STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY RESULTS OF RWSS NTP 2006-2010KEY CONTENTS OF RWSS NTP 2011-2015 Hanoi, 25th February 2011
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONI. CONTEXT• The RWSS NTP is a social and deeply humanistic program;• It is a tool to realize the National Strategy on RWSS to the year 2020;• Program’s objectives are also GoV’s committments with international community;• Rural water supply and sanitation is one of key criteria of the National Target Program on the New Rural Development.Specific objectives of the NTP 2006-2010:• 85% of rural population have access to hygienic water (of which 50% meets MOH’s Standard No.09-BYT);• 70% of rural households have hygienic latrines;
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION• 70% of rural husbandry households have hygienic livestock pens;• All kindergartens, schools, clinics and CPC offices have RWSS facilities;• Mitigate environmental pollution in trade villages, particularly food processing ones at commune and village levels.II. RESULTSII.1 . Objective on hygienic water supply basically met:• Total number of 52,122,468 people served with hygienic water (increase of 13,260,000 people in compared with that of 2005);• Hygienic water coverage increases from 62% to 83%, average of 4.2% per/year (similar growth rate of 1999-2005 period);
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION• Eastern area of the South: coverage rate of 89% which is 6% higher than the national average;• Lowest rates include Northern mountainous area (78%) and central Highlands (74%);• 10/63 provinces with high coverage rates (> 90%);• 20/63 provinces with coverage rates of 83% - 90%;• 20/63 provinces with average rate of 75% - 83%;• 13/63 provinces with low coverage rates of below 75%. However, coverage rate which meets MOH’s Standard No. 02/BYT, is 42% - 8% lower than the target.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION2. School’s WSS objectives met by several provinces:• Some 32.155 schools have WSS facilities (increase of 4,002 schools, average rise of 2%/year);• 84% of schools have WSS facilities;• 7,976 clinics have WSS facilities (increase of 24%/year compared with that of 2005, annual rise of 4.8%);• 1,537 markets have WSS facilities (increase from 17%-48%);• 7,004/9,728 CPC offices have WSS facilities (coverage of 72%);• 100% of schools and clinics with WSS facilities are seen in provinces i.e. An Giang, Ca Mau, Vinh Long, Long An…
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION3. Objective on household latrine, even though improved attention and progress incompared with Phase I, was not fulfilled:Some 11,586,185 households (77%) already have latrines, (annual average rise of2.0%, 1% higher than that of 1999-2005 period), which increases coverage rate ofhygienic latrines up to 60% in 2010. Yet, it is 10% lower than the scheduled target.4. Objectives on rural environmental sanitation even improved, not yet fullyachieved:In 2010, about 2,700,000 households have hygienic livestock pens, which accountsfor 45% of over 6,000,000 husbandry households;Wastes collected and treated in some 18,000 farms.Pens with Biogas facilities: 1,000,000 (17%).
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION5. Overall assessment on the objectives: Following reports from 49 provinces, results on the objectives are not as reported earlier: Hygienic water supply rate: 76.2% (83% reported); Clean water supply rate: 36.8% (42% reported); Hygienic household latrine rate: 51% (60% reported); Currently, MARD is instructing to make assessment of Program’s results in accordance with 14 indicators and final results would be officially introduced in May 2011.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONII. 2 Mobilization of resources:• Total mobilized budget of VND 20,700/22,600 bil. (91.6 % of planned budget), 3 times higher than the period of 1999-2005. Specifically:• State budget is estimated at VND 2,464 billion (> 12%);• If resources from other programs/projects are taken in account, this financial source covers 24%;• External budget is estimated at VND 3,566 bil. (104.9% of planned budget, 17.2% ; 1.4 times higher than State budget);• Soft credit of VND 8,877 bil. (158.5 % of planned budget, 43%);• Users’ contribution of VND 3,016 bil. (37.2 % of planned budget, but covers up to 14,6%) ;• If soft credit and users’ contribution sources are added up, then users’ sources go up to 58%.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONII. 3 Program’s direction and management:1. Re: Direction and management arrangements.• Significantly improved, better coordination, specific designation of tasks, regular meetings, online meeting with provinces aiming at provision of direction, instruction and managment;• A number of guidelines, offical letters issued by related Ministries, agencies, mass orgnizations to strengthen and follow up implementation of line units;• Meeting between MARD and MOH’s Ministers to promote sanitation component as well as coordination and cooperation on the NTP II’s management;• Regular working missions of NTP II’s responsible agencies;
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION• Guidelines/instructions issued to reinforce provincial steering committees, with clear responsibilities and adequate involvement of relevent units;• Responsible staff sources and collaborators strengthened at all local levels;• At provincial level: PPC’s due attention was made on the NTP II’s operational management;• WSS defined as a social-economic indicator of many provinces, however, proper direction/instruction was not equally made in all provinces.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION2. Re: development and enforcement of legal documents A number of legal documents adjusted, newly issued to enable the implementation process:• Group of instructional documents: Circular No. 93/2007/ TTLT/BNN-BYT-BGD&ĐT “on the coordination amongst 3 key sector i.e. Agriculture, Health and Education & Training” ...• Group of legal documents on organizational arrangements, operational mechanism: circulars on the financial, technical management... (Decision No.131/2009/QĐ-TTg - one of break through steps).• Group of documents on the technical instructions, standards, norms .... .
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION3. Re: O&M and management of WSS facilities:• Improved O&M in compared with the last phase.• Effective management models: pCERWASS in Binh Thuan, Tra Vinh, Soc Trang, Bac Lieu, Ninh Thuan, Vinh Long, Tuyen Quang; private enterprise i.e. Tien Giang, Dong Thap, Kien Giang, Nam Dinh; community management model i.e. Son La, Lao Cai…• Some provinces, particularly mountainous ones, should be strengthened on the O&M to ensure sustainability.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION4. Re: science and technology:• Technological options diversified to fit with each region/area; principle of sustainability;• For water supply: different treatment options adopted i.e. chemical or bio- treatment ...;• For extremely difficult areas i.e. 4 rocky mountainous districts of Ha Giang province, Luc Khu of Cao Bang provinces: suspended reservoir, geo-technical cloth reservoir ...;• For scattered households: individual water supply options i.e. dug-well, drilled well, rain tank, jar … recommended for use.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION• For rural sanitation: + Different types of hygienic latrines: septic tank, pour- flash latrne, ventilated pit latrine, double-vault dry latrine, eco-latrine; flood resistant latrine for inundated areas in Mekong delta...; + Biogas technology widely adopted in the treatment of animal wastes; This option has brought about economic efficiency and environmental protection, even in some mountainous provinces.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION5. Re: IEC activities:• IEC activities carried out by relevant Ministries, agencies, mass organizations, private sector, national and iNGOs.• Many IEC promotional materials developed. Communication methods include: + Direct communication at village level: target group mainly includes village IEC workers; + Mass communication: mass media focused and used at national and provincial levels; + Social marketing: promote demand and use of hygienic latrines and hygienic practices.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION6. Re: M&E:• A comprehensive M&E sytem is well under way.• The M&E system provides more accurate data on coverage rates of both water and sanitation;• Results show that the coverage rates seem to be lower than earlier reported, particularly on sanitation;• M&E system launched in all provinces (49/63 cities/provinces introduced WSS results following the M&E set of indicators);• Annual audits carried out to assess the NTP II’s compliance, efficiency and effectiveness.• Unauthorized expenditrues, which is less than 1% of total expenditure, reduce year by year and donors’ requirement is satifactorily met.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION7. Re: human resource development:• Training classes on human resources development on management, planning and finanincing skills etc made;• O&M workers in many provinces trained on the operation and management of water supply schemes;• However, it is still limited on human resources development at commune and village levels.8. Re: reporting:• Guidance provided on the reporting formats and requireemnts which help to imrpove assessment and timely management/instruction.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION9. Re: international cooperation:• International cooperation promoted;• Funding modalities diversified, including project-based approach e.g. WB, ADB, JICA ect., output-based aid i.e. East Meets West Foundation;• Since 2007, budget support approach adopted (DANIDA, AusAID, the Netherlands, and DFID in 2010);• In the period of 2006 - 2010, MARD in cooperation with donors established the RWSS Partnership with 22 international members, which helps improve coordination and investments of international community for the sector.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONIII. EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS-LEARNT1. It is necessary to have due and active involvement of relevant authorities, as well as mass organizations and local people’s support. Provincial steering committees should follow operational regulations, and it is important to have capable standing units with close cooperation of 3 key sectors. Provinces should issue specific rules to fit their conditions.2. The development of plans should be bottom-up and demand driven. IEC activities should be promoted to raise awareness, understanding and practices of beneficiaries.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION3. Master-plan is an important tool to steer the Program’s management. Master planning should go ahead with 15-20 year vision and it should be reviewed, updated; the compliance of overall planning must be followed to ensure efficiency and sustainability.4. IEC activities: IEC collaborators/workers play key role in raising the awareness and behavior of local communities. It is necessary to have appropriate environment to attract active engagement of collaborators, mass organizations, village’s heads etc.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION5. O&M modalities should be thoroughly selected; service- driven approach and socialization should be promoted ;6. The monitoring and evaluation activities should be considered as regular ones and availability of funds to support.7. It is notably important that capacity is needed for decentralized investments. Improved monitoring and inspection should be made to timely address constraints of decentralization.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONIV. CONSTRAINTS TO BE ADDRESSED1. Program’s direction and management arrangements:• Improper attention of provincial level on the Program’s direction and management;• Inactive and loose coordination and instruction of relevant provincial Departments, agencies, particularly 3 key sectors;• Unclear definition of State management functions in some provinces/districts;• Limited involvement of health workers of local levels, particularly village level;• Protracted issuance of guiding circular on socialization, particularly on O&M of piped water schemes and public toilets.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION2. Development and enforcement of legal documents:• The Program has complexity in technical, socio-economic traits, which is strongly influenced by regional conditions;• Some legal documents have broad stipulations, but the actual adoption is not innovative enough or tailor-made.3. Planning, construction and management of WSS facilities:• The planning practices are not timely or updated on regular basis; limited quality of long-term plans;• There exists reliance on subsidy and limited mainstreaming on the formulation and aggregation of plans and their actual implementation process.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION4. Objective of ”01 latrine/household ” is limited:• Limited awareness and behavior of rural people;• Some 23% of households have no latrine, about 1/3 of households have hygienic latrines which are not properly used and maintained;• Late issuance of low-cost latrine options.5. The efficency and management of school’s toilet is not good enough. Some toilets built but not used, other broken but no funds for repairs.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION6. Increased risk of environmental pollution:• There still exist use of untreated human and animal wastes for cultivation purposes;• Disease germs spread in some rural areas which might end up with serious pandemic outbreak.7. Operation, management and use of water supply schemes:• Some of management models are not sustained or professional e.g. CPC, community, cooperative group;• Operational method is mainly supply-driven, rather than service or market oriented.• Capacity of O&M workers is somewhat weak. -
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION8. Science and technology:• Studies and adoption of advanced technologies for water supply in water-scarcity areas, water treatment for islands etc. are slowly done;• Household-scale water supply and low-cost latrines options for remote and difficult areas are not widely adopted.9. Mobilization of funds:• Inadequacy of central budget, limited allocation of provincial budget for the Program;• Investment capital always tends to be much higher than recurrent capital; more on water, less on sanitation;• Interest rate from soft credit are now too high (0.9%/month); loan size is sometimes too low.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION10. IEC activities:• In some provinces, provincial IEC plans on RWSS are not properly matched with the national IEC plan.• IEC messages/activities are not regularly broadcasted/ introducted, mainly on the National Week on RWSS; and they are not systematically conducted for remaining period of the year.• Limited coverage of IEC activities. Except for IEC programs on mass media, almost IEC activities are done at communes or villages where the construction of RWSS facilities exists.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONV. KEY CONTENTS OF THE RWSS NTP 2011-20151. Objective:a) Water supply: 95% of rural population have access to hygienic water (60% meets MOH’s Standard No.02-BYT, at least 60 l/ capita/day).b) Environmental sanitation:• 75% of rural households have hygienic latrines;• 65% of rural husbandry households have hygienic livestock pens (30% of pens have biogas facilities).• All pre-schools and schools, clinics, markets, CPC offices have WSS facilities which are properly used and maintained;• 60% of communes have domestic wastes collected;• Continue to mitigate environmental pollution resulted by domestic wastes, wastewater and trade villages.
CHƯƠNG TRÌNH MTQG NƯỚC SẠCH VÀ VSMTNT VĂN PHÒNG THƯỜNG TRỰCc) Awareness and behavior on hygiene and sanitation:• At least 80% of rural population, particularly poor households, have access to information on the promotion of household sanitation, including RWSS facilities.• 100% of students at pre-schools and schools involve in school’s activities on promotion of safe sanitation.2. Principles for NTP 3’s implementation:• The Program aims at sustained development which fit with natural, socio-economic conditions of each region to secure long-term operation in the context of climate change.• Promote internal forces, demand-driven approach, based on the enhancement of socialization plus reinforced effectiveness of State management in the delivery of RWSS services.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION3. Priorities for the period of 2011 - 2015:• Increased focus on poor areas, prioritized investments in 62 poor districts;• Increased focus on sanitation; promotion of household sanitation objective;• Ensure environmental sustainability: increased treatment of livestock wastes; prioritized adoption of biogas models through IEC activities and credit sources;• Develop sustainable market; promote the enforcement of the Decision No.131/2009/QD-TTg;• Enhance the effectiveness of O&M, management and technical sustainability of construction schemes.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION4. Program’s key projects: The Program has 4 key projects: Project 1. Rural water supply (4 sub-projects).• Sub-project 1: rural domestic water supply• Sub-project 2: domestic water supply for islands.• Sub-project 3: domestic water supply for extremely difficult areas i.e. high mountainous areas, salinated areas and dioxin contaminated areas etc.• Sub-project 4: Domestic and dringking waer quality monitoring.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONProject 2. Rural sanitation (4 sub-projects)• Sub-project 1: construction of household hygienic latrines;• Sub-project 2: construction of RWSS facilities for clinics;• Sub-project 3: construction of RWSS facilities for pre-schools and schools;• Sub-project 4: construction of RWSS facilities for CPC offices and marketsProject 3. Improvement of rural environment (3 sub-projects):• Sub-project 1: construction of hygienic livestock pens.• Sub-project 2: collection and treatment of rural domestic garbage;• Sub-project 3: treatment of wastewater and wastes of trading villages.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONProject 4. Awareness-raising, capacity & institutional building and development of rural WSS technologies (4 sub-projects):• Sub-project 1: IEC and awareness-raising of communities• Sub-project 2: Training and capacity building;• Sub-project 3: Reinforcement of RWSS institutional and management system;• Sub-project 4: Development and adoption of RWSS technologies.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONVI. RECOMMENDATIONS1. To the Government:• The Government is kindly requested to timely approve the RWSS NTP 2011-2015;• For 2011 plans: it is suggested that the Government allows to use current financial mechanism of NTP II.2. To provinces:a) The Program’s implementation should be considered as focal and regular task of all relevant sectors and levels.b) PPC should strengthen the provincial steering committees, including adaquate involvement and clear definition of taks amongst related agencies);
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION• Strengthen responsible workforce and collaborators at all local levels;• Mainstream resources of other programs/projects with similar objectives;• Promote the instruction/direction of post-investment practices.c) Instruct localities to review, adjust RWSS master plans up to the year 2015, orientations to the year 2020 in line with socio-economic development objectives and Program’s objectives approved by the GoV;
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION3. To involved Ministries, agencies and mass organizations:a) Members of Program Steering Committe, particulalry those from MARD, MOH, MOET, should proactively provide instructions to line agencies on the Program’s implementation; Mainstream this Program with related sector programs/ projects; Strengthen State management, issue national standards, norms and guidelines to enable Program’s implementation and management in effective manner;
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONb) MOF and MPI secure adequate required resources and new financial management circular for the RWSS NTP 2011-2015 should be timely issued;c) Promote socialization with spear-headed mechanism; firstly it is required to issue a circular for the Decison No. 131/2009/QD-TTg. It will be a critical condition for effective implementation of the RWSS NTP 2011-2015;d) VBSP should expand mobilization of capital, and increase RWSS loan size following the Decision No.62/2004/QD- TTg.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONVI. CONCLUSION• The RWSS NTP 2006-2010 has gained favorable results which helps improve living conditions and health of rural population, and contribute to the socio-economic development.• Although some specific targets are not fully met by the end of 2010, results from last two phases have significantly contributed to: + Achivement of MDGs + National Strategy on RWSS; + Implementation of NTP on the New Rural Development.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIONVI. CONCLUSIONThese achivements made with:• Proper attention, instruction of the Government, due efforts of related Ministries, agences;• Strong support of international community, and efforts of provinces and rural people.With achieved results, lessons-learnt and constraints as well asnew momentum from the success of XI National PartyCongress, it is deeply believed that we all would determine tocarry out the RWSS NTP 2011-2015.
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
STANDING OFFICE OF NATIONAL TARGET PROGRAM FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
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