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20100120 Pvm Cherchez La Federation
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20100120 Pvm Cherchez La Federation


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  • 1. Cherchez La Federation or How d we motivate federation? H do i f d i ? Paul Mockapetris (, Serge Fdida (serge fdida@lip6 fr) ( Panayotis Antoniadis (
  • 2. A simple definition for Federation  Federation occurs when two or more organizations agree to each allocate some of their resources to implement a common service. Org Org A B 2
  • 3. Federation Examples I t Internet t – Share connectivity and multiple levels of protocol  BGP – Share routing information  DNS – Distribute configuration g  Carter phone Decision – Create interface for communication devices 3
  • 4. Qui Bono?  Th The reasons f federation revolve for f d ti l around mutual benefit, but in practice are quite different f different t it diff t for diff t types of f organizations.  Corollary:a particular federation or federation technology can be attractive or unattractive to different organizations organizations. 4
  • 5. Governments G l Goals: – Maximize overall economy – Maximize overall user satisfaction – Minimize risk  Methods: – Regulate monopolies; encourage competitiveness; smaller and more numerous markets – Encourage best of breed solution finding 5
  • 6. Enterprises G l Goals – Persistent competitive advantage – Leverage strategic advantages to new markets – Reduce risk  Methods – Own monopolies or near monopolies – Commodity i C di inputs; proprietary outputs i 6
  • 7. Users G l Goals – Best technology – Best Price – Ease of use / Least investment in learning g  Methods – Purchasing h i P h i choices – Influence on Government 7
  • 8. Researchers G l Goals – Innovation – Freedom to explore alternatives  Methods – Joint efforts to aggregate scarce resources – Embrace di E b disruptive risk ti i k 8
  • 9. Federating Clouds (Researchers) M k Makes eminent sense for researchers i t f h – Scale of all academic resources less than that of production systems by orders of magnitude • E.g. PlanetLab, OneLab • Use individual’s phones as distributed sensor net, or intermittently connected testbed 9
  • 10. Federating Clouds (Enterprise Providers)  Littl Little advantage t d f Cl d providers d t today for Cloud id – Makes their output a commodity – Scale isn’t an issue – Coverage isn’t an issue (y ) g (yet?)  Perhaps federate lower levels? – (federate (f d t commodities, not discriminators) diti t di i i t ) 10
  • 11. Federating Clouds (Enterprise users) C Can we use f d ti t reduce risk? federation to d i k? – Avoid cloud lock in – Handle demand surge  Connect different cloud apps – Inevitable once separate cloud-based apps get important enough? 11
  • 12. Federating Clouds (Governments) G Governments t as big enterprises bi t i – Lots of resources to share & save – Lots of data to make available, internally and externally – Load moves around (e.g. IRS in April?)  Governments as regulators – Policy? 12
  • 13. Conclusions L t Lots of forces work against federation ff k i t f d ti  Will happen first in pp – Research world – Governments  We want to make consolidation happen sooner b t th ’ a growing b but there’s i base of f legacy inertia. 13
  • 14. Questions H How t shape academic efforts so that to h d i ff t th t they will be relevant to the other worlds? – E.g. Agenda and participation in NSF workshop  Isit the same as networks before the Internet? 14
  • 15. Today vs.1983? y (ARPAnet extinction; start of the Internet age)  Si il iti Similarities – Lots of production proprietary inertia  Differences – Ease of experimentation with multiple open standard OSes, etc. – Cheap hardware – End of the hourglass model 15
  • 16. End of the hourglass?  IP is th center of the Network just as the earth i the t f th N t kj t th th is the center of the universe.  It’s ’still the most important f frame of reference, f f but not the only one.  E.g. – Ethernet may be the way to port servers in datacenters – Custom content based networks need not be IP based. based 16
  • 17. The Gravitational model W We have large adoption ( h l d ti (mass) of certain ) f t i standard protocols, uses and interfaces. – IP, IP users, movies, web, games, … i b  There’s a huge attraction to finding a better path b t th between any t two of these (so long as you f th ( l don’t fall into another gravitational well)  This leads to multiple paths between the biggest masses, or a polymorphic net. 17