Deming juran-crosby

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  • 1. Constancy of purpose: Rather than making money, the company’s role should be to stay in business and provide jobs through innovation, research, constant improvement, and maintenance. 2. Adopt the new philosophy: Too tolerant of poor workmanship and sullen service Need new religion in which mistakes and negativism are unacceptable 3. Cease dependence on inspection Firms inspect a product – with defective products either thrown out or reworked In effect, companies are paying workers to make defects and then correct them Quality comes not from inspection but from improvement of the process 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone Purchasing departments often operate on orders to seek the lowest-priced vendor Instead, they should seek the best quality and work to achieve it with a single supplier for any one item in a long-term relationship 5. Improve constantly and forever Improvement is not a one-time effort Management is obligated to continually look for ways to reduce waste and improve quality
  • 6. Institute training on the job Too often, workers learn their job from another worker who was never trained properly They can’t do their jobs, because no one tells them how 7. Institute leadership Job of a supervisor is not to tell people what to do or to punish but to lead Leading consists of helping people to do a better job 8. Drive out fear Many employees are afraid to ask questions or take a position, even when they do not understand what the job is It is necessary for better quality and productivity that people feel secure 9. Breakdown barriers between staff areas Often staff areas – departments, areas, compete against each other or have goals that conflict They do not work as a team so they can solve or foresee problems 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets These never helped anyone do a better job Let people put up their own slogans 11. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management Quotas take account only of numbers, not quality or methods They are usually a guarantee of inefficiency and high cost A person, to hold a job, meets a quota at any cost, without regard to damage to the company
  • 12. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship People are eager to do a good job and distressed when they can’t Too often, misguided supervisors, faulty equipment and defective materials stand in the way These barriers must be removed 13. Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining Both management and the workplace will have to be educated in the new methods, including teamwork and statistical techniques 14. Take action to accomplish the transformation It will take a special top management team with a plan of action to carry out the quality mission Workers can’t do it on their own, nor can managers A critical mass of people in the company must understand the 14 points, the 7 deadly diseases

Transcript

  • 1. 1 W. Edward Deming  Pioneered the use of statistics and sampling methods  Became interested in the work of statistician Walter Shewhart and believed the principles could be applied to non-manufacturing environments  In the early 1950’s he lectured Japanese business on quality concepts leading directly to the emergence of Japan as a quality leader
  • 2. 2 W. Edward Deming  Encouraged the adoption of a systematic approach to problem solving known as the Deming or PDCA (Plan Do Check Act) cycle Plan DoCheck Act - Objectives - Methods - Train - Execute - Against objectives - Immediate remedies - future actions
  • 3. 3 Deming’s 14 Points for Management 1. Create constancy of purpose for the improvement of the product and service. 2. Adopt the new philosophy. 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. Instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier. 5. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production, and service.
  • 4. 4 Deming’s 14 Points for Management 6. Institute training and retraining. 7. Adopt and institute leadership. 8. Drive out fear. 9. Breakdown barriers between staff areas. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforce. 11. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management.
  • 5. 5 Deming’s 14 Points for Management 12. Remove barriers that rob people of workmanship. 13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self- improvement for everyone. 14. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
  • 6. 6 The Deming Chain Reaction Improve Quality Costs decrease because of less rework, fewer mis- takes, few delays, better use of machine time and materials. Productivity improves Capture the market with better quality and lower price Stay in business Provide jobs and more jobs Mary Walton, The Deming Method, 1986
  • 7. 7 Joseph Juran  Like Deming, was invited to Japan in the early 1950’s by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE)  Strong advocate of the need for quality planning and the setting of clear and measurable goals  Has been very critical of some of the quality initiatives of the 1990’s as lacking substance
  • 8. 8 Juran’s 10 Steps to Quality Improvement 1. Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement. 2. Set goals for improvement. 3. Organize to reach the goals (establish a quality council, identify problems, select projects, appoint teams, designate facilitators). 4. Provide training. 5. Carry out projects to solve problems. 6. Report progress.
  • 9. 9 Juran’s 10 Steps to Quality Improvement 7. Give recognition. 8. Communicate results. 9. Keep score. 10. Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company.
  • 10. 10 Philip B. Crosby  Known for his book “Quality is Free” and the concepts of:  Do It Right The First Time  Zero Defects  Defines quality as conformance to requirements and has no tolerance for acceptable quality limits  Strong believer that management is responsible for quality
  • 11. 11 Crosby’s 14 Steps to Quality Improvement 1. Make it clear that management is committed to quality. 2. Form quality improvement teams with representatives from each department. 3. Determine where current and potential quality problems lie. 4. Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as a management tool. 5. Raise the quality awareness and personal concern of all employees.
  • 12. 12 Crosby’s 14 Steps to Quality Improvement 6. Take actions to correct problems identified through previous steps. 7. Establish a committee for the zero-defects program. 8. Train supervisors to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program. 9. Hold a “zero-defects day” to let all employees realize that there has been a change. 10. Encourage individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups.
  • 13. 13 Crosby’s 14 Steps to Quality Improvement 11. Encourage employees to communicate to management the obstacles they face in attaining their improvement goals. 12. Recognize and appreciate those who participate. 13. Establish quality councils to communicate on a regular basis. 14. Do it all over again to emphasize that the quality improvement program never ends.
  • 14. 14 Comparison Deming Juran Crosby Definition of quality Continuous improvement Fitness for use Conformance to requirements Emphasis Tools/system Measurement Motivation (behaviour) Types of tools Statistical process control Analytical, cost- of-quality Minimal use Use of goals and targets Not used Significant emphasis Posted goals for workers