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Climate Change and WASH (Unicef)Presentation Transcript
Jill Lawler, UNICEF 10 September, 2012UNICEF EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC REGIONAL OFFICE
Climate Change Evidence - Temperatures have increased an average of 0.74°C within the past century - Projected temperature increases in AP of 0.5–2°C by 2030 and 1–7°C by 2070 - In 2011, global emissions of carbon dioxide reached 389.6 ppm of CO2- equivalent - Evidence of changes in sea levels, arctic temperatures and sea ice
Observed impacts Mongolia Grassland and forest areas have declined by 7% and 26%, 7% of steppe desert 19% decline in surface water since 1970s IndonesiaData over 50 year period show decreasing trends in December–January rainfall in parts of Papua, Sumatra and the Kalimantan Islands, and increasing trends in rainfall in most of Java, Bali and NTT Philippines Average temperature has increased by 0.648°C for 1951 to 2010. The rate ofincrease for night time temperature 3 times than day time temperature increase Pacific Islands Sea levels currently increasing at a rate of 3.9 millimetres per year for Kiribati (1992–2010) and 5.6 millimetres per year for Vanuatu (1993–2009) Viet Nam Sea level increased by 9cm in past 30 years, 1 m rise by 2100
Projected impactsFrequency of heavy rainfall Sea Levellikely to increase RiseIncreases in extremely hotdays virtually certainSea level rise very likely to Multiple Hazardlead to flooding Index Low MediumHeat waves very likely to High Severeincrease in length, frequency,
Potential WASH related impacts of climate changeNatural resources•Increased precipitation intensity and variability with risk of flooding and drought•Higher risk of water pollution and disease from elevated water temperatures•Saline intrusion of coastal aquifers from rise in sea levels•Rising levels of groundwater pollutionInfrastructure•Need for greater investment in flood protection, storage capacity, supply andtreatment systems, reconstruction of damaged WASH infrastructure etc.•Need to supply WASH services to new, mobile populationsDemand•Increased unsustainable use of surface and groundwater resources•Increased competition between WASH and agriculture (irrigation, farming)Access•Multiplication of livelihood problems as a result of rapid climatic change•Possible failure of regulatory systems and/or legislation aimed at protectingrights of individuals or community to access water for multiple uses
Access to Water and Sanitation in EAP From JMP-UNICEF database. 2010 data.
Building resilience of the WASH sector• Iterative process of monitoring, research, evaluation, learning, and innovation to reduce risk and promote adaptive management• Build knowledge through risk assessments and scenario building• Translate knowledge into plans and strategies, policies and programmes supported by monitoring and information management systems• Low-regrets measures are starting points for addressing projected threats
Examples of Adaptation Approaches Small MultipurposeRainwater Harvesting Aquifer Recharge Dams Ponds Subsurface Dams
Effective Exploitation of Groundwater Groundwater Exploitation and Groundwater Recharge Protection Mean annual groundwater recharge in mm/yearSource: P. Doll et al. 2003,
Water Conservation and Efficiency Water Conservation Waterless Urinal CampaignsLeak in Water Supply System
UNICEF’s and Climate Change Adaptation Many elements must come togetherAdaptation to Climate Change Training Module
Expanding theknowledge baseImpact assessments inIndonesia, Mongolia,Philippines and Kiribati andVanuatuIllustrate patterns and trendsof climate change and disasterimpacts on child survivalFollow-up study underway toanalyze the role of socialprotection in advancingdisaster risk reduction
Strengthening risk informed policies, programmes and allocations Combine hazard, climate data with …Child development indicators(e.g. net enrollment rates, water andsanitation coverage, health and nutrition,household income, per capita budgetexpenditure, immunization rates
National interventionsNational WASH assessmentsconducted in Indonesia, Lao PDR, VietNam and the PhilippinesGoal to identify hazards and impactsto WASH sector; identify adaptations’Country Profile Cards conducted for anumber of countries in the RegionUNICEF supporting a number ofcountry-specific interventionsE.g. Groundwater sustainabilityassessments (China), water safetyplans (Viet Nam), mainstreaming ofDRR/CCA in WASH (Indonesia)
Capacity Building At All Levels1. Knowledge generation:•Training in water resource management, risk management•Partnership with universities•Improve access to journals and scientific materials•Data gathering of climate observations and impacts on WASH2. Knowledge dissemination:•Guidance to media on how to report CC related to WASH•Training of key decision-makers•Integration of end users perspectives and needs3. Informed Action:•Pilot projects on adaptation in WASH•Forums to assess on WASH policy needs for adaptation
Promoting IWRMIntegrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is the idealframework in which to evaluate, design, implement and monitoradaptation strategies for CC on water resources. DEVELOPMENT OF: FUNCTIONS: • Land and water • Water allocation • Surface water and groundwater • Pollution control • River basin and its adjacent • Monitoring coastal and marine • Financial management environment • Flood and drought management • Upstream and downstream • Information management interests • Basin planning • Stakeholder participation
Engaging young heroes in policy development and planning“We want to do something about climate change for our families.“ Kiribati workshop,2011
Sufficient evidence to act • Evidence emerging but clear climate change will be additional stressor • Climate change will interact with other factors including population growth, inequities in services, urbanization, disaster exposure, land use changes, poverty, etc. • The majority of climate change impacts are avoidable -- there’s much we can do!!