition of Instructional Technology has evolved numerable times over the past century. Below a sample of renditions is offered.
Instructional Design is a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion and is an iterative process that requires ongoing evaluation and feedback (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p.93) WHAT IS INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN?
Focus was on instructional media during early 20th century. Types of media Movies (e.g., silent films housed in school museums) Radio Early definitions
Classified into six main periods Silent visual media Audiovisual materials Instructional television Personal computers Internet Wireless tools (Hew, 2004) Media in instructional technology
Instructional technology evolves (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 95)
Duffy and Jonassen (1992) predicted that: “The increase in available information and improved technological capability will fundamentally alter the nature of learning in industry. Learning will be "just in time" learning in industry. Theme-based instruction will become more popular in education. These changes pose some challenges for traditional instructional design because the goal of learning will not be to "master the content but rather to understand and use information to solve real-world problems." (Duffy & Jonassen, 1992) The future of instructional technology
Mobiles continually undergo transformation more capable and flexible with each new release Functionality of a laptop Windows based environments Geolocation, web browsing, and email Multimedia capabilities to record audio and video (Horizon Report: 2009 K-12 Edition, 2009) personal devices will dominate classrooms
Learning is set to increase in K-12 education and higher education. K-12 educators will face the challenge of facilitating ubiquitous instruction. Institutions of higher education will have to deliver more education in less space Implications of mobile devices
Duffy, T. M., & Jonassen, D. H. (1992). Constructivism and the technology of instruction: a conversation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, inc. Hew, K. (2004, October). Past technologies, practice and applications: a discussion on how the major developments in instructional technology in the 20th century affect the following qualities-access, efficiency, effectiveness and humaneness. Indiana University, Chicago. Horizon Report: 2009 K-12 Ediition. (2009). The New Media Consortium , p. 18. Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall . What is AECT?: Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (2010). Retrieved from Association for Educational Communications and Technology: http://www.aect.org/About/default.asp References