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# IT Book of Knowledge

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• 1. 2 Compiled from public domain knowledge. Compiler claims no ownership of images. Keep the Internet a place of free sharing of information.
• 2. Topics to be Covered: 1. Bits and Bytes 2. Computer Platforms 3. PC Architecture 4. Networking 5. Storage Media 6. Databases 7. Client Server Applications 8. Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 3. Bits • A bit is the most basic unit of measurement in Digital Computing. • A bit is the measurement of On or Off, True or False. All information stored digitally is represented by strings of 1’s and 0’s. • What makes a collection of 1’s and 0’s have greater meaning is the system by which they organized. 1. Bits and Bytes
• 4. Bytes • A byte is an ordered collection of bits, with each bit denoting a single binary value of 1 or 0. • The byte most often consists of 8 bits in modern systems; however, the size of a byte can vary and is generally determined by the underlying computer operating system or hardware. • Historically, byte size was determined by the number of bits required to represent a single character from a Western character set. 1. Bits and Bytes
• 5. Calculating a Byte • The “power of two” is used to determine all values in modern computing. • The value of a Byte is determined by mathematical exponentiation. • Bit cells are numbered from the right starting with 0, and incrementing by one for each bit to the left. • Each cells value is expressed as the cell number as an exponent of two. • The sum of the values of all cells represents the value of the byte. x 2 = 1 x 1 = 1 0 x 2 = 0 x 2 = 0 1 + x 2 = 1 x 4 = 4 2 x 2 = 0 x 8 = 0 3 x 2 = 1 x 16 = 16 4 x 2 = 1 x 32 = 32 5 x 2 = 0 x 64 = 0 6 x 2 = 0 x 128 = 0 7 + + + + + + 00110101 = 53 1 0234567 1. Bits and Bytes
• 6. Kilobytes to Exabytes • A Byte can be conceived of as the amount of digital information required to represent a single keyboard character. • When Bytes are grouped in larger arrangements they can represent infinitesimal numeric values, graphics, audio and video. • Managing Bytes is all about scale of economy: • One Thousand Bytes = Kilobyte • One Million Bytes = Megabyte • One Billion Bytes = Gigabyte • One Trillion Bytes = Terabyte • One Quadrillion Bytes = Petabyte • One Quintillion Bytes = Exabyte 1. Bits and Bytes
• 7. Checkpoint 1 Bits and Bytes 2. Computer Platforms 3. PC Architecture 4. Networking 5. Storage Media 6. Databases 7. Client Server Applications 8. Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 8. Computing Platforms • A platform typically refers to the hardware on which system relies or operates, but can also refer to the operating system by which the hardware is operated. • Midrange/Mainframes for example employ both a unique architecture as well operating environments. Examples include IBM AS400 and IBM z/OS. • PCs have similar and even interchangeable hardware platforms (Intel, AMD), however, can operate with a range of operating platforms such as Windows, Unix/Linux, MacOS, AmigaOS, Solaris. • Other examples of unique computing platforms can include handheld devices like Palm, Blackberry or Tablet PCs, or even gaming consoles like PS3 or XBOX 360. 2. Computer Platforms
• 9. Platform Interoperation • While unique hardware architecture and operating system software can create challenges to interoperation between different computing platforms, there are various methods for interoperation depending on the technology. • Development of new platforms over the years has lead to platform independent standardization formats. Examples of such formats include ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), or more recently HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) and XML (eXtensible Markup Language). 2. Computer Platforms
• 10. Workstations and Servers • We commonly distinguish workstations from servers, although they are not necessarily different platforms. • Servers tend to have slightly enhanced operating systems even within a common platform (i.e. Windows XP for a desktop vs. Windows 2003 Server for a server) • Another distinction is that a server can be more powerful and/or in a more compact case referred to as “rack mounted” server, although, this is not a hard and fast rule. 2. Computer Platforms
• 11. Checkpoint 2 Bits and Bytes Computer Platforms 3. PC Architecture 4. Networking 5. Storage Media 6. Databases 7. Client Server Applications 8. Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 12. PC Architecture • While the exact date of the introduction of the Personal Computer is a topic for debate, today’s PCs are certainly leaps and bounds ahead of their 1970’s and 1980’s predecessors. • Despite many advancements in PC architecture, the basic components of a PC remain the same today. • The basic architecture is relatively consistent between both workstation and servers. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 13. PC Components Common Components Include: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. GPU / Expansion Cards 6. Power Supply 7. CD / DVD / Floppy 8. HDD 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse
• 14. Motherboard Common Components Include: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. GPU / Expansion Cards 6. Power Supply 7. CD / DVD / Floppy 8. HDD 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 15. Motherboard continued… Motherboard: • It includes: • BIOS or the ‘Basic Input / Output System’ • which is part of what is referred to as • the ROM (Read Only Memory) ‘chipset.’ • ROM is information permanently stored on a chip. • Certain kinds of ROM can be updated in a procedure known as “flashing”. • Motherboards are designed to provide basic connectivity to popular devices, and allow for expandability with a variety of expansion slots. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 16. Motherboard continued… • Modern motherboards provide connector slots for : • CPU (Central Processing Unit), • PCI and PCI-e (Peripheral Component Interconnect [Express]), • RAM (Random Access Memory), • PSU (Power Supply Unit), and for • IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) and/or • SATA (Serial Advance Technology Attachment) hard drives. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 17. Motherboard Continued… • Most modern motherboards have integrated (built-in): • graphics • sound • network capability • and include ports for : • USB (Universal Serial Bus) Keyboards, Mice, Printers and other peripherals. • and sometimes have ports for: • PS/2 (IBM Personal System 2) connectors for Keyboard and Mouse. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 18. Central Processing Unit Common Components Include: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. GPU / Expansion Cards 6. Power Supply 7. CD / DVD / Floppy 8. HDD 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 19. Central Processing Unit continued… CPU (Central Processing Unit): • Functions as the brain of a computer. • Performance is measured in MIPS, (Millions of Instructions Per Second) or more accurately by FLOPS (FLoating-point Operations Per Second.) • The processor is required for program execution, and works in concert with the motherboard to access resources needed for program execution. • CPUs come in many different designs and pin configurations (or Socket Types). A CPU must be matched to a motherboard that can host it’s socket type and processing capabilities. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 20. Random Access Memory Common Components Include: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. GPU / Expansion Cards 6. Power Supply 7. CD / DVD / Floppy 8. HDD 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 21. Random Access Memory continued… RAM (Random Access Memory) • Information stored in RAM is only there so long as the computer is powered on. • Used for caching information. • ‘Cache’ is defined as a temporary storage area where frequently accessed data can be stored for rapid access. • RAM installed on a motherboard is general purpose temporary storage for completing operations and execution of programs. • Other components such as CPUs and Hard Disk Drives have their own small amounts of dedicated RAM for their own caching needs. • RAM must be appropriately matched to the motherboard and processor it will be used by. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 22. Graphic Process Unit / Expansion Cards Common Components Include: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. GPU / Expansion Cards 6. Power Supply 7. CD / DVD / Floppy 8. HDD 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 23. Expansion Slots • Computers are equipped with expansion slots to enable users to add new hardware functionality to a computer. • Historically, computers were required to be equipped with a graphics card, a network card and a sound card in order to provide those services – features that are largely integrated in today’s motherboards. • Common Slot types: • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) Obsolete • AGP (Advanced Graphics Port) Phasing Out • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) • PCI-e (PCI Express) Expansion Slots 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 24. Graphic Processing Unit GPUs (Graphic Processing Units) are the next great advance in Computer Architecture. • These cards take advantage of the PCI-e x16 slot. • Based on gaming technology – but not for gaming. • CPUs complete operations in a linear fashion, whereas GPUs complete operations in parallel using ‘multi-threading’. • A single GPU can provide hundreds of processing cores, in comparison, to the best multi-core CPU to-date - the Quad Core CPU. • nVidia unveiled the first Teraflop capable GPU with Tesla C1060 – and the first 4 Teraflop rack mounted server with the Tesla S1070. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 25. Expansion Cards Examples of other cards that can be used in expansion slots: • GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) • Fax Modem Cards • Fax Server Cards • USB Expansion Cards • Network Cards • Security Camera Control Cards • Etc. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 26. Power Supply Common Components Include: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. GPU / Expansion Cards 6. Power Supply 7. CD / DVD / Floppy 8. HDD 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 27. Power Supply Unit PSU (Power Supply Units) • Power Supply Units come in various sizes and Wattage output capacities. • Off-the-shelf PCs used to come with 300W PSUs standard. Increasing technology demands are driving higher output requirements. • A Power Supply plugs directly into the Motherboard itself, as well as peripheral devices that cannot be powered from the motherboard. • Hard Drives, CD/DVD Drives, Cooling Fans, and even some GPUs require direct connections to a PSU. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 28. Removable Storage Common Components Include: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. GPU / Expansion Cards 6. Power Supply 7. CD / DVD / Floppy 8. HDD 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 29. Removable Storage continued… CD / DVD / Floppy Drives • Removable media with varying storage capacities. • 3 ½ “ Floppy Drives/Disks came in Low Density (720KB / Disk) or in High Density (1.44MB / Disk) – Nearing Obsolescence. • 5 ¼ “ CDs (Compact Disks) are capable of storing 682MB of digital information. • 5 ¼ “ Single Layer DVDs (Digital Video Disks) are capable of storing 4.7GB of digital information, and Dual Layer are capable of storing 8.5GB of digital information • 5 ¼ “ Single Layer Blue Ray Disks are capable of storing 25GB of digital information, and Dual Layer are capabel of storing 50GB of digital information. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 30. Hard Disk Drive Common Components Include: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. GPU / Expansion Cards 6. Power Supply 7. CD / DVD / Floppy 8. HDD 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 31. Hard Disk Drive continued… HDD (Hard Disk Drive) • A hard disk drive is an enclosed set of disk platters that store digital information magnetically. • In operation, the platters are spun at very high speeds. Information is written to a platter as it rotates past devices called read-and-write heads that operate very close over the magnetic surface • Hard Disk Drives have varying capacities. • In the mid 1980s a 40MB hard drive at a price of \$400 was considered a large storage device. • Today it is not uncommon to find 500GB - 1TB hard drives for \$100. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 32. Computer Operating System • An operating system (commonly abbreviated to O/S) is an interface between computer hardware and the user; it is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the limited resources of the computer. • The operating system acts as a host for applications that are run on the machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware. This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications. • Almost all computers, including handheld computers, desktop computers, supercomputers, and even video game consoles, use an operating system of some type. 3. Personal Computer Architecture
• 33. Checkpoint 3 Bits and Bytes Computer Platforms PC Architecture 4. Networking 5. Storage Media 6. Databases 7. Client Server Applications 8. Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 34. Networking • A network is a collection of computers and devices connected to each other. The network allows computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information. • Computer networks may be classified according to the network topology upon which the network is based. • Network Topology signifies the way in which devices in the network see their logical relations to one another. 4. Networking
• 35. Network Topology • Network topology is not synonymous with of the "physical" layout of the network. • Even if networked computers are physically placed in a linear arrangement, if they are connected via a hub, the network has a Star topology, rather than a bus topology. • In this regard the visual and operational characteristics of a network are distinct; the logical network topology is not necessarily the same as the physical layout. 4. Networking
• 36. Modern Networking • Star networks are one of the most common modern computer network topologies. In its simplest form, a star network consists of one central switch, hub or computer, which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. • Although star networks are most prevalent, large networks tend to contain a hybrid mixture of different topologies. • Ethernet is the standard for network communication (IEEE 802.3) which defines the architecture and fundamental layers of Network communication. 4. Networking
• 37. The OSI Networking Model • The Open Systems Interconnection reference model is an abstract description for layered communications and computer network protocol design. • In its most basic form, it divides network communication into seven layers which, from top to bottom, are the Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data-Link, and Physical Layers. 4. Networking
• 38. Network Protocols • Protocols in human communication are rules about appearance, speaking, listening and understanding. All these rules, also called protocols of conversation, represent different layers of communication. They work together to help people successfully communicate; the need for protocols also applies to network devices. • A protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between computing endpoints or nodes. In its simplest form, a protocol can be defined as the rules governing the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication. • Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two. At the lowest level, a protocol defines the behaviour of a hardware connection. 4. Networking
• 39. OSI Model Networking Layers • The Application layer functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing communication. • The Presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. • The Session layer controls the connections between computers. It establishes, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. • The Transport Layer provides transfer of data between end users, providing reliable data transfer services to the upper layers through flow control and error control. • The Network Layer performs network routing functions, and might also perform fragmentation and reassembly, and report delivery errors. • The Data Link Layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical Layer. • The Physical Layer defines the electrical and physical specifications for devices. In particular, it defines the relationship between a device and a physical transportation medium. 4. Networking
• 40. Network Protocols and the OSI Model • The widespread use and expansion of communications protocols is both a prerequisite for the Internet, and a major contributor to its power and success. • The pair of Internet Protocol (or IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (or TCP) are the most important of these, and the term TCP/IP refers to a collection (or protocol suite) of its most used protocols. • Examples of common protocols include: • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) • IP (Internet Protocol ) • UDP (User Datagram Protocol) • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) • HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) • Telnet (Telnet Remote Protocol) • SSH (Secure Shell Remote Protocol) • POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) • IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) 4. Networking
• 41. Network Packets • A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried on an network (level 3 on the OSI Model). • A network packet consists of two kinds of data: control information and user data (also known as payload). • The control information provides information the network needs to deliver the payload, for example: source and destination addresses, error detection codes like checksums, and packet sequencing information. • A good analogy is to consider a packet to be like a letter; the header acts like the envelope, and the payload is whatever the person puts inside the envelope. 4. Networking
• 42. Network Bandwidth • Consider a network connection as a pipe, and bandwidth as a measure of the size of the pipe in comparison to the amount of information you can pass through it. Alternately, bandwidth can measure only a section of the pipe reserved for specific data communications. • Bandwidth is measured in bits per second, or multiples of it (Kilobits/sec, Megabits/sec, etc.) of available or consumed data resources on the ‘pipe’. • Bandwidth may refer to bandwidth capacity of a network transportation medium, or can mean the ‘channel capacity’ or the maximum throughput of a logical or physical communication path in a digital communication system. 4. Networking
• 43. Network Communication Mediums • Mediums for network communications include: • Twisted Pair • Coaxial Cable • Fibre Optic • Infrared • Radio Frequency 4. Networking
• 44. Networking - Twisted Pair • Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in which two conductors (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of cancelling out electromagnetic interference from external sources . • Twisted pair cabling employs many forms of connector, some of which include: (depicted in the diagram from left to right): • RJ45 or 8P8C (Network) • RJ25 or 6P4C (6 Pin Phone) • RJ14 or 4P4C (4 Pin Phone) 4. Networking
• 45. Networking - Twisted Pair continued… • Twisted Pair also comes in different cable categories. These categories represent communication reliability at various electro magnetic frequencies. • The higher the maximum reliable frequency supported by the cable, the greater the bandwidth available for data transport. • Examples of cable categories include: • Cat 1 – 1 Mbit / Sec (Phone) • Cat 3 – 10 Mbits / Sec • Cat 5/5e – 100 Mbits / Sec • Cat 6a – 10 Gbit / Sec • Cat 7a – 100 Gbit / Sec • Cat 5 is the most commonly used twisted pair cabling in use today. 4. Networking
• 46. Networking - Coaxial • Like a telephone cord or other forms of twisted pair, coaxial cable conducts AC electric current from one place to another. • Like twisted pair, it has two conductors, the central wire and the mesh shield. At any given moment the current is traveling outward in one of the conductors, and returning in the other. • Coaxial has cable categories, like twisted pair. • Coaxial RG-8/u and RG-9/u were formerly used for Ethernet networks at 10 Mbit / sec, although it has largely been superseded. • Coaxial RG-6/u is commonly used for cable television and cable internet connections. 4. Networking
• 47. Networking – Fibre Optic • An optical fibre is a glass or plastic fibre that carries light along its length. • Optical fibres are widely used in fibre-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (Gbits/sec) than other forms of communications. • Fibre Optic cables are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less signal loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference. • Fibre Optic is most commonly used as a network backbone, with other mediums used to connect workgroup nodes. 4. Networking
• 48. Networking – Infrared (IR) • Infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength is longer than that of visible light. • Devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation. The beam is modulated (switched on and off), to transmit data. • IR technology is most commonly used for remote control devices for home entertainment. • Free space optical communication using infrared lasers can be a relatively inexpensive way to install a communications link in an urban area compared to the cost of burying fibre optic cable. 4. Networking
• 49. Networking – Radio Frequency (RF) • The RF spectrum is used to organize and map the physical phenomena of electromagnetic waves. These waves propagate through space at different frequencies, and the set of all possible frequencies is called the electromagnetic spectrum. • The term radio spectrum typically refers to the full frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz that may be used for wireless communication. • The UHF (Ultra-High Frequency) Band is used for a range of technology such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Keyless Remote Entry, Cell Phones and Wireless Networking. 4. Networking
• 50. Common Ethernet Components Include: 1. NIC 2. Hub 3. Switch 4. Router 5. Bridge 6. Repeater Networking Hardware 4. Networking
• 51. Common Ethernet Components Include: 1. NIC 2. Hub 3. Switch 4. Router 5. Bridge 6. Repeater Network Interface Card 4. Networking
• 52. Network Interface Card continued… NIC (Network Interface Card) • A Network Interface Card is a hardware component which provides physical access to a networking medium and provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC (Media Access Control) addresses. • Every Ethernet network card has a unique 48-bit MAC address, which is stored in ROM carried on the card. • Every computer on an Ethernet network must have a card with a unique MAC address. Normally it is safe to assume that no two network cards will share the same address, because card vendors purchase blocks of addresses from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and assign a unique address to each card at the time of manufacture. • NICs allow users to connect to each other either by cables or wirelessly. 4. Networking
• 53. Common Ethernet Components Include: 1. NIC 2. Hub 3. Switch 4. Router 5. Bridge 6. Repeater Network Hub 4. Networking
• 54. Network Hub continued… • A network hub is a fairly un-sophisticated broadcast device. Hubs do not manage any of the traffic that comes through them, and any packet entering any port is broadcast out on every other port. Since every packet is being sent out through every other port, packet collisions result--which greatly impedes the smooth flow of traffic. • The need for hosts to be able to detect collisions limits the number of hubs and the total size of the network. • For 10 Mbit/s networks, up to 5 segments (4 hubs) are allowed between any two end stations. For 100 Mbit/s networks, the limit is reduced to 3 segments (2 hubs) between any two end stations, and even that is only allowed if the hubs are of the low delay variety. • A large Ethernet network is likely to require switches to avoid the chaining limits of hubs. 4. Networking
• 55. Common Ethernet Components Include: 1. NIC 2. Hub 3. Switch 4. Router 5. Bridge 6. Repeater Network Switch 4. Networking
• 56. Network Switch continued… • The network switch plays an integral part in most Ethernet local area networks (LANs). Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. Switches differ from hubs in that they can have ports of different speed. • If you have 4 computers A/B/C/D on 4 switch ports, then A and B can transfer data between them as well as C and D at the same time, and they will never interfere with each others' conversations. • In the case of a "hub" then they would all have to share the bandwidth, and there would be collisions and retransmissions. • Using a switch is called micro-segmentation. It allows you to have dedicated bandwidth on point to point connections with every computer and to therefore run in full duplex with no collisions. 4. Networking
• 57. Common Ethernet Components Include: 1. NIC 2. Hub 3. Switch 4. Router 5. Bridge 6. Repeater Network Router 4. Networking
• 58. Network Router continued… • A router is a networking device whose software and hardware are usually tailored to the tasks of routing and forwarding information. • Routers generally contain a specialized operating system, RAM, flash memory, and one or more processors, as well as two or more network interfaces. • Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. • Routing directs packet forwarding, the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes. • The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. Thus, constructing routing tables, which are held in the routers' memory, is very important for efficient routing. 4. Networking
• 59. Common Ethernet Components Include: 1. NIC 2. Hub 3. Switch 4. Router 5. Bridge 6. Repeater Network Bridge 4. Networking
• 60. Network Bridge continued… • Bridges are similar to repeaters or network hubs, devices that connect network segments at the physical layer; however, with bridging, traffic from one network is managed rather than simply rebroadcast to adjacent network segments. • Bridges tend to be more complex than hubs or repeaters. Bridges can analyze incoming data packets to determine if the bridge is able to send the given packet to another segment of the network. • Bridging and routing are both ways of performing data control, but work through different methods. Bridges are not concerned with and are unable to distinguish networks, while routers can. 4. Networking
• 61. Common Ethernet Components Include: 1. NIC 2. Hub 3. Switch 4. Router 5. Bridge 6. Repeater Network Repeater 4. Networking
• 62. Network Repeater continued… • A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level and/or higher power so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. • Repeaters work with the actual physical signal, and do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted. • The network medium used to carry a signal determines requirements for usage of repeaters to maintain signal integrity. • Fibre Optic cable has the least amount of signal degradation and superior bandwidth, making it a good candidate for long distance connections with fewer repeaters. 4. Networking
• 63. Network Hardware Summary • Hubs are ‘dumb’ devices that interconnect workstations on a network by broadcasting packets to all ports. • Bridges are much more specialized than hubs and are used to interconnect subnets or LANs. • Switches are more intelligent than a bridge and can do all of the tasks of a hub or a bridge as well as segment the traffic on the network to avoid network congestion. • Routers are the most sophisticated of the devices mentioned. Routers perform all of the tasks performed by hubs, switches and bridges as well as provide address resolution on wide area networks, and act as a firewall. 4. Networking
• 64. Network Types • A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings, such as a school, or an airport. • The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to WANs (wide area networks), include their higher data transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. • A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. • The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. • A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) • The virtual network is said to be tunnelled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is secure private network communications through the public Internet (i.e. work from home) 4. Networking
• 66. Checkpoint 4 Bits and Bytes Computer Platforms PC Architecture Networking 5. Storage Media 6. Databases 7. Client Server Applications 8. Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 67. Storage Media • We touched on some storage media types when looking at PC architecture. • There are however many types of storage, that can be categorized as portable and semi-portable. • Alternately we can categorize the types of media by the method by which the media is written to and read from. • Electrical • Magnetic • Optical 5. Storage Media
• 68. Electrical Storage Media • Electrical Media is described by two other terms; solid-state and volatile / non-volatile. • Solid state electronics are electronic components that are entirely based on semi- conductors, transistors and microprocessors. • Solid state electronics have no mechanical action or moving parts. • RAM, which loses all information when the computer is powered off, is described as volatile memory. • Non-volatile memory is memory that can retain stored information in the absence of a power source. • Non-volatile electrical media functions by writing and erasing information to chips with an electrical current. 5. Storage Media
• 69. Flash Drives • Flash Drives are a spin-off of a type of ROM known as EEPROM or Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. • Before EEPROM chips, ROM information was stored by manipulating the physical structure of the chip; either by design, or after the fact in a non-reversible process with electrical current. • Flash Drives come in varying capacities, from 64MB to as high as 64GB of storage space. • The inside of a flash drive includes: 1. USB Interface 2. Device Microprocessor 3. Test Points 4. Flash Memory Chip 5. Crystal Oscillator (like in a quartz watch) 6. Activity LED 7. Write Protect Switch 8. In this case, space for a secondary memory chip. 5. Storage Media
• 70. Flash Memory Cards • Another type of Electrical Media is Flash Memory Cards. • Flash Memory Cards come in dozens of sizes and shapes, and a wide selection of storage capacities. • Due to the inexpensive nature of this form of electrical storage, it’s prevalence in the market has grown exponentially. • Flash memory cards are used in everything from cell phones to PDAs, digital cameras and portable media players. • Many newer PCs come equipped with a multi- port media reader to accommodate for the most common forms of this type of media storage. 5. Storage Media
• 71. Solid State Drives • SSDs (Solid State Drives) are a newer alternative to the conventional HDD (Hard Disk Drive). • SSDs perform better than flash drives by leveraging the same interface as a conventional HDD which provides greater bandwidth between the stored information and the computer itself. • SSDs are more durable, and in some cases perform faster and with less noise than conventional HDDs. • Currently SSDs are considerably more expensive than conventional HDDs. 5. Storage Media
• 72. Magnetic Storage Media • Magnetic Storage Media is described exclusively as non-volatile media, in that it also does not require power to retain information stored within it. • Magnetic storage media uses a read/write head to magnetically alter the surface of the media to represent the information being stored on it. • Modern magnetic media come in floppy or hard disk types, or as cassette tapes. 5. Storage Media
• 73. Floppy Disks • A floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible ("floppy") magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. • Before hard disks became affordable, floppy disks were often also used to store a computer's operating system (OS), in addition to application software and data. • Floppy disks have come in a variety of standard sizes, ranging from 8 inch to 5 ¼ inch down to 3 ½ inch (right). • While floppy disk drives still have some limited uses, especially with legacy industrial computer equipment, they have now been largely superseded by USB flash drives, External Hard Drives, CD-ROMs and DVD- ROMs. 5. Storage Media
• 74. Hard Disks • While we examined HDDs in the PC Architecture section, we did not discuss arrangements of HDDs in context of organizational storage. • While the capacities mentioned in the diagram to the right are dated, the HDD arrangements are worthy of discussion. • A single computer could have one or more HDDs. The logical relation of those devices to each other determines how those devices will function in support of our storage needs. • JBOD, or Just a Bunch Of Disks, refers to a basic configuration of multiple HDDs to make up multiple separate disk volumes, or a single logical volume comprised of multiple physical disks. 5. Storage Media
• 75. Hard Disks - RAID • RAID refers to Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. • RAID combines two or more physical HDDs into a single logical unit by using either special hardware or software.. • There are three key concepts in RAID: • mirroring, the copying of data to more than one disk; • striping, the splitting of data across more than one disk; • error correction, where redundant data is stored to allow problems to be detected and possibly fixed (known as fault tolerance). • Different RAID levels use one or more of these techniques, depending on the system requirements. • Redundancy in RAID is a way in which data is written across the disk collection, which is organized so that the failure of one disk in the array (or more depending on the RAID configuration) will not result in loss of data. • A failed disk may be replaced by a new one, and the data on it reconstructed from the remaining data and the extra data. 5. Storage Media
• 76. Hard Disks - Local Storage vs. Storage Subsystem • JBOD and RAID are disk configurations that can be implemented within an individual workstation or server. • Disk configurations that connect directly to the server and do not interact directly with the network are called DAS (Direct Access Storage). • When such configurations are implemented as physically and logically independent entities with direct network accessibility, they become storage subsystems. • Two terms for referring to storage subsystems of this nature are NAS (Network Attached Storage) and SAN (Storage Area Network). 5. Storage Media
• 77. Hard Disks - Network Attached Storage (NAS) • A NAS unit is essentially a self-contained storage device connected to a network, with the sole purpose of supplying file-based data storage services to other devices on the network (pictured upper). • The operating system and other software on the NAS unit provide the functionality of data storage, file systems, and access to files, and the management of these functionalities. • A NAS unit is not designed to carry out general-purpose computing tasks, although it may technically be possible to run other software on it. • NAS units usually do not have a keyboard or display, and are controlled and configured over the network, often by connecting a browser to their network address. • The alternative to NAS storage on a network is to use a computer as a file server. (pictured lower) 5. Storage Media
• 78. Hard Disks - Storage Area Network (SAN) • A SAN is a type of network architecture designed to attach HDDs to servers (externally) in such a way that the devices appear as locally attached to the operating system. • SANs help to increase storage capacity utilization, since multiple servers share the storage space on the disk arrays. • The common application of a SAN is for the use of frequently accessed data that requires high-speed access to the hard drives such as email servers, databases, and high usage file servers. • A common element of SANs is the use of Fibre Channel control cards in the servers connected to the SAN, and a Fibre Channel Switch to manage SAN traffic over Fibre Optic cabling (pictured right). 5. Storage Media
• 79. Magnetic Tape • A tape drive is a data storage device that reads and writes data stored on a magnetic tape. • Magnetic tape is typically used for archival storage of data stored on hard drives. Tape media generally has a favourable unit cost and long archival stability. • Instead of allowing random-access to data as hard disk drives do, tape drives only allow for sequential-access of data. • A hard disk drive can move its read/write heads to any random part of the disk platters in a very short amount of time, but a tape drive must spend a considerable amount of time winding tape between reels to read any one particular piece of data. • As a result of sequential access, tape drives have very slow average seek times. Despite the slow seek time, tape drives can stream data to tape very quickly. Modern tape drives can reach continuous data transfer rates of up to 80 MB/s 5. Storage Media
• 80. Magnetic Tape continued… • Tape drives can range in capacity from a few megabytes to hundreds of gigabytes, uncompressed. • In marketing materials, tape storage is usually referred to with the assumption of 2:1 compression ratio, so a tape drive might be known as 80/160, meaning that the true storage capacity is 80 whilst the compressed storage capacity can be approximately 160 in many situations. • A tape library or tape jukebox, is a storage device which contains one or more tape drives, a number of slots to hold tape cartridges, a barcode reader to identify tape cartridges and an automated method for loading tapes (a robot). • These devices can store immense amounts of data, currently ranging from 20 terabytes up to more than 50 petabytes of data, or about one hundred thousand times the capacity of a typical hard drive and well in excess of capacities achievable with network attached storage. 5. Storage Media
• 81. Optical Storage Media • Optical storage is any storage method in which data is written and read with a laser for archival or backup purposes. For several years, proponents have spoken of optical storage as a near-future replacement for both hard drives in personal computers and tape backup in mass storage. • Optical media is more durable than tape and less vulnerable to environmental conditions. On the other hand, it tends to be slower and offers lower storage capacities than modern hard disk drives . • A number of new optical formats, such as Blu-ray, use a blue laser to dramatically increase capacities. • Common optical media types include: • Magneto-Optical Disk (MO) • Compact Disk (CD) • Digital Video Disk (DVD) • Blueray Disk (BD) 5. Storage Media
• 82. Optical Disks - Magneto-Optical (MO) • A Magneto-Optical disk consists of a ferromagnetic material sealed beneath a plastic coating. • During recording, the laser power is increased so it can heat the material up to the Curie point in a single spot. This allows an electromagnet positioned on the opposite side of the disc to change the local magnetic polarization, and the polarization is retained when temperature drops. • During reading, a laser projects a beam on the disk and according to the magnetic state of the surface, the reflected light varies due to the Magneto-optic Kerr effect. • MO Disks are high capacity storage (650MB – 9.2 GB), and are typically used for data archival. • As with tape media, they can be used in standalone MO drives or in MO jukeboxes. 5. Storage Media
• 83. Optical Disks – Compact Disk (CD) • A Compact Disk (or CD) is an optical disk used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. • A compact disk is made from 1.2 mm thick, almost-pure polycarbonate plastic (A) and weighs approximately 16 grams. • A thin layer of aluminium (B) or, more rarely, gold is applied to the surface to make it reflective, and is protected by a film of lacquer (C) that is normally spin coated directly on top of the reflective layer, upon which the label print is applied (D). • CD data is stored as a series of tiny indentations known as “pits”, encoded in a spiral track moulded into the top of the polycarbonate layer. The areas between pits are known as “lands”. • A CD is read by focusing a wavelength (near infrared) semiconductor laser (E) through the bottom of the polycarbonate layer. The change in height between pits and lands results in a difference in intensity in the light reflected. By measuring the intensity change with a photodiode, the data can be read from the disc. • The digital data on a CD begin at the center of the disc and proceeds toward the edge, which allows adaptation to the different size formats available. Standard CDs are available in two sizes. By far the most common is 120 mm in diameter, with a 74- or 80- minute audio capacity and a 650 or 700 MB data capacity. 5. Storage Media
• 84. Optical Disks – Digital Video Disk (DVD) • Most DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs) but store more than six times as much data. • DVD uses 650 nm wavelength laser diode light as opposed to 780 nm for CD. This permits a smaller pit to be etched on the media surface compared to CDs, allowing for a DVD's increased storage capacity. • A Dual Layer DVD differs from its usual DVD counterpart by employing a second physical layer within the disc itself. DVD drives with Dual Layer capability access the second layer by shining the laser through the first semitransparent layer. • DVD recordable discs supporting this technology are backward compatible with some existing DVD players and DVD-ROM drives. • Standard Single Layer (Single Sided) DVDs have a capacity of 4.7 GB, and Dual Layer (Single sided) DVDs support 8.5 GB/ 5. Storage Media
• 85. Optical Disks – Blue Ray (BD) • The name Blu-ray Disc (BD) is derived from the blue laser used to read and write to this type of disc. Because of the wavelength (405 nanometres), substantially more data can be stored on a Blu-ray Disc than on the DVD format, which uses a red (650 nm) laser. • BD supports 25GB in Single Layer and 50GB in Dual Layer. • A dual-layer Blu-ray Disc can store six times the capacity of a dual-layer DVD, or ten and a half times that of a single-layer DVD. • Because the Blu-ray Disc data layer is closer to the surface of the disc, compared to the DVD standard, it is more vulnerable to scratches. The first discs were housed in cartridges for protection. • BD manufacturers now use proprietary hard- coating technologies to protect the disks. 5. Storage Media
• 86. Checkpoint 5 Bits and Bytes Computer Platforms PC Architecture Networking Storage Media 6. Databases 7. Client Server Applications 8. Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 87. Databases • A database (DB) is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system. • The structure of a database is achieved by organizing the data according to a database model. • A database management system (DBMS) is computer software that manages one or more databases. • A DBMS controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database 6. Databases
• 88. Database Concepts • A database model is the structure or format of a database, described in a formal language supported by the database management system. • The database model in most common use today is the relational data model. • Entity relationship modeling is a relational database modeling method, used to produce a conceptual schema of a database called an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD). • A database schema is a term often used to refer to a graphical depiction of the detailed database structure . 6. Databases
• 89. Database Modelling • Database design occurs in two phases; Logical design and Physical design. • Logical design involves understanding the information that needs to be managed, and sorting that information into logical groups called entities. • An entity may be abstractly defined as a thing which is recognized as being capable of an independent existence and which can be uniquely identified. • Entities themselves are typically described with nouns, whereas, the relationships between entities are described with verbs. • An entity relationship diagram is intended to sort information to be managed into unique entities and demonstrate the relationships between them. 6. Databases
• 90. Logical Database Design • An entity relationship diagram can be depicted in many ways, but ultimately the point is to ensure a uniform understanding of the information to be managed, and to be able to sort and assign attributes we need to record to the correct entities. • This process of identifying entities and assigning attributes is called data normalization. • When logical design is translated to physical design, entities become tables, which consist of rows of records, and columns of attributes or fields. (Think of Excel) • In order to understand normalization, we need to understand the purpose of a relational database, which is, to store information efficiently and without anomalies. • Anomalies are problems that could result in data loss or data corruption when inserting, updating or deleting records in tables. 6. Databases
• 91. Database Anomalies • If the same information is expressed on multiple rows; updates to the information may result in logical inconsistencies. For example, each record in an un-normalized "Employees' Skills" table might contain Employee Addresses; thus a change of address for a particular employee will potentially need to be applied to multiple records (one for each of his skills). If the employee's address is updated on some records but not others—then the table is left in an inconsistent state. This phenomenon is known as an update anomaly. • There are circumstances in which certain facts cannot be recorded at all. For example, each record in an un-normalized "Faculty and Their Courses" table might contain a Faculty ID, Faculty Name, Faculty Hire Date, and Course Code—thus we can record the details of any faculty member who teaches at least one course, but we cannot record the details of a newly-hired faculty member who has not yet been assigned to teach any courses. This phenomenon is known as an insertion anomaly. • There are circumstances in which the deletion of data representing certain facts necessitates the deletion of data representing completely different facts. The "Faculty and Their Courses" table described in the previous example suffers from this type of anomaly, for if a faculty member temporarily ceases to be assigned to any courses, we must delete the last of the records on which that faculty member appears. This phenomenon is known as a deletion anomaly. 6. Databases
• 92. Database Normalization • Normalization is a systematic way of ensuring that a database structure is suitable for general-purpose querying and free of certain undesirable characteristics—insertion, update, and deletion anomalies—that could lead to a loss of data integrity. • The normalization process requires that information in it’s table state meets at a minimum three measures of normalization; or normal forms. • 1st Normal Form – Remove Repeating Groups • 2nd Normal Form – Remove Functional Dependencies • 3rd Normal Form – Remove Transitive Dependencies 6. Databases
• 93. First Normal Form (1NF) Rule: There should be no repeating groups. • As an example, it might be tempting to make an invoice table with columns for the first, second, and third line item. • This, however, violates the first normal form, and would result in large rows, wasted space where an invoice had less than the maximum number of line items. • In this example, first normal form requires that we make a separate line item table (entity), with it's own unique identifier. In this case the combination of invoice number and line number uniquely identify the remaining contents of each record. • This unique identifier is called a Primary Key. 6. Databases
• 94. Second Normal Form (2NF) Rule: Each column must depend on the *entire* primary key. • In the previous example, the customer information was put in the line item table. • The trouble with that is that the customer belongs with the invoice, not directly with each line on the invoice. • i.e. One customer can have many invoices, One invoice can have many line items. • Putting customer information in the line item table will cause redundant customer data, with it's inherent overhead and modification anomalies. • Second normal form requires that we place the customer information in the invoice table. 6. Databases
• 95. Third Normal Form (3NF) Rule: Each column must depend on *directly* on the primary key. • As an example, the customer address could go in the invoice table, but this would cause data redundancy if several invoices were for the same customer. • It would also cause an update anomaly when the customer changes address. • Third normal form requires the customer address go in a separate customer table with its own Primary Key, with only the customer number in the invoice table. • The customer number in the invoice table can now referred to as a Foreign Key. 6. Databases
• 96. Physical Database Design • Physical database design applies the logical view of entities and attributes to a physical set of tables and fields. • This process includes defining the type of data to be stored in each field, whether fields are mandatory or optional, and defining the physical nature of the relationships between tables. • Relationships govern referential integrity between records. • In this case a customer can have many orders, but an order must have one customer. • A customer cannot be deleted without orphaning the orders associated to that customer. 6. Databases
• 97. Database Management Systems • A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. • A DBMS accepts requests for data from application software and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. • When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organization's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system. • Database servers are computers that only run a DBMS and related software, which holds the actual databases. • Database servers are usually multiprocessor computers, with generous memory and RAID disk arrays used for stable storage. Connected to one or more servers via a high-speed channel, hardware database accelerators are also used in large volume transaction processing environments. 6. Databases
• 98. Structured Query Language (SQL) • SQL (Structured Query Language) is a database language designed for the creation and modification of tables, retrieval and management of data, and management of access controls in a database management system. • SQL was standardized first by ANSI and later by the ISO. Most database management systems implement a majority of one of these standards and add their proprietary extensions. • The most common operation in SQL databases is the query. • SQL queries allow the user to specify a description of the desired result set, but it is left to the devices of the DBMS to plan, optimize, and perform the physical operations necessary to produce that result set in the most efficient manner possible. • An SQL query includes a list of columns to be included in the final result. • Commercial software typically includes pre-built queries behind reports and application interfaces, designed to operate within the parameters of the application itself, although many applications also include facilities for users to write their own queries, if necessary. 6. Databases
• 99. Open Database Connectivity • Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) makes it possible to access any data from any application, regardless of which database management system is handling the data. • The ODBC specification offers a procedural Application Programming Interface (API) for using SQL queries to access data. • An implementation of ODBC will contain one or more applications, a core ODBC "Driver Manager" library, and one or more "database drivers". • The Driver Manager, independent of the applications and DBMS, acts as an interpreter between the applications and the database drivers, whereas the database drivers contain the DBMS-specific details. Thus a programmer can write applications that use standard types and features without concern for the specifics of each DBMS that the applications may encounter. 6. Databases
• 100. Operational Databases • Operational systems are optimized for preservation of data integrity and speed of recording of business transactions through use of database normalization and an entity- relationship model. • Operational system designers generally follow the rules of data normalization in order to ensure data integrity. Fully normalized database designs often result in information from a business transaction being stored in dozens to hundreds of tables. • Relational databases are efficient at managing the relationships between tables. These databases have very fast insert/update performance because only a small amount of data in those tables is affected each time a transaction is processed. • In order to improve performance, older data are usually periodically purged from operational systems, in something know as an off-line operational database. 6. Databases
• 101. Data Warehouses • Data warehouses are different from operational databases in that they are optimized for speed of data retrieval. • Frequently the data contained in a data warehouse is de-normalized via a dimension-based model. • To speed data retrieval, data warehouse data is often stored multiple times - in its most granular form and in summarized forms called aggregates. • Data warehouse data is gathered from the operational systems and held in the data warehouse, typically even after the data has been purged from the operational systems. 6. Databases
• 102. Data Marts • A data mart is a subset of an organizational data warehouse, usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject, that may be distributed to support business needs. • Data marts are analytical databases designed to focus on specific business functions for a specific community within an organization. • In practice, the terms data mart and data warehouse each tend to imply the presence of the other in some form. • Most writers using the term seem to agree that the design of a data mart tends to start from an analysis of user needs and that a data warehouse tends to start from an analysis of what data already exists and how it can be collected in such a way that the data can later be used. 6. Databases
• 103. Dimensional Database Modelling • In dimensional modelling, information is partitioned into "facts", which is generally transactional data, and "dimensions", which are the reference information that gives context to the facts. • The facts that the data warehouse / data marts helps analyze are classified along different dimensions: the fact tables hold the main data, while the usually smaller dimension tables describe each value of a dimension and can be joined to fact tables as needed. • For example, a sales transaction can be broken up into facts such as the number of products ordered and the price paid for the products, and into dimensions such as order date, customer name, product number, order ship-to and bill-to locations, and salesperson responsible for receiving the order. • It is common for dimension tables to consolidate redundant data and be in second normal form, while fact tables are usually in third normal form because all data depend on either one dimension or all of them, not on combinations of a few dimensions. 6. Databases
• 104. Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing • Business Intelligence (BI) tools aim to support better business decision-making, and can also be referred to as DSS (or Decision Support Systems). • BI tools are commonly associated with data warehousing, and reporting on information in context of the “big picture”. • BI tools are applications specially designed to interact with data warehouses, and allow creation of various reports and views of aggregated enterprise transactional data. 6. Databases
• 105. Checkpoint 6 Bits and Bytes Computer Platforms PC Architecture Networking Storage Media Databases 7. Client Server 8. Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 106. Client-Server Architecture • Client-server describes the relationship between two computer programs in which one program, the client program, makes a service request to another, the server program. • Standard networked functions such as email exchange, web access and database access, are based on the client-server model. • The client-server model has become one of the central ideas of network computing. Most business applications being written today use the client-server model. • In marketing, the term has been used to distinguish distributed computing by dispersed computers on a network from the "monolithic" centralized computing of mainframe computers. This distinction has largely disappeared as mainframes and their applications have also turned to the client-server model and become part of network computing. • Each instance of the client software can send data requests to one or more connected servers. In turn, the servers can accept these requests, process them, and return the requested information to the client. Although this concept can be applied for a variety of reasons to many different kinds of applications, the architecture remains fundamentally the same. 7. Client Server
• 107. 2 and 3-Tier Architecture • The most basic type of client-server architecture employs only two types of hosts: clients and servers. This type of architecture is sometimes referred to as two-tier. It allows devices to share files and resources. The two tier architecture means that the client acts as one tier and application in combination with server acts as another tier. • In 3-tier architecture, there is an intermediary level, meaning the architecture is generally split up between: • A client which requests the resources, equipped with a user interface for presentation purposes. • The application server (also called middleware), whose task it is to provide the requested resources, but by calling on another server. • The database server, which provides the application server with the data it requires. 7. Client Server
• 108. Multi-Tiered Architecture • 2-tier architecture is client-server architecture where the server is versatile; it is capable of directly responding to all of the client's resource requests. • In 3-tier architecture; however, the server-level applications are remote from one another. Each server is specialized with hosting a certain service (for example: web server/database server). • This can be extended to n-tier or multi-tier architecture, which provides: • A greater degree of flexibility • Increased security, as security can be defined for each service, and at each level • Increased performance, as tasks are shared between servers • In most cases, a client-server architecture enables the roles and responsibilities of a computing system to be distributed among several independent computers that are known to each other only through a network. • This makes it possible to replace, repair, upgrade, or even relocate a server while its clients remain both unaware and unaffected by that change. This independence from change is also referred to as encapsulation. 7. Client Server
• 109. Thin Client • A thin client is a client computer or client software in client- server networks which depends primarily on a central server for processing activities, and mainly focuses on conveying input and output between the user and the remote server. • Many thin client hardware devices run only web browsers or remote desktop software, meaning that all significant processing occurs on the server. However, recent devices marketed as thin clients can run complete operating systems, qualifying them as diskless nodes or hybrid clients. Some thin clients are also called "access terminals.“ • A thin client as an application program communicates with an application server and relies for most significant elements of its business logic on a separate piece of software, an application server, typically running on a host computer located nearby in a LAN or at a distance on a WAN or MAN. • A thin client does most of its processing on a central server with as little hardware and software as possible at the user's location, and as much as necessary at some centralized managed site. • Web applications are largely considered to be thin client applications, where little or no client side software installation is required for usage. 7. Client Server
• 110. Thick Client • A thick client is a computer in client-server architecture networks which typically provides rich functionality independently of the central server. The name is contrasted to thin client, which describes a computer heavily dependent on a server's applications. • A thick client still requires at least periodic connection to a network or central server, but is often characterised by the ability to perform many functions without that connection. • In contrast, a thin client generally does as little processing as possible and relies on accessing the server each time input data needs to be processed or validated. • In designing a client-server application, a decision is to be made as to which parts of the task should be executed on the client, and which on the server. This decision can crucially affect the cost of clients and servers, the robustness and security of the application as a whole, and the flexibility of the design to later modification or portability. 7. Client Server
• 111. Client-Server Architecture: Common Server Types • Domain Controller • File Server • Print Server • Database Server • Application Server • Web Server • Mail Server • FTP Server • Fax Server Notes Server External Mail Relay Map Server Web Server WebSphere App Server LDAP Server Database Server Proxy Server Intranet Web Server Development Web Server Development Database Server City Internal Network Internet Internal Mail Relay 7. Client Server
• 112. Domain Controller • On Windows Server Systems, a domain controller (DC) is a server that responds to security authentication requests (logging in, checking permissions, etc.) within the Windows Server domain. On modern Windows servers, this is achieved with the help of Active Directory. • Active Directory is a directory service used to store information about the network resources across a domain and also centralize the network. • An Active Directory structure is a hierarchical framework of objects. The objects fall into three broad categories: resources (e.g., printers), services (e.g., email), and users (user accounts and groups). • Active Directory networks can vary from a small installation with a few computers, users and printers to tens of thousands of users, many different domains and large server farms spanning many geographical locations. 7. Client Server
• 113. File Server • A file server is a computer attached to a network that has the primary purpose of providing a location for the shared storage of computer that can be accessed by the workstations that are attached to the computer network. • The term server highlights the role of the machine in the client-server scheme, where the clients are the workstations using the storage. • A file server is usually not performing any calculations, and does not run any programs on behalf of the clients. It is designed primarily to enable the rapid storage and retrieval of data where the heavy computation is provided by the workstations. • A file server may be dedicated or non-dedicated. A dedicated server is generally designed specifically for use as a file server, with workstations attached for reading and writing files and databases. • File servers generally offer some form of system security to limit access to files to specific users or groups. In large organizations, this is a task usually delegated to what is known as directory services such as Novell's eDirectory or Microsoft's Active Directory. • File Server storage can be directly within the Server (DAS – see storage media) or externally in the form of a SAN. 7. Client Server
• 114. Print Server • A print server, is a computer or device that is connected to one or more printers and to client computers over a network, and can accept print jobs from the computers and send the jobs to the appropriate printers. • The term can refer to: • A host computer running Windows OS with one or more shared printers. Client computers connect using the Microsoft Network Printing protocol . • A computer running some other operating system, but still implementing the Microsoft Network Printing protocol. • A dedicated device that connects one or more printers to a local area network (LAN). It typically has a single LAN connector, such as an RJ-45 socket, and one or more physical ports (e.g. serial, parallel or USB (Universal Serial Bus)) to provide connections to printers. In essence this dedicated device provides printing protocol conversion from what was sent by client computers to what will be accepted by the printer. 7. Client Server
• 115. Database Server • A database server is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers, as defined by the client- server model. • The term may also refer to a computer dedicated to running such a program. • Database management systems frequently provide database server functionality, and some DBMSs rely exclusively on the client-server model for database access. • Database servers can operate In a master-slave configuration, where database master servers are central and primary locations of data while database slave servers are synchronized backups of the master. 7. Client Server
• 116. Application Server • An application server, is a server that hosts the business logic and business processes of an application separately from the application’s interfaces or presentation. • This type of architecture is most common in Internet/Intranet and Extranet applications. • By centralizing business logic on an individual or small number of server machines, updates and upgrades to the application for all users can be guaranteed. There is no risk of old versions of the application accessing or manipulating data in an older, incompatible manner. • An application server acts as a central point through which access to data and portions of the application itself can be managed. • This architecture is considered a security benefit, devolving responsibility for authentication away from the potentially insecure client layer without exposing the database layer.
• 117. Web Server • A Web Server is a computer that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients (i.e. with web browsers) and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are web pages such as HTML documents and linked objects (images, files etc.). • Web Servers typically authenticate HTTP requests, and can be configured for secure encrypted transactions using secure socket layer via HTTPS. • The origin of the content sent by server is called: • static if it comes from an existing file lying on a filesystem; • dynamic if it is dynamically generated by some other program or script or application programming interface (API) called by the web server. (Example, a web application called from a separate application server) • Serving static content is usually much faster (from 2 to 100 times) than serving dynamic content, especially if the latter involves data pulled from a database. • Web servers can be referred to as the presentation layer in n-tier client-server environments. 7. Client Server
• 118. Mail Server • A mail server is a computer acting as an Mail Transfer Agent (MTA). • A MTA is a computer program or that transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another. • A Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) is software that delivers e-mail messages right after they've been accepted on a server, distributing them to recipients' individual mailboxes. • A mail delivery agent is not necessarily combined with an MTA, although on many systems the two functions are implemented by the same program or package. • While electronic mail server software uses Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to send and receive mail messages, user-level client mail applications typically only use SMTP for sending messages to a mail server for relaying. • For receiving messages, client applications usually use either the Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) to access their mail box accounts on a mail server. 7. Client Server
• 119. FTP Server • An FTP Server is a piece of software that is running on a computer that uses the File Transfer Protocol to store and share files. Remote computers can connect anonymously, if allowed, or with a user name and password in order to download files from this server using a piece of software called a FTP Client. • FTP runs over TCP/IP. A FTP Server listens on port 21 (default) for incoming connections from FTP clients. A connection to this port from the FTP Client forms the control stream on which commands are passed from the FTP client to the FTP server and on occasion from the FTP server to the FTP client • Most recent web browsers and file managers can connect to FTP servers, although they may lack the support for protocol extensions such as FTPS (FTP with Secure encryption). This allows manipulation of remote files over FTP through an interface similar to that used for local files. This is done via an FTP URL (i.e. ftp:// rather than http://) 7. Client Server
• 120. Fax Server • A fax server is software running on a dedicated computer which is equipped with one or more fax-capable modems (or dedicated fax boards) attached to telephone lines. • A fax server’s function is to accept documents from users, convert them into faxes, and transmit them, as well as to receive fax calls and either store the incoming documents or pass them on to users. • Users may communicate with the server in several ways, through either a local network or the Internet. In a big organization with heavy fax traffic, the computer hosting the fax server may be dedicated to that function, in which case the computer itself may also be known as a fax server. • Most fax servers employ their own fax client software, and integrate directly with Mail servers for sending and receiving faxes through an organizations e-mail client. 7. Client Server
• 121. Checkpoint 7 Bits and Bytes Computer Platforms PC Architecture Networking Storage Media Databases Client Server Applications 8. Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 122. Internetworking • Internetworking involves connecting two or more distinct computer networks or network segments via a common routing technology. The result is called an internetwork (often shortened to internet). • Any interconnection among or between public, private, commercial, industrial, or governmental networks may also be defined as an internetwork. • In modern practice, the interconnected networks use the Internet Protocol. There are at least three variants of internetwork, depending on who administers and who participates in them: • Intranet • Extranet • Internet 8. Web Applications
• 123. Intranet • An intranet is a set of networks, using the Internet Protocol and IP-based tools such as web browsers and file transfer applications, that is under the control of a single administrative entity. • That administrative entity closes the intranet to all but specific, authorized users. • Most commonly, an intranet is the internal network of an organization. A large intranet will typically have at least one web server to provide users with organizational information. • Example: Inside Toronto Portal 8. Web Applications
• 124. Extranet • An extranet is a network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity, but, which also has limited connections to the networks of one or more other trusted organizations or entities. • For instance, a company's customers may be given access to some part of its intranet creating in this way an extranet, while at the same time the customers may not be considered 'trusted' from a security standpoint. • Example: Alberta Education’s Extranet between the Alberta Government and regulated education facilities and providers. 8. Web Applications
• 125. Internet • The Internet is the global network of interconnected computers, enabling users to share information along multiple channels. • Typically, a computer that connects to the Internet can access information from a vast array of internet available servers and other computers by moving information from them to the computer's local memory. • A majority of widely accessible information on the Internet consists of inter-linked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). • The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in every-day speech without much distinction; however, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. • The Internet is a global data communications system. It is the hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. • In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. • The Internet is not a thing, a place, a single technology, or a mode of governance. It is an agreement. “ John Gage, Director of Science, Sun Microsystems, Inc. 8. Web Applications
• 126. Web Applications • In software engineering, a web application is an application that is accessed via web browser over an internetwork such as the Internet, an intranet, or an extranet, wholly depending upon the required scope of accessibility. • Web Applications are software programs that is coded in a browser-supported language (such as HTML, JavaScript, Java, etc.) and reliant on a web browser. • Web applications are popular due to the ubiquity of web browsers, and the convenience of using a web browser as a client, sometimes called a thin client. • The technology employed for web applications is platform independent; in other words the HTML, Java and JavaScript components of web applications are based on standards that apply to all flavours of desktop hardware and operating systems. • Web applications rely on n-tier architecture in order to separate what is exposed to the web at large from the assets that need to be protected. 8. Web Applications
• 127. Web Security - Firewalls • A firewall is a collection of security measures designed to prevent unauthorized electronic access to a networked computer system. It is typically a device or dedicated computer configured to permit, deny, encrypt, decrypt, or proxy all computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria. • A firewall's function within a network is similar to physical firewalls with fire doors in building construction. In the former case, it is used to prevent network intrusion to the private network. In the latter case, it is intended to contain and delay structural fire from spreading to adjacent structures. • A firewall's basic task is to regulate some of the flow of traffic between computer networks of different trust levels. Typical examples are the Internet which is a zone with no trust and an internal network which is a zone of higher trust. • A zone with an intermediate trust level, situated between the Internet and a trusted internal network, is often referred to as a "perimeter network" or Demilitarized zone (DMZ). 8. Web Applications
• 128. Web Security - DMZ • A Demilitarized Zone in computing is named after the military usage of the term, but is also known as a Data Management Zone or a perimeter network. • A DMZ is a physical or logical sub-network that contains and exposes an organization's external services to a larger, un-trusted network, usually the Internet. • The purpose of a DMZ is to add an additional layer of security to an organization's Local Area Network (LAN); an external attacker only has access to equipment in the DMZ, rather than the whole of the network. • Generally, any service that is being provided to users in an external network could be placed in the DMZ. The most common of these services are web servers, mail servers, ftp servers, VoIP servers and DNS servers. In some situations, additional steps need to be taken to be able to provide secure services. 8. Web Applications
• 129. Web Applications and DMZ • Web servers may need to communicate with an internal database to provide some specialized services. • Since the database server should not be publicly accessible as it may contain sensitive information, it should not be in the DMZ. • Generally, it is not a good idea to allow the web server to communicate directly with the internal database server. • Instead, an application server can be used to act as a medium for communication between the web server and the database server. This may be more complicated, but provides another layer of security. 8. Web Applications
• 130. Checkpoint 8 Bits and Bytes Computer Platforms PC Architecture Networking Storage Media Databases Client Server Applications Web Applications 9. Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 131. Server Cluster • A server cluster or a server farm is a group of linked computers, working together closely so that in many respects they form a single computer. • Clusters are usually deployed to improve performance and/or availability over that provided by a single computer. • High-availability clusters (also known as Failover Clusters) are implemented primarily for the purpose of improving the availability of services which the cluster provides. They operate by having redundant nodes, which are then used to provide service when system components fail. HA cluster implementations attempt to use redundancy of cluster components to eliminate single points of failure. • HA clusters are often used for critical databases, file sharing on a network, business applications, and customer services such as electronic commerce websites. • Load-balancing clusters operate by distributing a workload evenly over multiple back end nodes. Typically the cluster will be configured with multiple redundant load-balancing front ends. Since each element in a load-balancing cluster has to offer full service, it can be thought of as an active/active HA cluster, where all available servers process requests. 9. Advanced
• 132. Application Requirements for Clusters • Not every application can run in a high-availability cluster environment, and the necessary design decisions need to be made early in the software design phase. • In order to run in a high-availability cluster environment, an application must satisfy at least the following technical requirements: • There must be a relatively easy way to start, stop, force-stop, and check the status of the application. In practical terms, this means the application must have a command line interface or scripts to control the application, including support for multiple instances of the application. • The application must be able to use shared storage (NAS/SAN). • Most importantly, the application must store as much of its state on non-volatile shared storage as possible. Equally important is the ability to restart on another node at the last state before failure using the saved state from the shared storage. • Application must not corrupt data if it crashes or restarts from the saved state. • The last two criteria are critical to reliable functionality in a cluster, and are the most difficult to satisfy fully. Finally, licensing compliance must be observed. 9. Advanced
• 133. Hardware Requirements for Clusters • HA clusters usually utilize all available techniques to make the individual systems and shared infrastructure as reliable as possible. These include: • Disk mirroring so that failure of internal disks does not result in system crashes • Redundant network connections so that single cable, switch, or network interface failures do not result in network outages • Redundant Storage area network or SAN data connections so that single cable, switch, or interface failures do not lead to loss of connectivity to the storage (this would violate the share-nothing architecture) • Redundant electrical power inputs on different circuits, usually both or all protected by Uninterruptible power supply units, and redundant power supply units, so that single power feed, cable, UPS, or power supply failures do not lead to loss of power to the system. • These features help minimize the chances that the clustering failover between systems will be required. In such a failover, the service provided is unavailable for at least a little while, so measures to avoid failover are preferred. 9. Advanced
• 134. Virtualization • Virtualization is the hosting of multiple virtual computers or operating systems on one physical set of computing hardware. It hides the physical characteristics of computing platform and provides users with a logical “emulated” computing platform. • Many physical servers can be replaced by one larger physical server, to increase the utilization of costly hardware resources such as CPU. • Although hardware is consolidated, typically the O/S’s are not. Instead, each OS running on a physical server becomes converted to a distinct OS running inside a virtual machine. The large server can "host" many such "guest" virtual machines. This is known as Physical-to- Virtual (P2V) transformation. • A virtual machine can be more easily controlled and inspected from outside than a physical one, and its configuration is more flexible. • A new virtual machine can be provisioned as needed without the need for an up-front hardware purchase. Also, a virtual machine can easily be relocated from one physical machine to another as needed. 9. Advanced
• 135. Why Organizations Virtualize • Today’s powerful computer hardware was designed to run a single operating system and a single application. This leaves most machines vastly underutilized. • Virtualization lets you run multiple virtual machines on a single physical machine, sharing the resources of that single computer across multiple environments. Different virtual machines can run different operating systems and multiple applications on the same physical computer. • Maximizing the utilization of hardware results in higher energy efficiency for power intensive data centers operated by large organizations. 9. Advanced
• 136. Checkpoint 9 Bits and Bytes Computer Platforms PC Architecture Networking Storage Media Databases Client Server Applications Web Applications Advanced Topics 10. Multi-Tier Support
• 137. Technical Support • The key challenge to organizations delivering support, is doing so in an efficient manner. • Given the many complex layers of technology in place to enable business activities, there are many places where things can go wrong. • In order to efficiently support the growing complexity in organizational technology infrastructure a support model is required to ensure that the right problems are addressed by the right people. • Examining this model from a business standpoint allows us to understand how computing problems are examined and escalated to ensure a solution can be found in a reasonable time frame. 9. Multi-Tier Support
• 138. Multi-Tiered Support • Technical support is often subdivided into tiers, or levels, in order to better serve a business or customer base. • The number of levels a business uses to organize their technical support group is dependent on a business’ need, want, or desire as it revolves around their ability to sufficiently serve their customers or users. • The reason for providing a multi-tiered support system instead of one general support group is to provide the best possible service in the most efficient possible manner. • Success of the organizational structure is dependent on the technicians’ understanding of their level of responsibility and commitments, their customer response time commitments, and when to appropriately escalate an issue and to which level. 9. Multi-Tier Support
• 139. Tier 1 Support • This is the initial support level responsible for basic customer issues. • The first job of a Tier I support specialist is to gather the customer’s information and to determine the customer’s issue by analyzing the symptoms and figuring out the underlying problem. • Once identification of the underlying problem is established, the specialist can begin sorting through the possible solutions available. • Tier 1 technical support activities include troubleshooting, such as verifying physical layer issues, resolving username and password problems, uninstalling/reinstalling basic software applications, verification of proper hardware and software set up, and assistance with navigating around application menus. • Personnel at this level have a basic to general understanding of the product or service and do not require competency for solving complex issues. • The goal for this group is to handle 70%-80% of the user problems before finding it necessary to escalate the issue to a higher level. 9. Multi-Tier Support
• 140. Tier 2 Support • This is a more in-depth technical support level than Tier I containing experienced and more knowledgeable personnel on a particular product or service. • Technicians in this realm of knowledge are responsible for assisting Tier I personnel solve basic technical problems and for investigating elevated issues by confirming the validity of the problem and seeking for known solutions related to these more complex issues. • However, prior to the troubleshooting process, it is important that the technician review the work order to see what has already been accomplished by the Tier I technician and how long the technician has been working with the particular customer. This is a key element in meeting both the customer and business needs as it allows the technician to prioritize the troubleshooting process and properly manage his or her time. • If a problem is new and/or personnel from this group cannot determine a solution, they are responsible for raising this issue to the Tier III technical support group. • Tier 2 activities may include, but is not limited to; onsite installations or replacements of various hardware components, software repair, diagnostic testing, and the utilization of remote control tools used to take over the user’s machine for the sole purpose of troubleshooting and finding a solution to the problem. 9. Multi-Tier Support
• 141. Tier 3 Support • This is the highest level of support in a three-tiered technical support model responsible for handling the most difficult or advanced problems. • These individuals are experts in their fields and are responsible for not only assisting both Tier I and Tier II personnel, but with the research and development of solutions to new or unknown issues. • Upon encountering new problems, Tier III personnel must first determine whether or not they can solve the problem and may require the customer’s contact information so that the technician can have adequate time to troubleshoot the issue and find a solution. • In some instances, an issue may be so problematic to the point where the product cannot be salvaged and must be replaced. Such extreme problems are also sent to the original developers for in-depth analysis (Tier 4). • If it is determined that a problem can be solved, this group is responsible for designing and developing one or more courses of action, evaluating each of these courses in a test case environment, and implementing the best solution to the problem. Once the solution is verified, it is delivered to the customer and made available for future troubleshooting and analysis. • If a problem cannot be solved by Tier 3 there is one further path of escalation. 9. Multi-Tier Support
• 142. Tier 4 Support • While not universally used, a fourth level often represents an escalation point beyond the organization. This is generally a hardware or software vendor. • Within a corporate incident management system it is important to continue to track incidents even when they are being actioned by a vendor and the Service Level Agreement (or SLA) may have specific provision for this. • When dealing with a Vendor, they will tend to follow the same support tiers, and ultimately any serious problems would be escalated to their own engineering team for further investigation. • Issues escalated to Tier 4 generally result in software patches and updates. 9. Multi-Tier Support